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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131575, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325264

RESUMO

Metabolic uncoupling technology was one of the methods widely used to on-site control the production of excess sludge in wastewater treatment processes. However, the uncoupler effects on soluble microbial products (SMP), microbial activity, and environment impact have few been reported. This study showed that sludge yield was reduced by 33.3% at 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) concentrations of 10 mg/L. The addition of 2,6-DCP also reduced the content of polysaccharide and protein in SMP, and the three-dimension excitation emission matrix (3D-EEM) suggested that the fluorescence intensities of humic acid-like, fulvic acid-like, and tryptophan protein-like substances decreased, proving that 2,6-DCP addition will weaken the interaction between microorganisms and the environmental matrix. Moreover, 2,6-DCP addition will change the microbial morphology and community of activated sludge. The active or respiring bacteria portion was lessened, and sludge flocs become dispersed, but it will not affect its settling performance. Surprisingly, 2,6-DCP has certain biodegradability and could be used as an environmentally friendly metabolic uncoupler under low-concentration dosing conditions. This study systematically evaluated the effect of 2,6-DCP on sludge production, SMP contents, microbial morphology, microbial community, demonstrating the environmental impact and application feasibility in the wastewater treatment systems.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Clorofenóis/toxicidade , Esgotos
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126908, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418837

RESUMO

Here, we prepared a novel nanostructured Fe-Cu-Mn composite oxide (FCMOx) adsorbent using an ultrasonic coprecipitation method. The maximum adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) reached 158.5 and 115.2 mg/g under neutral conditions, respectively. The effects of several environmental factors (coexisting ions, solution pH, etc.) on the removal of inorganic arsenic using FCMOx were studied through batch experiments. The results showed that except for PO43- and high initial pH, it was not significantly affected by ionic strength and other existing anions, implying a higher selectivity and adaptability. Combined with EPR, FTIR, and XPS analysis, we concluded that the Cu component and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) it generates played a decisive role in maintaining the stability of the redox cycle between Mn(IV)/Mn(III)/Mn(II) and enhancing the oxidation efficiency of As(III). Meanwhile, the adsorption mechanism of As(V) was mainly through the replacement of the FCMOx surface -OH to form stable inner-sphere arsenic complexes, while the removal mechanism of As(III) may involve the process of synergistic oxidation and chemisorption coupling. Additionally, the effective removal of As from the simulated As-contaminated water and its satisfactory reuse performance make FCMOx adsorbents favorable candidates for the removal of As-contaminated water in the future.

3.
Gene ; 807: 145948, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481002

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: To investigate associations of genetic and environmental factors with coronary artery disease (CAD), we collected medical reports, lifestyle details, and blood samples of 2113 individuals, and then used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ligase detection reaction (LDR) to genotype the targeted 102 SNPs. METHODS: We adopted elastic net algorithm to build an association model that considered simultaneously genetic and lifestyle/clinical factors associated with CAD in Chinese Han population. RESULTS: In this study, we developed an all covariates-based model to explain the risk of CAD, which incorporated 8 lifestyle/clinical factors and a gene-score variable calculated from 3 significant SNPs (rs671, rs6751537 and rs11641677), attaining an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.71. It was found that, in terms of genetic variants, the AA genotype of rs671 in the additive (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.51, p = 0.008) and recessive (adjusted OR = 2.12, p = 0.021) models, the GG genotype of rs6751537 in the additive (adjusted OR = 3.36, p = 0.001) and recessive (adjusted OR = 3.47, p = 0.001) models were associated with increased risk of CAD, while GG genotype of rs11641677 in additive model (adjusted OR = 0.39, p = 0.044) was associated with decreased risk of CAD. In terms of lifestyle/clinical factors, the history of hypertension (unadjusted OR = 2.37, p < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (unadjusted OR = 1.82, p = 0.007), age (unadjusted OR = 1.07, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (unadjusted OR = 1.02, p = 0.05) would significantly increase the risk of CAD, while height (unadjusted OR = 0.97, p = 0.006) and regular intake of chicken (unadjusted OR = 0.78, p = 0.008) reduced the risk of CAD. A significantinteraction was foundbetween rs671 and dyslipidemia (the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) = 3.36, p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study, we constructed an association model and identified a set of SNPs and lifestyle/clinical risk factors of CAD in Chinese Han population. By considering both genetic and non-genetic risk factors, the built model may provide implications for CAD pathogenesis and clues for screening tool development in Chinese Han population.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , beta-Caroteno 15,15'-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Idoso , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , beta-Caroteno 15,15'-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
4.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 17, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815769

RESUMO

Although microvascular decompression (MVD) should be considered as the first-line treatment for classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) owing to neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve, an increasing number of surgeons prefer radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT). RFT is a Gasserian ganglion-level ablative intervention that may achieve immediate pain relief for TN. It is used for emergency management when MVD is not suitable for the patient. As the gold surgical standard of classic trigeminal neuralgia, MVD has the advantage of longer efficacy. However, there are currently no high-quality controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of MVD and RFT. For the present systematic review, the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases (all entries up until July 31, 2020) were searched to identify studies related to RFT in order to provide valuable information for clinical decision-making. The efficacy of the RFT method was evaluated in terms of the initial pain relief percentage, recurrence rate and follow-up time. Furthermore, the incidence rate of various postoperative complications was retrieved. RFT was used for a wider range of applications than MVD, including use for primary (owing to neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve), idiopathic and secondary (due to primary neurological diseases) TN, and provided a high rate of initial pain relief and long-term pain control. Although this method has several side effects, the incidence of complications could be reduced by precise cannulation. Furthermore, the complications that occurred were not permanent. Thus, RFT is a safe and effective minimally invasive method of pain relief for patients with TN.

5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118777, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742453

RESUMO

Starch from 15 different rice genotypes with amylose content (AC) ranging 1.5%-30.6% were investigated for relationships between structures and properties. For parameters related to the granular level, the most important relationships were found for AC, average chain lengths (ACL) of the amylopectin (AP) fb1 chains having a length of DP 13-24, crystallinity, and the thickness of the crystalline (dc) and the amorphous lamellae (da) of the starch granule. AC and dc were negatively correlated with the peak gelatinization temperature (Tp), thermal enthalpy (ΔH), and peak viscosity (PV), but positively correlated with swelling power. ACLfb1 and da, as compared to AC and dc, had the opposite effects on these parameters, demonstrating important roles of specific molecular and lamellar structures on the starch granular stability. For the gelatinized systems, increasing ACLfb1 decreased retrogradation, while AC increased retrogradation by increasing the resistant starch (RS) content, storage modulus (G'), and setback (SB).

6.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126270, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740796

RESUMO

The effect of organic bulking agents on CO2, NH3, N2O and CH4 emission and related genes was evaluated in 40 days sludge composting with wood chip, wheat straw and rice husk, respectively. The results showed wood chip had the highest C/N of 111.3, total porosity of 93.13% and aeration porosity of 78.98% among three bulking agents. Wheat straw had the highest water-holding porosity of 25.62%, which could be critical factor increasing CH4 production and reducing NH3 emission. Moreover, there was no significant difference in N2O emission rates in three composting systems with three bulking agents. RDA analysis showed a negative correlation between mcrA and NH+ 4-N. Nitrate content in raw feedstock was dominant factor limiting N2O yield due to low amoA. The continuous increase of oxidation-reduction potential was significantly positive correlated with pmoA and negative correlation with nirK and norB, which reduced N2O and CH4 production in the curing period.

7.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747566

RESUMO

This review summarizes the literature of preclinical studies and clinical trials on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat meniscus injury and promote its repair and regeneration and provide guidance for future clinical research. Due to the special anatomical features of the meniscus, conservative or surgical treatment can hardly achieve complete physiological and histological repair. As a new method, stem cells promote meniscus regeneration in preclinical research and human preliminary research. We expect that, in the near future, in vivo injection of stem cells to promote meniscus repair can be used as a new treatment model in clinical treatment. The treatment of animal meniscus injury, and the clinical trial of human meniscus injury has begun preliminary exploration. As for the animal experiments, most models of meniscus injury are too simple, which can hardly simulate the complexity of actual meniscal tears, and since the follow-up often lasts for only 4-12 weeks, long-term results could not be observed. Lastly, animal models failed to simulate the actual stress environment faced by the meniscus, so it needs to be further studied if regenerated meniscus has similar anti-stress or anti-twist features. Despite these limitations, repair of the meniscus by MSCs has great potential in clinics. MSCs can differentiate into fibrous chondrocytes, which can possibly repair the meniscus and provide a new strategy for repairing meniscus injury.

8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 755160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744696

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have reported that olfactory identification deficits may be the earliest clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the association between odor identification and hippocampal atrophy remains unclear. Objective: This meta-analysis quantified the correlation between odor identification test scores and hippocampal volume in AD. Method: A search of the PUBMED, EMBASE, and WEB OF SCIENCE databases was conducted from January 2003 to June 2020 on studies with reported correlation coefficients between olfactory identification score and hippocampal volume in patients with amnestic AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS). Pooled r-values were combined and computed in R studio. Results: Seven of 627 original studies on AD/MCI using an olfactory identification test (n = 902) were included. A positive correlation was found between hippocampal volume and olfactory test scores (r = 0.3392, 95% CI: 0.2335-0.4370). Moderator analysis showed that AD and MCI patients were more profoundly correlated than normal controls (AD: r = 0.3959, 95% CI: 0.2605-0.5160; MCI: r = 0.3691, 95% CI: 0.1841-0.5288; NC: r = 0.1305, 95% CI: -0.0447-0.2980). Age difference and patient type were the main sources of heterogeneity in this analysis. Conclusion: The correlation appears to be more predominant in the cognitive disorder group (including MCI and AD) than in the non-cognitive disorder group. Age is an independent factor that affects the severity of the correlation during disease progression. The mildness of the correlation suggests that olfactory tests may be more accurate when combined with other non-invasive examinations for early detection. Systematic Review Registration: https://inplasy.com/, identifier INPLASY202140088.

9.
Med Ultrason ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762728

RESUMO

AIM: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) has shown varying results in the staging of cervical cancer patients around the world. Hence, the current review was done to assess the diagnostic accuracy of TVUS for identifying parametrial, stromal invasion and lymph node metastasis among cervical cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic search for all studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of TVUS for staging of cervical cancer in the databases of PubMed Central, MEDLINE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Cochrane library from inception till March 2021. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA software "midas" package. RESULTS: Eleven studies with 760 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of TVUS for diagnosing parametrial invasion were 62% (95% CI, 40-80) and 91% (95% CI, 79-97), for stromal invasion were 84% (95% CI, 77-90) and 80% (95% CI, 61-91), for lymph node metastasis were 52% (95% CI, 8-93) and 95% (95% CI, 68-99). There was significant heterogeneity found with all the outcomes with significant chi-square test and I2 statistic >75%. CONCLUSION: TVUS has limited applicability and use as a screening or diagnostic tool for local staging of cervical cancer patients. Further reviews comparing multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are required to pick the best tool for local staging of cervical cancer.

10.
Chemosphere ; : 132815, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752830

RESUMO

Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) generated under irradiation have been widely detected in soil particles, atmospheric particles and microplastic particles, but the formation of EPFRs in water is not well understood. This study investigated the formation of EPFRs on particulate organic matter (POM) in water contaminated by anthracene (Ant) under irradiation. The photoformation and decay progress of EPFRs was represented with the help of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique on both actual POM and Fe(III)-montmorillonite simulated samples. EPR signals at the range of 1016 to 1017 spin/g were detected and the half-life time of EPFRs stored in water was at around 16.62 h and 60.80 h, much shorter than those in the air. The g factors were all larger than 2.0040, which indicated the generation of oxygen centered EPFRs. The primary intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and a possible EPFR formation pathway during Ant degradation was proposed. The interaction between Ant and POM, and the hydroxylation and carbonylation of the intermediates made contributions to the generation of EPFRs. Meanwhile, the indirect photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA) has been demonstrated by analyzing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photogenerated electrons in the solution with POM containing EPFRs. It is found that hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) were induced and might promote the photodegration. Overall, our present study provided useful information to understand the photoformation of EPFRs on POM and their fate in aqueous environments.

11.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 738880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759939

RESUMO

The TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE (TBL) family is an important gene family engaged in the O-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides. There have been a few reports showing that TBL participated in the resistance against phytopathogens in Arabidopsis and rice. However, no relevant studies in rose (Rosa sp.) have been published. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of the TBL gene family in rose was presented, including their phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, chromosomal positioning, and collinearity analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a total of 50 RcTBL genes in the rose genome, and they are unevenly distributed across all seven chromosomes. The occurrence of gene duplication events suggests that both the whole genome duplication and partial duplication may play a role in gene duplication of RcTBLs. The analysis of Ka/Ks showed that the replicated RcTBL genes underwent mainly purifying selection with limited functional differentiation. Gene expression analysis indicated that 12 RcTBLs were down-regulated upon the infection of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the gray mold disease of rose. These RcTBLs may be a sort of candidate genes for regulating the response of rose to B. cinerea. Through virus-induced gene silencing, RcTBL16 was shown to be associated with susceptibility to gray mold in rose. Through this study, meaningful information for further studies on the function of the TBL protein family in rose is provided.

12.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5964-5972, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795944

RESUMO

Background: Clinical features of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have been commonly recognized in variant cancers. The role of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has spurred research and drug development efforts. However, there are still mutations that have not been widely reported, and their influences on NSCLC have not been fully elucidated; EGFR G873R mutation is just one of them. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between EGFR G873R mutation and the prognosis of chemotherapy in NSCLC. Methods: A total of 54 patients with NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of EGFR. A DNA extraction kit (GeneRead DNA FFPE Kit) was used to extract total DNA from resected cancer tissues. Genomic DNA targets were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then the amplicons were purified and sequenced. Statistical methods were performed to detect the relationship between EGFR G873R mutation and various clinicopathological features and the effect of EGFR G873R mutation on the prognosis of chemotherapy. Results: EGFR G873R mutation did not show statistical significance, with EGFR high expression identified in 30 cases (P>0.05). Patients with EGFR G873R mutation had a significantly favorable prognosis of docetaxel (P=0.032), and for patients treated with docetaxel, EGFR G873R mutation was significantly correlated with better 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; P=0.026) and overall survival (OS; P=0.026). However, there was no statistical significance found between EGFR G873R mutation and the prognosis of vinorelbine (P>0.05), and for patients treated with vinorelbine, EGFR G873R mutation had no statistical significance with 5-year DFS (P>0.05) and OS (P>0.05). Conclusions: EGFR G873R mutation was remarkably correlated with the prognosis of docetaxel in NSCLC, which indicates that EGFR G873R may be employed as a promising biomarker to identify individuals with better prognosis of docetaxel and as an antitumor target for NSCLC treatment.

13.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797463

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common degenerative diseases of the human nervous system and has a wide range of serious impacts on human health and quality of life. Recently, research targeting high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in PD has emerged, and a variety of laboratory methods for inhibiting HMGB1 have achieved good results to a certain extent. However, given that HMGB1 undergoes a variety of intracellular modifications and three different forms of extracellular redox, the possible roles of these forms in PD are likely to be different. General inhibition of all forms of HMGB1 is obviously not ideal and has become one of the biggest obstacles in the clinical application of targeting HMGB1. In this review, pure mechanistic research of HMGB1 and in vivo research targeting HMGB1 were combined, the effects of HMGB1 on neurons and immune cell responses in PD are discussed in detail, and the problems that need to be focused on in the future are addressed.

14.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131470, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740051

RESUMO

This research demonstrated a novel and ecofriendly method for producing regenerated starch (RS)/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) composite films with a nearly 1.4-fold improvement in tensile strength than traditional gelatinized starch (GS) films. Pure starch was dissolved in 14 wt% urea/4 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at 0 °C. Then, RS films and their biocomposite films containing MFC were prepared by dialyzing and solution-casting method. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of RS increased by 44.8% and 82.4%, compared with that of GS film, respectively. Owing to the adequate dispersion, lower viscosity-average molecular weight, higher amylose content, lower crystallinity and smaller crystal grain size, RS/MFC composite films exhibited significantly improved mechanical properties. The novel strategy used in this study will be helpful in preparing regenerated starch materials with excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability as alternatives to petrochemical plastics for the development of sustainable materials.

15.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 212: 106458, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The number of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) has significantly increased, but the prognosis remains poor. Time-series features have been included in only a few studies to predict HD patient survival, and how to utilize such features effectively remains unclear. This article aims to develop a more accurate, interpretable, and clinically practical personalized survival prediction model for HD patients. METHODS: This study proposed and evaluated an attention-based Bi-GRU network using time-series features for survival prediction. A distance-based loss function was proposed to improve performance. We used data from 1232 ESRD patients who received regular hemodialysis treatment for ≥ 3 months from 2007 to 2016 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. The proposed model was compared with representative sequence modeling deep learning architectures and existing survival analysis methods in terms of the C-index and IBS value. Post hoc tests were used to test statistical significance. The attention map was used to assess feature importance over time. The impact of time-series changes on survival was investigated after controlling initial values (using BMI as an example). RESULTS: The proposed method outperformed other sequence modeling architectures and the state-of-the-art survival analysis approaches in terms of the C-index and the integrated Brier score (IBS) value. Our method achieved a C-index of 0.7680 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.7645, 0.7716) and an IBS of 0.1302 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.1292, 0.1313), showing an improvement of up to 5.4% in terms of the C-index and a decrease of 3.2% in terms of the IBS value. The addition of the distance-based loss function improved the performance. The predicted risk and actual risk levels closely agreed. This study also found that even after controlling the initial body mass index (BMI) values, different 3-month BMI trends could produce different survival outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposed a more effective and interpretable method to use time-series information in survival analysis. The proposed method may help promote personalized medicine and improve patient prognosis.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Diálise Renal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 526, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wall-associated kinase (WAK)/WAK-like (WAKL) is one of the subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK). Although previous studies reported that WAK/WAKL played an important role in plant cell elongation, response to biotic and abiotic stresses, there are no systematic studies on RcWAK/RcWAKL in rose. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a total of 68 RcWAK/RcWAKL gene family members within rose (Rosa chinensis) genome. The RcWAKs contained the extracellular galacturonan-binding domain and calcium-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain, as well as an intracellular kinase domains. The RcWAKLs are missing either calcium-binding EGF-like domain or the galacturonan-binding domain in their extracellular region. The phylogenetic analysis showed the RcWAK/RcWAKL gene family has been divided into five groups, and these RcWAK/RcWAKL genes were unevenly distributed on the 7 chromosomes of rose. 12 of RcWAK/RcWAKL genes were significantly up-regulated by Botrytis cinerea-inoculated rose petals, where RcWAK4 was the most strongly expressed. Virus induced gene silencing of RcWAK4 increased the rose petal sensitivity to B. cinerea. The results indicated RcWAK4 is involved in the resistance of rose petal against B. cinerea. CONCLUSION: Our study provides useful information to further investigate the function of the RcWAK/RcWAKL gene family and breeding research for resistance to B. cinerea in rose.

17.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847298

RESUMO

The Baha® Attract system can provide effective and stable hearing amplification for patients with microtia. Concurrent surgeries of auricle reconstruction and Baha® Attract implantation do not result in more soft tissue complications. The number of adverse events increased with the duration of implantation, even one year postoperatively. Benign skin evolutions, including skin thinning and erythema at the implant side, are commonly seen in Baha® Attract users. Implants are not necessarily removed when skin necrosis occurs in Baha® Attract users.

18.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 745943, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805107

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women globally. Although mouse models have been critical in advancing the knowledge of BC tumorigenesis and progression, human breast models comprising the breast tissue microenvironment are needed to help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of BC risk factors. As such, it is essential to identify an ex vivo human breast tissue mimetic model that can accurately pinpoint the effects of these factors in BC development. While two-dimensional models have been invaluable, they are not suitable for studying patient-specific tumor biology and drug response. Recent developments in three-dimensional (3D) models have led to the prominence of organized structures grown in a 3D environment called "organoids." Breast organoids can accurately recapitulate the in vivo breast microenvironment and have been used to examine factors that affect signaling transduction, gene expression, and tissue remodeling. In this review, the applications, components, and protocols for development of breast organoids are discussed. We summarize studies that describe the utility of breast organoids, including in the study of normal mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Finally, we provide an overview of protocols for development of breast organoids, and the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques in studies are described. The included studies have shown that breast organoids will continue to serve as a crucial platform for understanding of progression of BC tumors and the testing of novel therapeutics.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15400-15411, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738465

RESUMO

Ubiquitous oxygen vacancies (Vo) existing in metallic compounds can activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for water treatment. However, under environmental conditions, especially oxygenated surroundings, the interactions between Vo and PMS as well as the organics degradation mechanism are still ambiguous. In this study, we provide a novel insight into the PMS activation mechanism over Vo-containing Fe-Co layered double hydroxide (LDH). Experimental results show that Vo/PMS is capable of selective degradation of organics via a single-electron-transfer nonradical pathway. Moreover, O2 is firstly demonstrated as the most critical trigger in this system. Mechanistic studies reveal that, with abundant electrons confined in the vacant electron orbitals of Vo, O2 is thermodynamically enabled to capture electrons from Vo to form O2•- under the imprinting effect and start the activation process. Simultaneously, Vo becomes electron-deficient and withdraws the electrons from organics to sustain the electrostatic balance and achieve organics degradation (32% for Bisphenol A without PMS). Different from conventional PMS activation, under the collaboration of kinetics and thermodynamics, PMS is endowed with the ability to donate electrons to Vo as a reductant other than an oxidant to form 1O2. In this case, 1O2 and O2•- act as the indispensable intermediate species to accelerate the circulation of O2 (as high as 14.3 mg/L) in the micro area around Vo, and promote this nano-confinement electron-recycling process with 67% improvement of Bisphenol A degradation. This study provides a brand-new perspective for the nonradical mechanism of PMS activation over Vo-containing metallic compounds in natural environments.


Assuntos
Oxigênio , Peróxidos , Elétrons , Hidróxidos
20.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811511

RESUMO

Hypidone hydrochloride (YL-0919) is a novel antidepressant in clinical phase II trial. Previous studies show that YL-0919 is a selective 5-HT (serotonin) reuptake inhibitor, 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, and 5-HT6 receptor agonist, which exerts antidepressant effects in various animal models, but its effects on neural function remain unclear. Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a highly evolved brain region, controls highest order cognitive functions and emotion regulation. In this study we investigated the effects of YL-0919 on the mPFC function, including the changes in neuronal activities using electrophysiological recordings. Extracellular recording (in vivo) showed that chronic administration of YL-0919 significantly increased the spontaneous discharges of mPFC neurons. In mouse mPFC slices, whole-cell recording revealed that perfusion of YL-0919 significantly increased the frequency of sEPSCs, but decreased the frequency of sIPSCs. Then we conducted whole-cell recording in mPFC slices of GAD67-GFP transgenic mice, and demonstrated that YL-0919 significantly inhibited the excitability of GABAergic neurons. In contrast, it did not alter the excitability of pyramidal neurons in mPFC slices of normal mice. Moreover, the inhibition of GABAergic neurons by YL-0919 was prevented by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635. Finally, chronic administration of YL-0919 significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and GSK-3ß in the mPFC as compared with vehicle. Taken together, our results demonstrate that YL-0919 enhances the excitability of mPFC via a disinhibition mechanism to fulfill its rapid antidepressant neural mechanism, which was accomplished by 5-HT1A receptor-mediated inhibition of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons.

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