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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 694-702, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645037

RESUMO

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Compound Glycyrrhizin Injection(CGI) in improving liver damage in chronic hepatitis B(CHB). PubMed, Web of Science, SinoMed, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP databases were retrieved from their inception to February 10, 2020. The randomized controlled trial(RCT) of CGI in the treatment of CHB was included. Data were independently extracted by two authors, and the methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool by other two authors. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 18 two-armed RCTs were included, involving 1 915 participants. The methodological quality of all studies included was generally low. In the comparison between CGI and diammonium glycyrrhizinate, the results showed that CGI was superior to the control group in improving the overall clinical effectiveness, but there was no statistical difference between the two groups in increasing ALT normalization rate, reducing ALT and AST level. In the comparison between CGI and diammonium glycyrrhizinate+other general hepatoprotective drugs, the results showed that CGI was superior to the control group in reducing AST level, while there was no statistical difference between the two groups in reducing ALT level and increasing overall clinical effectiveness. In the comparison between CGI+other commonly used drugs(including energy mixture, glutathione, vitamins, potassium magnesium aspartate) and diammonium glycyrrhizinate+other commonly used drugs, the results showed that CGI combined with other commonly used drugs was better than the control group in reducing ALT and AST level and improving the clinical total effective rate, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups in increasing the rate of ALT normalization. In the comparison between CGI+other commonly used drugs and other commonly used drugs, the results showed that CGI combined with other commonly used drugs was superior to the control group in reducing ALT and AST level and improving the overall clinical effectiveness. In the comparison between CGI+vitamins and diammonium glycyrrhizinate+potassium magnesium aspartate+vitamins, the results showed no statistical difference between the two groups in reducing AST level. A small number of studies included reported that CGI caused mild adverse reactions when used alone or in combination with other drugs. Based on the results, CGI has a certain effect in improving CHB liver damage, but the evidence is not enough to prove that CGI would cause serious adverse events. In the future, more well-designed and strictly-enforced RCT with an adequate sample size are needed to further evaluate the effect CGI in alleviating CHB liver damage.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hepatite B Crônica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Ácido Glicirrízico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(2): 388-390, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645126

RESUMO

Two phloroglucinol compounds(1-2) were isolated and purified from 95% ethanol extract of Dryopteris fragrans through various column chromatographies on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, medium pressure column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as 2',4',6'-trihydroxy-5'-methyl acetate-3'-methyl-1'-butyrophenone(1) and aspidinol B(2) based on their chemical and physicochemical methods and spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is a new phloroglucinol compound named "dryofraginol".


Assuntos
Dryopteris , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol , Floroglucinol , Extratos Vegetais
3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 121: 111850, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579484

RESUMO

The microsphere system has attracted considerable attention as a stem-cell delivery vehicle in regeneration medicine owing to its injectability, fast substance transfer ability, and mimicry of the three-dimensional native environment. However, suitable biomaterials for preparation of microspheres optimal for endodontic regeneration are still being explored. Owing to its excellent bioactivity and biodegradability, gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) was used to fabricate hydrogel microspheres by the electrostatic microdroplet method, and the potential of GelMA microspheres applied in endodontic regeneration was studied. The average size of GelMA microspheres encapsulating human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) was ~200 µm, and the Young's modulus was approximately 582.8 ± 66.0 Pa, which was close to that of the natural human dental pulp. The encapsulated hDPSCs could effectively adhere, spread, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix proteins in the microspheres, and tended to occupy the outer layer. Moreover, the cell-laden GelMA microsphere system could withstand cryopreservation, and the thawed cells exhibited normal functions. After subcutaneous implantation in a nude mouse model, more vascularized pulp-like tissues were generated in the cell-laden GelMA microsphere group compared with that in the cell-laden bulk GelMA group, and this was accompanied by a suitable degradation rate. The GelMA microspheres showed remarkable performances and great potential as cell delivery vehicles in endodontic regeneration.

4.
J Cell Biol ; 220(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533934

RESUMO

The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center in animal cells. It comprises of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar material. Protein organization at the outer layer of the centriole and outward has been studied extensively; however, an overall picture of the protein architecture at the centriole core has been missing. Here we report a direct view of Drosophila centriolar proteins at ∼50-nm resolution. This reveals a Sas6 ring at the C-terminus, where it overlaps with the C-terminus of Cep135. The ninefold symmetrical pattern of Cep135 is further conveyed through Ana1-Asterless axes that extend past the microtubule wall from between the blades. Ana3 and Rcd4, whose termini are close to Cep135, are arranged in ninefold symmetry that does not match the above axes. During centriole biogenesis, Ana3 and Rcd4 are sequentially loaded on the newly formed centriole and are required for centriole-to-centrosome conversion through recruiting the Cep135-Ana1-Asterless complex. Together, our results provide a spatiotemporal map of the centriole core and implications of how the structure might be built.

5.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612396

RESUMO

Throughout the past 2020, the pandemic COVID-19 has caused a big global shock, meanwhile it brought a great impact on the public health network. Trauma emergency system faced a giant challenge and how to manage trauma under the pandemic of COVID-19 was widely discussed. However, the trauma treatment of special population (geriatric patients and anticoagulant drugs patients) has received inadequate attention. Due to the high mortality following severe traumatic hemorrhage, hemostasis and trauma-induced coagulopathy are the important concerns in trauma treatment. Sepsis is another topic should not be ignored when we talking about trauma. COVID-19 itself is a special kind of sepsis, and it may even be called as serious systemic infection syndrome. Sepsis has been become a serious problem waiting to be solved urgently no matter in the fields of trauma, or intensive care and infection, etc. This article reviewed the research progress in areas including trauma emergency care, trauma bleeding and coagulation, geriatric trauma and basic research of trauma within 2020.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562752

RESUMO

In this paper, a polyimide (PI)/Si/SiO2-based piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor was developed to achieve a trace level detection for aflatoxin B1. To take advantage of both the high piezoresistance coefficient of single-crystal silicon and the small spring constant of PI, the flexible piezoresistive microcantilever was designed using the buried oxide (BOX) layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer as a bottom passivation layer, the topmost single-crystal silicon layer as a piezoresistor layer, and a thin PI film as a top passivation layer. To obtain higher sensitivity and output voltage stability, four identical piezoresistors, two of which were located in the substrate and two integrated in the microcantilevers, were composed of a quarter-bridge configuration wheatstone bridge. The fabricated PI/Si/SiO2 microcantilever showed good mechanical properties with a spring constant of 21.31 nN/µm and a deflection sensitivity of 3.54 × 10-7 nm-1. The microcantilever biosensor also showed a stable voltage output in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) buffer with a fluctuation less than 1 µV @ 3 V. By functionalizing anti-aflatoxin B1 on the sensing piezoresistive microcantilever with a biotin avidin system (BAS), a linear aflatoxin B1 detection concentration resulting from 1 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL was obtained, and the toxic molecule detection also showed good specificity. The experimental results indicate that the PI/Si/SiO2 flexible piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor has excellent abilities in trace-level and specific detections of aflatoxin B1 and other biomolecules.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595288

RESUMO

The high reactivity between lithium metal and traditional carbonate electrolytes is a great obstacle to realize the long-term cycling ability of lithium metal batteries. Ether-based electrolytes have good stability toward lithium metal anodes. However, the oxidation stability of ether-based electrolytes is generally lower than 4 V, which limits the application of high-voltage (>4 V) cathodes and restricts the energy density. The high flammability of ether is another key issue that hinders the commercialization of ether-based electrolytes. To address these issues, herein, we report a high-voltage, nonflammable ether-based electrolyte with F-, N-, and P-rich hexafluorocyclotriphosphazene (HFPN) as a cosolvent. HFPN can not only act as a highly efficient flame-retarding agent but also form a dense and homogeneous solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer rich in LiF and Li3N on the lithium metal anode, which stabilizes the lithium/electrolyte interface and inhibits the formation of lithium dendrites. Moreover, the HFPN-based electrolyte has a wider potential window than 4 V. As a result, with this electrolyte, high-voltage lithium metal batteries exhibit a capacity retention of ∼95% after 100 cycles. This study may provide a new pathway for developing safe, high-energy, and dendrite-free lithium metal batteries.

8.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634695

RESUMO

Biofilm is difficult to thoroughly cure with conventional antibiotics due to the high mechanical stability and antimicrobial barrier resulting from extracellular polymeric substances. Encouraged by the great potential of magnetic micro-/nanorobots in various fields and their enhanced action in swarm form, we designed a magnetic microswarm consisting of porous Fe3O4 mesoparticles (p-Fe3O4 MPs) and explored its application in biofilm disruption. Here, the p-Fe3O4 MPs microswarm (p-Fe3O4 swarm) was generated and actuated by a simple rotating magnetic field, which exhibited the capability of remote actuation, high cargo capacity, and strong localized convections. Notably, the p-Fe3O4 swarm could eliminate biofilms with high efficiency due to synergistic effects of chemical and physical processes: (i) generating bactericidal free radicals (•OH) for killing bacteria cells and degrading the biofilm by p-Fe3O4 MPs; (ii) physically disrupting the biofilm and promoting •OH penetration deep into biofilms by the swarm motion. As a demonstration of targeted treatment, the p-Fe3O4 swarm could be actuated to clear the biofilm along the geometrical route on a 2D surface and sweep away biofilm clogs in a 3D U-shaped tube. This designed microswarm platform holds great potential in treating biofilm occlusions particularly inside the tiny and tortuous cavities of medical and industrial settings.

9.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 24(2): 108-111, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the highest incidence of cancer in the world, which seriously threatens human health. Early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer is particularly important for the survival of lung cancer patients. Serum tumor markers have been widely used as an important method for early diagnosis of tumor. However, there are few early diagnostic markers for lung cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression level of Lipocalin-2 and its clinical significance in serum of patients with lung cancer. METHODS: The serum levels of Lipocalin-2 in 60 lung cancer patients and 63 healthy people were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the relationship between the expression level of Lipocalin-2 and the clinical characteristics of lung cancer was analyzed. RESULTS: The expression level of Lipocalin-2 in peripheral blood serum of patients with lung cancer was significantly higher than that of healthy people, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The expression of Lipocalin-2 in patients with lung cancer was related to the differentiation, stage and lymph node metastasis of pathological tissues, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression level of Lipocalin-2 in serum of patients with poorly differentiated lung cancer was higher than that of patients with well differentiated lung cancer; the expression level of Lipocalin-2 in serum of patients with lymph node metastasis was higher than that of patients without lymph node metastasis; the expression level of Lipocalin-2 in patients with clinical stage III + IV lung cancer was significantly higher than that of patients with clinical stage I + II lung cancer, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lipocalin-2 is highly expressed in serum of patients with lung cancer, which is related to pathological differentiation, stage and lymph node metastasis. It is expected to become a potential new tumor marker for clinical diagnosis of lung cancer.

10.
Org Lett ; 23(3): 1086-1089, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480703

RESUMO

The regio- and enantioselective allylic substitution of branched alkyl-substituted allylic acetates employing malonates has been achieved through a process that calls for Krische's π-allyliridium C,O-benzoate catalyst. The protocol reported herein can be applied to a diverse set of branched alkyl substrates that are generally not well tolerated in the other two types of Ir-catalyzed allylation.

11.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415520

RESUMO

Papillary meningioma (PM) is a rare central nervous system tumor. We aimed to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of patients with PM (WHO grade III) and identify risk factors that influence survival using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Clinical characteristics, tumor features, and outcomes of 108 PM patients included in the SEER database between 1990 and 2016 were retrieved. Risk factors related to prognosis of PM were assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazards model. All 108 patients, including 65 males and 43 females (1.5:1), with a median age of 52 years (range, 9 to > 85 years) had undergone surgical resection. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 50%, and 50% underwent subtotal resection (STR). While 55.6% underwent postoperative radiation therapy, 48% did not. The median disease-specific survival (DSS) was 128 months, and the 5-year DSS rate was 77%. In multivariate analysis, age ≤ 52 years and GTR were both independently associated with higher probability of DSS (p = 0.033 and p = 0.029, respectively). Stratification analysis showed that postoperative radiotherapy had no significant impact on the DSS, irrespective of resection extent (p = 0.172). Our SEER analysis showed that age and extent of resection were prognostic factors for PM, but race, tumor size, gender, chemotherapy, and postoperative radiotherapy did not significantly impact DSS of PM patients. There was no significant improvement in survival of patients who underwent radiotherapy and GTR, or radiotherapy and STR, compared with GTR or STR alone.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444138

RESUMO

Saliency detection is an effective front-end process to many security-related tasks, e.g. automatic drive and tracking. Adversarial attack serves as an efficient surrogate to evaluate the robustness of deep saliency models before they are deployed in real world. However, most of current adversarial attacks exploit the gradients spanning the entire image space to craft adversarial examples, ignoring the fact that natural images are high-dimensional and spatially over-redundant, thus causing expensive attack cost and poor perceptibility. To circumvent these issues, this paper builds an efficient bridge between the accessible partially-white-box source models and the unknown black-box target models. The proposed method includes two steps: 1) We design a new partially-white-box attack, which defines the cost function in the compact hidden space to punish a fraction of feature activations corresponding to the salient regions, instead of punishing every pixel spanning the entire dense output space. This partially-white-box attack reduces the redundancy of the adversarial perturbation. 2) We exploit the non-redundant perturbations from some source models as the prior cues, and use an iterative zeroth-order optimizer to compute the directional derivatives along the non-redundant prior directions, in order to estimate the actual gradient of the black-box target model. The non-redundant priors boost the update of some "critical" pixels locating at non-zero coordinates of the prior cues, while keeping other redundant pixels locating at the zero coordinates unaffected. Our method achieves the best tradeoff between attack ability and perturbation redundancy. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive experiment to test the robustness of 18 state-of-the-art deep saliency models against 16 malicious attacks, under both of white-box and black-box settings, which contributes a new robustness benchmark to the saliency community for the first time.

13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113901, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493742

RESUMO

A rapid and sensitive chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the enantioseparation and determination of clopidogrel bisulfate enantiomers in beagle plasma was established and successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Ultron ES-OVM column (150 × 2.0 mm, 5 µm) with acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (10 mM, pH 4.5) (22:78, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The mass detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring mode with the transition of the m/z 322.00→212.00 for clopidogrel and m/z 285.00→193.00 for diazepam (IS), respectively. The calibration curve was linear at the range of 1-800 ng/mL (r2>0.997) for each enantiomer. The intra- and inter-day precision (CV%) was within 10.9 % and the accuracy was at the range of 88.5 %-101.3 % for both enantiomers. The extraction recovery was >90.2 % and no obvious matrix effect was observed. The pharmacokinetic results showed that the R-CB have higher Cmax and AUC than that of S-CB. It is first time to find the chiral inversion between S-CB and R-CB in beagle.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1121-1132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), defined by self-reported memory complaints but normal performance in objective neuropsychological tests, may be at higher risk of worsening or more frequent memory loss until conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) or related dementia. Asymmetry in two hemispheres is a cardinal character of human brain's structure and function, and altered brain asymmetry has also been connected with AD. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether the asymmetry of subcortical structures in individuals with SCD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD patients are altered compared with normal controls (NC). METHODS: We investigated neuroanatomical alterations in 35 SCD, 43 aMCI, and 41 AD subjects compared with 42 NC, focusing on asymmetrical changes in subcortical structures based on structural magnetic resonance images (sMRI). General linear model was conducted to test group differences, and partial correlation was used to model the interaction between asymmetry measurements and cognitive tests. RESULTS: Individuals with SCD (lateral ventricle and cerebellum-WM), aMCI patients (lateral ventricle, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, and ventral DC), and AD patients (lateral-ventricle, cerebellum-cortical pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, and ventral DC) exhibited significant altered neuroanatomical asymmetries of volume, surface area, and shape compared with NC. Significant associations between shape asymmetry and neuropsychological examinations were found in the hippocampus and accumbens. CONCLUSION: Altered neuroanatomical asymmetries of subcortical structures were significantly detected in SCD individuals and aMCI patients as well AD patients, and these specific asymmetry alterations are potential to be used as neuroimaging markers and for monitoring disease progression.

15.
Metabolism ; 117: 154712, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497712

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is the fastest-growing metabolic disease in the world. Many clinical studies have found that type 2 diabetes patients have metabolic disorders and chronic inflammatory states accompanied by disturbances in the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota plays an important role in body metabolism and immune regulation, and disturbances in the gut microbiota in conjunction with destruction of the intestinal barrier in type 2 diabetes patients causes damage to multiple organs. Therefore, the gut microbiota may be a new therapeutic target for treating type 2 diabetes and related diseases. In this review, we introduce the characteristics of the gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes and related diseases, as well as highlight the potential molecular mechanisms of their effects on intestinal barrier disruption, metabolic disorders, and chronic inflammation. Finally, we summarize an intestinal microecological therapeutic strategy, with a focus on shaping the intestinal bacteria, to improve the malignant progress of type 2 diabetes and related diseases. AUTHOR SUMMARY: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the fastest-growing metabolic disease in the world. Many clinical studies have found that T2D patients have metabolic disorders and chronic inflammatory states, accompanied by disturbances of the gut microbiota and increased intestinal permeability. The number of human gut microbiota is more than 10 times of human cells, and they play an important role in the body's metabolism and immune regulation. The abnormal intestinal metabolites and intestinal barrier disruption caused by the gut microbiota dysbiosis in the T2D facilitate intestinal bacteria and their harmful metabolites entering the circulatory system. The abnormal entering will cause the damage to multiple organs through disturbing insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and immune homeostasis. Therefore, the gut microbiota may be a new therapeutic target for improving T2D and its related diseases. In this review, we introduce the compositional characteristics of the gut microbiota in T2D, and highlight some new molecular mechanisms of their effects on intestinal barrier disruption, metabolic disorders and chronic inflammation in T2D and its related diseases. Finally, we summarize an intestinal microecological therapeutic strategy, with a focus on shaping the intestinal bacteria, to improve the malignant progress of T2D and related diseases.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 283: 20-29, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First onsets of depression are especially common in adolescent females and often develop into chronic/recurrent illness. Surprisingly few studies have comprehensively evaluated multiple domains of etiologically-informative risk factors for first onset in adolescents from the community. We investigated whether clinical, cognitive, personality, interpersonal, and biological risk factors prospectively predict a first onset of depressive disorder (DD), and of DD with a chronic/recurrent course, in a community sample of adolescent girls. METHODS: 479 girls (13.5-15.5 years) with no history of DD completed baseline assessments of risk factors and five diagnostic assessments over 3 years. Baseline measures were analyzed separately and jointly to prospectively predict first-onset DD and first-onset chronic/recurrent DD. RESULTS: Most risk factors predicted first-onset DD (n = 93), including depressive symptoms, anxiety disorders, rumination, personality traits, blunted neural response (late positive potential [LPP]) to unpleasant pictures, peer victimization, parental criticism, and parental mood disorder. Depressive symptoms, rumination, parental mood disorder, and parental criticism were independently associated with first onsets. Nearly all measures, including a blunted neural response to rewards (reward positivity [RewP]), also predicted first-onset chronic/recurrent DD (n = 52), with depressive symptoms, low extraversion, poor peer relationships, and blunted RewP emerging as independent risk factors. LIMITATIONS: This study focused on adolescent females and therefore does not provide information on males. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple domains of risk factors in early adolescence are prospectively associated with first-onset DD and chronic/recurrent DD. A smaller subset of risk factors uniquely contributing to first onsets may represent core vulnerabilities for adolescent-onset depression and promising prevention targets.

17.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(1): 1-4, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323318

RESUMO

The year 2020 is an extremely unusual year. The world lost more than one million lives due to the attack of COVID-19. Economic production has been greatly reduced, and daily activities are largely restricted. Luckily the work of Chinese Journal of Traumatology (CJTEE) has not been adversely affected. 2020 is a harvest year for the journal, which (1) was included in the high-quality academic journals by China Association for Science and Technology; (2) cover of each issue is newly designed; (3) submission increased by about 60% with more countries and regions covered; (4) usage in the ScienceDirect database exceeded a million; (5) the CiteScore rises to more than 2.0 the first time. This study reviewed the articles published in the year 2020 by CJTEE.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Ciência/organização & administração , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Tecnologia/organização & administração , Traumatologia/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões , China , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
18.
Food Chem ; 339: 128084, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152875

RESUMO

Toxic small molecule contaminants (SMCs) residues in food threaten human health. Immunoassays are popular and simple techniques for SMCs analysis. However, immunoassays based on polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies and chemosynthetic antigens have some defects, such as complicated preparation of antibodies, risk of toxic haptens using for antigen chemosynthesis and so on. Phage-display technique has been proven to be an attractive alternative approach to producing antibody and antigen substitutes of SMCs, and opened up new realms for developing immunoassays of SMCs. These substitutes contain five types, including anti-idiotypic recombinant antibody (AIdA), anti-immune complex peptide (AIcP), anti-immune complex recombinant antibody (AIcA) and anti-SMC recombinant antibody (anti-SMC RAb). In this review, the principle of immunoassays based on the five types of substitutes, as well as their application and advantages are summarized and discussed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos/imunologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Humanos
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113390, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931881

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jiangzhuo Formula (JZF) is a traditional Chinese herbal prescription that is clinically applied to treat dyslipidemia. However, the mechanism underlying its efficacy remains unexplored. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, explore potential pathways, and identify the key proteins of JZF for the treatment of dyslipidemia. METHODS: In this work, Q-Orbitrap high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to identify the natural ingredients in JZF, rats with dyslipidemia were established via a high-fat diet for four weeks, then the dyslipidemia rats were treated with high-dose JZF (9 g/d) and low-dose JZF (4.5 g/d) for four weeks. After treatment, serum lipid detection and Oil-red-O staining were conducted to assess the efficacy of JZF in ameliorating dyslipidemia. Tandem mass tag (TMT) -based quantitative proteomics technology was then used to evaluate the roles and importance of proteins from the extracted hepatic tissue. The differentially expressed proteins were assessed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, Gene Ontology (GO), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Western blot and PCR analysis were used to validate the potential targets regulated by JZF. RESULTS: JZF could significantly improve the blood lipid profiles of serum and fat deposits of the liver. A total of 123 differentially expressed proteins were detected after JZF intervention, comprising 65 up-regulated proteins and 58 down-regulated proteins. The KEGG pathway analysis revealed that cholesterol metabolism, the PPAR signaling pathway, and bile secretion were the principal pathways involved in the disordered lipid metabolism, while GO analysis suggested that proteins that are located in the cell, regulate cellular processes, and show binding activity contribute to reductions in lipids. The combination of proteomics, Western blot, and PCR suggested that Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Apolipoprotein E (APOE), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase A1 (CYP7A1), and Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (HMGCS1) might play critical roles in JZF's lipid-lowering network. CONCLUSION: JZF can effectively improve lipid profiles via multiple pathways involved in cholesterol metabolism, the PPAR signaling pathway, and bile secretion. Generally, the proteomics techniques used in this research show that JZF could be a promising drug for the treatment of dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Composição de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Masculino , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2194: 291-300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926372

RESUMO

Bile acids are important end products of cholesterol metabolism, having been shown to serve as signaling molecules and intermediates between the host and the gut microbiota. Here we describe a robust and accurate method using ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of bile acids in stool/cecal and tissue samples.

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