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J Alzheimers Dis ; 97(2): 715-726, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38143364


BACKGROUND: Cognitive assessment for foreign-born individuals is suboptimal. The Multicultural Cognitive Examination (MCE) was developed for use in culturally, linguistically and educationally diverse populations. The MCE includes the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and performs assessment of memory, verbal fluency, and visuospatial function. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Multicultural Cognitive Examination (MCE-S) with the Swedish versions of the RUDAS (RUDAS-S), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-SR), and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and to explore the ability of the MCE-S test to differentiate patients with and without dementia in a multicultural population. METHODS: 117 outpatients at four memory clinics were tested using the MCE-S to complement the routine cognitive assessment. RESULTS: Significant differences between patients with and without dementia were observed for all MCE-S components. There were significant differences between foreign-born and Swedish-born patients in the MMSE-SR, but not in the MCE-S or the RUDAS-S. The MCE-S, had good diagnostic performance for detecting dementia (AUC, 0.82), and was at least as good as the RUDAS-S alone (AUC, 0.79). The MCE-S also distinguished Alzheimer's disease (AD) from non-AD dementia. Contrary to expectations, the MCE-S was also at least as good as the MMSE-SR among the Swedish-born patients. CONCLUSIONS: The MCE-S is adequate for detecting dementia in both foreign-born and Swedish-born populations. Based on the cultural diversity of general society, adapted cognitive tests that can be used for everyone are practical and beneficial for both patients and health-care professionals. Further studies are needed within primary care.

Transtornos Cognitivos , Demência , Humanos , Demência/diagnóstico , Suécia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Diversidade Cultural , Cognição
J Alzheimers Dis ; 89(4): 1403-1412, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057817


BACKGROUND: People with a migration background are underrepresented in dementia research and disfavored in assessment and treatment, and many foreign-born individuals with dementia remain undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether there is inequality in the clinical assessment of dementia between native and foreign-born individuals in Sweden. METHODS: Information was gathered retrospectively from a cohort of 91 native and 36 foreign-born patients attending four memory clinics in Skåne, Sweden. Data included information on cognitive test results, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, scores at structural imaging scales of global cortical atrophy (GCA), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and the Fazekas scale, laboratory measures of thyroid-stimulating hormone, calcium, albumin, homocysteine, hemoglobin, cobalamin (vitamin B12), and folate (vitamin B9), contact with health care, and treatment. RESULTS: Foreign-born patients had lower educational level and scored lower on Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test (p < 0.001-0.011). Relatives initiated contact with health care to a higher extent in the foreign-born group (p = 0.031). Foreign-born patients had less white matter lesions (p = 0.018). Additionally, Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers were significantly less used in foreign-born patients to support an AD diagnosis (p = 0.001). No significant differences were found for scores on GCA and MTA, laboratory measures, or initiated treatment. CONCLUSION: Although native and foreign-born patients were predominantly homogenous regarding examined variables, differences in the diagnostic process and underlying biological correlates of dementia exist and need to be further investigated in a larger sample.

Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Albuminas , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Cálcio , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Homocisteína , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tireotropina , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico
J Alzheimers Dis ; 89(3): 865-876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964182


BACKGROUND: The number of people with a migration background and dementia is increasing in Europe. All patients with suspected dementia have the right to an appropriate cognitive assessment and correct diagnosis for optimal treatment and support. Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) cognitive screening instrument is less affected by language, culture, and educational background, and adapted for use in multicultural populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of RUDAS-S to the Swedish version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-SR) for detecting dementia in a multicultural group of outpatients in Swedish memory clinics. METHODS: We tested 123 outpatients (36 nonnative Swedish), in 4 memory clinics in Southern Sweden with RUDAS-S to supplement the usual cognitive assessment. RESULTS: RUDAS-S had moderate to good diagnostic performance for detecting dementia in a multicultural population in Sweden, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.81. At a cutoff score <25 its sensitivity was 0.92, specificity 0.60, and accuracy 76%. The AUC for the MMSE-SR was 0.79. At a cutoff score <23 its sensitivity was 0.65, specificity 0.81, and accuracy 73%. CONCLUSION: RUDAS-S is at least as accurate as MMSE-SR for detecting dementia in memory clinics in Sweden and can be used for all patients undergoing a cognitive assessment, irrespective of their cultural, language, and educational background. However, there is a need for other cross-cultural cognitive tests to complement RUDAS-S to extend cognitive examination.

Demência , Idioma , Cognição , Demência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suécia
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 37(1): 45-67, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258799


Dementia assessment requires functional communication and interaction between healthcare professionals and the patient being assessed. These can be affected by the requirement for an interpreter to communicate with the patient. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interactions between patient, healthcare professionals and interpreter, focusing on the role of the interpreter and the challenges that may arise in interpreter-mediated dementia assessment. The study had an ethnographic design in which the data consisted of audio and video recordings of 19 dementia assessments conducted in the presence of an interpreter. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The results showed that the interpreter could affect the patient's performance and results during the dementia assessment. The interpreter could alter the meaning and content of what was communicated, sometimes change information and instructions exchanged between the patient and healthcare professionals, could avoid interpreting everything being said, and occasionally made their own corrections to what was being communicated. This occurred mainly because of the interpreter's lack of linguistic skills and the interpreter failing to adhere to the ethical guidelines governing their profession. These challenges could also occur when the interpreter was not familiar with the context of dementia assessment. Alterations made by the interpreter to what was being communicated could lead to incorrect evaluation of the patient's cognitive abilities and health status. This, in turn, may lead to misjudgment of the patient's remaining resources and symptoms and their required treatment and support.

Demência , Hyaenidae , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Animais , Barreiras de Comunicação , Demência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Tradução