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1.
Cancer Med ; 10(7): 2489-2495, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence, including multiple putative inflammatory risk factors (e.g., c-reactive protein, and adiposity), supports that inflammation plays an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis. Resistance training (RT) is associated with lower levels of circulating inflammatory markers, independent of physical activity. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between RT and risk of ovarian cancer accounting for other physical activity (e.g., walking) in two large prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. KEY RESULTS: In total, analyses included 42,005 NHS participants (2000-2016) and 67,289 NHSII participants (2001-2017) with RT assessed every 4 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of RT with ovarian cancer risk overall and by tumor subtype, adjusting for known and putative ovarian cancer risk factors. We identified a total of 609 cases over 1,748,884 person-years. No association was observed with overall ovarian cancer risk (RT ≥60 vs 0 min/wk, HR = 0.95, 95%CI: 0.74-1.22) or by histotype (comparable HR = 0.86 and 0.98 for type I and II tumors, respectively). Results did not differ by body mass index (Pinteraction = 0.97), or other physical activity (Pinteraction = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: We observed no evidence that moderate levels of RT were associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors related to energy balance have been associated with ovarian cancer risk and influence the tumor immune microenvironment, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). However, no studies have assessed whether these factors differentially impact ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis in the Nurses' Health Studies to examine the associations of physical activity, sitting time, and a food-based empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk by TAM density assessed by immunohistochemistry. We considered density of CD68 (marker of total TAMs) and CD163 (marker of pro-carcinogenic M2-type TAMs), and their ratios. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of exposures with risk of ovarian tumors with high versus low TAMs, including analyses stratified by body mass index. RESULTS: Analyses included 312 incident ovarian cancer cases with TAM measurements. Physical activity, sitting time, and EDIP score were not differentially associated with ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities (Pheterogeneity>0.05). Among overweight and obese women, higher EDIP score was associated with increased risk of CD163 low density tumors (HR comparing extreme tertiles=1.57, 95%CI=0.88-2.80; Ptrend=0.01), but not CD163 high density tumors (comparable HR=1.16, 95%CI=0.73-1.86; Ptrend=0.24), though this difference was not statistically significant (Pheterogeneity=0.22). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe differential associations between lifestyle factors and ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities. IMPACT: Future investigations examining the interplay between other ovarian cancer risk factors and the tumor immune microenvironment may help provide insight into ovarian cancer etiology.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in adulthood may be affected by early life exposure to tobacco smoke. We investigated this relationship in two large prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. METHODS: In total, analyses included 110 305 NHS participants (1976-2016) and 112 859 NHSII participants (1989-2017). Self-reported early life smoking exposures were queried at baseline or follow-up questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of ovarian cancer overall and by tumour histotype. RESULTS: Overall, ovarian cancer risk was not different among participants whose mothers did versus did not smoke during pregnancy (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.87-1.27); however, an increased risk was observed among women who themselves were never smokers (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05-1.81) but not among ever smokers (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.66-1.14; Pheterogeneity = 0.02). Compared with women who never smoked, ovarian cancer risk was similar for women who started to smoke at age <18 (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.11) or ≥18 (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.93-1.12). These associations did not differ by histotype (Pheterogeneity ≥0.35). Parental smoking in the home during childhood/adolescence was related to a 15% increased risk of ovarian cancer in adulthood (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.27) and this association was suggestively stronger among women with non-serous/low-grade serous tumours (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.02-1.61) versus high-grade serous/poorly differentiated tumours (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.93-1.28; Pheterogeneity = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental tobacco smoke in the home, but not early initiation of smoking, was associated with a modest elevated risk of ovarian cancer. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings and elucidate underlying mechanisms.

4.
Nature ; 591(7850): 464-470, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536615

RESUMO

Most ovarian cancers are infiltrated by prognostically relevant activated T cells1-3, yet exhibit low response rates to immune checkpoint inhibitors4. Memory B cell and plasma cell infiltrates have previously been associated with better outcomes in ovarian cancer5,6, but the nature and functional relevance of these responses are controversial. Here, using 3 independent cohorts that in total comprise 534 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, we show that robust, protective humoral responses are dominated by the production of polyclonal IgA, which binds to polymeric IgA receptors that are universally expressed on ovarian cancer cells. Notably, tumour B-cell-derived IgA redirects myeloid cells against extracellular oncogenic drivers, which causes tumour cell death. In addition, IgA transcytosis through malignant epithelial cells elicits transcriptional changes that antagonize the RAS pathway and sensitize tumour cells to cytolytic killing by T cells, which also contributes to hindering malignant progression. Thus, tumour-antigen-specific and -antigen-independent IgA responses antagonize the growth of ovarian cancer by governing coordinated tumour cell, T cell and B cell responses. These findings provide a platform for identifying targets that are spontaneously recognized by intratumoural B-cell-derived antibodies, and suggest that immunotherapies that augment B cell responses may be more effective than approaches that focus on T cells, particularly for malignancies that are resistant to checkpoint inhibitors.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634849

RESUMO

Results of studies assessing intrauterine device (IUD) use and ovarian cancer risk are inconsistent. We examined the association between IUD use, including duration, type and timing of use, and ovarian cancer risk using three population-based studies. Data from the New England Case-Control Study (NEC) and two prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII), were included in the analysis. Information on IUD use was collected by in-person interview in NEC and by biennial questionnaire in NHS/NHSII. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in NEC and Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI in NHS/NHSII. We used meta-analysis to combine the NEC and the pooled NHS/NHSII results. Overall, IUD use was not associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81-1.14 in NEC; HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.69-1.15 in NHS/NHSII; combined RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.08). Among IUD users, older age at first use was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (P-trend = .03). We did not observe significant associations by IUD type or duration of use. In conclusion, IUD use was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in our study.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 710-718, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is a well-established mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis; however, the specific immunogenic processes influencing ovarian tumor development remain unclear. In a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the NHSII, we examined the association between six inflammatory chemokines and cytokines [B-cell activating factor (BAFF), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), IL8, soluble(s)IL2-receptor-α(Rα), sIL6Rα] and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Among 299 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 334 matched controls, six inflammatory biomarkers were measured in plasma collected 1-24 years before diagnosis or index date using two custom multiplex Luminex panels. ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between each biomarker and risk using multivariable conditional logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. We additionally assessed heterogeneity in the risk associations by histotype [high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) vs. non-HGSC], body mass index, smoking status, menopausal status, and aspirin use. RESULTS: Women with the highest versus lowest quartile (Q) levels of CXCL13 had a 72% increased ovarian cancer risk (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.04-2.83; P trend = 0.007). The positive association with CXCL13 was stronger in magnitude for non-HGSC, overweight or obese women, and postmenopausal women, although only menopausal status demonstrated statistically significant heterogeneity (P interaction = 0.04). The remaining biomarkers were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: This first evidence that prediagnostic CXCL13, a B-cell chemoattractant, is associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer expands current understanding of the role of inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis. IMPACT: CXCL13 may represent a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer.

7.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors impacting genetic counseling/testing among ovarian cancer patients guided by Green and Kreuter's PRECEDE-PROCEED model. METHODS: Gynecologic oncology providers (N = 4), genetic counselors (N = 4), and ovarian cancer patients (N = 9) completed semi-structured qualitative interviews exploring participants' knowledge of and experiences with genetic counseling/testing. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive content analysis by two independent raters. RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors impacting referral for and uptake of genetic counseling/testing. Predisposing factors included participant's knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes related to genetic counseling/testing. Both patients and providers also cited that insurance coverage and out-of-pocket cost are major concerns for ovarian cancer patients considering genetic testing. Finally, both patients and providers emphasized that genetic counseling/testing would provide additional information to an ovarian cancer patient. While providers emphasized that genetic testing results were useful for informing a patient's personal treatment plan, patients emphasized that this knowledge would be beneficial for their family members. CONCLUSION: Barriers to genetic testing for ovarian cancer patients exist at multiple levels, including the patient (e.g., knowledge, attitudes), the provider (e.g., workload, availability of services), the institution (e.g., difficulty with referrals/scheduling), and the healthcare system (e.g., insurance/cost). Interventions aiming to increase genetic testing among ovarian cancer patients will likely need to target multiple levels of influence. Future quantitative studies are needed to replicate these results. This line of work will inform specific multilevel intervention strategies that are adaptable to different practice settings, ultimately improving guideline concordant care.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1613-1630, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to a healthy diet has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Identifying nutritional biomarkers of diet quality may be complementary to traditional questionnaire-based methods and may provide insights concerning disease mechanisms and prevention. OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolites associated with diet quality assessed via the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and its components. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used FFQ data and plasma metabolomic profiles, mostly lipid related, from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 1460) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n = 1051). Linear regression models assessed associations of the AHEI and its components with individual metabolites. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs) investigated overlapping patterns between AHEI components and metabolites. Principal component analysis (PCA) and explanatory factor analysis were used to consolidate correlated metabolites into uncorrelated factors. We used stepwise multivariable regression to create a metabolomic score that is an indicator of diet quality. RESULTS: The AHEI was associated with 83 metabolites in the NHS and 96 metabolites in the HPFS after false discovery rate adjustment. Sixty-three of these significant metabolites overlapped between the 2 cohorts. CCA identified "healthy" AHEI components (e.g., nuts, whole grains) and metabolites (n = 27 in the NHS and 33 in the HPFS) and "unhealthy" AHEI components (e.g., red meat, trans fat) and metabolites (n = 56 in the NHS and 63 in the HPFS). PCA-derived factors composed of highly saturated triglycerides, plasmalogens, and acylcarnitines were associated with unhealthy AHEI components while factors composed of highly unsaturated triglycerides were linked to healthy AHEI components. The stepwise regression analysis contributed to a metabolomics score as a predictor of diet quality. CONCLUSION: We identified metabolites associated with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. The observed associations were largely similar between men and women, suggesting that metabolomics can be a complementary approach to self-reported diet in studies of diet and chronic disease.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2211-2219, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential associations between ovarian cancer risk factors and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) ovarian tumor expression have been noted; however, no research has assessed estrogen receptor-ß (ERß) expression. Thus, in exploratory analyses, we assessed the association of several factors with ovarian cancer risk by ERß tumor status. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Nurses' Health Study cohorts (NHS/NHSII), with exposures collected through biennial questionnaires. Paraffin-embedded tumor blocks were requested for cases diagnosed from 1976 to 2006 (NHS) and 1989 to 2005 (NHSII) and tissue microarrays were stained for nuclear ERß (ERß-nuc) and cytoplasmic ERß (ERß-cyto), with any staining considered positive (+). We obtained odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariate polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 245 cases [43% ERß-cyto (+) and 71% ERß-nuc (+)] and 1,050 matched controls. An inverse association was observed between parity and risk of ERß-nuc (+) (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81), but not ERß-nuc (-) tumors (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 1.51; 95% CI, 0.45-5.04; P heterogeneity = 0.04). Conversely, parity was inversely associated with ERß-cyto (-) tumors (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.78), but was not associated with ERß-cyto (+) tumors (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 1.08; 95% CI, 0.45-2.63; P heterogeneity = 0.05). Associations for other exposures, including hormone therapy, did not differ by ERß-nuc or ERß-cyto status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that parity may influence ovarian cancer risk, in part, through alterations in ERß localization within tumor cells. IMPACT: Alterations in ERß expression and localization appear to be important for ovarian cancer etiology. Future research should confirm our results and assess potential biologic mechanisms for the observed associations.

10.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(2): 459-466, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although ovarian cancer is a deadly disease, approximately a third of women survive ≥9 years after diagnosis. The factors associated with achieving long-term survival are not well understood. In this study, data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program were used to determine predictors of survival trajectories among women with epithelial ovarian cancer and across histotype (high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and non-HGSC). METHODS: Data on 35,868 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in 2004-2016 were extracted from SEER. Extended Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate overall and histotype-specific associations between patient and tumor characteristics and all-cause mortality within each survival time (t) interval (t < 3, 3 ≤ t < 6, 6 ≤ t < 9, and 9 ≤ t < 13 years). RESULTS: Age at diagnosis, marital status, race/ethnicity, stage, and surgery were more strongly associated with mortality in the short-term survival period, and these associations waned with increasing survival time. Exceptions to this pattern were age >70 years at diagnosis, where a high risk of mortality was observed in both the t < 3 and t ≥ 9 year time periods, and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders, where a more pronounced inverse association with mortality was observed in t ≥ 9 years after diagnosis. Similar associations were observed for HGSC, although the waning effect was not apparent for most characteristics. Mortality associations for non-HGSC were more pronounced for stage and race/ethnicity, primarily for non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSIONS: Most patient and tumor characteristics were more strongly associated with mortality in the years following diagnosis, but have declining impact with increasing survival time. Given this waning effect, it is critical to identify factors impacting risk of mortality as ovarian cancer patients advance through the survival trajectory.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etnologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Urol ; 203(5): 978-983, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence are common disorders in women that negatively impact quality of life. In addition to known health and lifestyle risk factors, genetics may have a role in continence. Identification of genetic variants associated with urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence could result in a better understanding of etiologic pathways, and new interventions and treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We previously generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from Nurses' Health Studies participants. The participants provided longitudinal urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence information via questionnaires. Cases of urinary incontinence (6,120) had at least weekly urinary incontinence reported on a majority of questionnaires (3 or 4 across 12 to 16 years) while controls (4,811) consistently had little to no urinary incontinence reported. We classified cases of urinary incontinence in women into stress (1,809), urgency (1,942) and mixed (2,036) subtypes. Cases of fecal incontinence (4,247) had at least monthly fecal incontinence reported on a majority of questionnaires while controls (11,634) consistently had no fecal incontinence reported. We performed a genome-wide association study for each incontinence outcome. RESULTS: We identified 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms significantly associated (p <5×10-8) with urinary incontinence located in 2 loci, chromosomes 8q23.3 and 1p32.2. There were no genome-wide significant findings for the urinary incontinence subtype analyses. However, the significant associations for overall urinary incontinence were stronger for the urgency and mixed subtypes than for stress. While no single nucleotide polymorphism reached genome-wide significance for fecal incontinence, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms had p <10-6. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have collected genetic data and detailed urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence information. This genome-wide association study provides initial evidence of genetic associations for urinary incontinence and merits further research to replicate our findings and identify additional risk variants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Incontinência Fecal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Incontinência Urinária/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , DNA/genética , Incontinência Fecal/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Incontinência Urinária/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 200-207, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laterality of epithelial ovarian tumors may reflect the underlying carcinogenic pathways and origins of tumor cells. METHODS: We pooled data from 9 prospective studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Information on measures of tumor size or tumor dominance was extracted from surgical pathology reports or obtained through cancer registries. We defined dominant tumors as those restricted to one ovary or where the dimension of one ovary was at least twice as large as the other, and nondominant tumors as those with similar dimensions across the two ovaries or peritoneal tumors. Competing risks Cox models were used to examine whether associations with reproductive and hormonal risk factors differed by ovarian tumor dominance. RESULTS: Of 1,058 ovarian cancer cases with tumor dominance information, 401 were left-dominant, 363 were right-dominant, and 294 were nondominant. Parity was more strongly inversely associated with risk of dominant than nondominant ovarian cancer (P heterogeneity = 0.004). Ever use of oral contraceptives (OC) was associated with lower risk of dominant tumors, but was not associated with nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.01). Higher body mass index was associated with higher risk of left-dominant tumors, but not significantly associated with risk of right-dominant or nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that reproductive and hormonal risk factors appear to have a stronger impact on dominant tumors, which may have an ovarian or endometriosis origin. IMPACT: Examining the associations of ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor dominance may help elucidate the mechanisms through which these factors influence ovarian cancer risk.

14.
Clin Genet ; 97(2): 370-375, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600840

RESUMO

Germline mutations (eg, BRCA1/2) have prognostic and treatment implications for ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients. Thus, national guidelines recommend genetic testing for OVCA patients. The present study examines patterns and predictors of genetics referral in OVCA patients. Electronic medical record data were abstracted retrospectively from 557 OVCA patients treated from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2015. Logistic regression models identified sociodemographic characteristics, disease/treatment characteristics, family history data, provider characteristics, and survival data that predicted genetics referral. Overall, 27.5% of patients received referral. Eleven variables predicting referral were selected during stepwise regression: younger age, White race, not having private insurance, professional school education, year of OVCA diagnosis, platinum sensitivity, female gynecologic oncologist, chemotherapy administered by a gynecologic oncologist, clinical trial enrollment, longer overall survival, and family history of OVCA. Genetics referral among OVCA patients was similar to rates reported nationwide. Unique predictive factors will contribute to quality improvement and should be validated at a multi-institutional level to ensure guideline concordant care is provided to all OVCA patients. Future research should identify both patient-level and provider-level factors associated with genetics referral.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 736-746, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693173

RESUMO

Little is known about the influence of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis smoking and smoking cessation on ovarian cancer survival. We investigated this relationship in two prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Analyses included 1,279 women with confirmed invasive, Stage I-III epithelial ovarian cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ovarian cancer-specific mortality by smoking status, adjusting for age and year of diagnosis, tumor stage, histologic subtype, body mass index and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use (postdiagnosis models only). When examining prediagnosis smoking status (assessed a median of 12 months before diagnosis), risk of death was significantly increased for former smokers (HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.39), and suggestively for current smokers (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.96-1.51) vs. never smokers. Longer smoking duration (≥20 years vs. never, HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05-1.45) and higher pack-years (≥20 pack-years vs. never, HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.52) were also associated with worse outcome. With respect to postdiagnosis exposure, women who smoked ≥15 cigarettes per day after diagnosis (assessed a median of 11 months after diagnosis) had increased mortality compared to never smokers (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.63-3.37). Those who continued smoking after diagnosis had 40% higher mortality (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05-1.87) compared to never smokers. Overall, our results suggest both prediagnosis and postdiagnosis smoking are associated with worse ovarian cancer outcomes.

16.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(3): pkz044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448358

RESUMO

Background: Although obesity is an established modifiable risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM), several nuanced aspects of its relation to MM remain unelucidated, limiting public health and prevention messages. Methods: We analyzed prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study to examine MM risk associated with 20-year weight patterns in adulthood, body shape trajectory from ages 5 to 60 years, and body fat distribution. For each aforementioned risk factor, we report hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident MM from multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models. Results: We documented 582 incident MM cases during 4 280 712 person-years of follow-up. Persons who exhibited extreme weight cycling, for example, those with net weight gain and one or more episodes of intentional loss of at least 20 pounds or whose cumulative intentional weight loss exceeded net weight loss with at least one episode of intentional loss of 20 pounds or more had an increased MM risk compared with individuals who maintained their weight (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.80); the association was statistically nonsignificant after adjustment for body mass index. We identified four body shape trajectories: lean-stable, lean-increase, medium-stable, and medium-increase. MM risk was higher in the medium-increase group than in the lean-stable group (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.14). Additionally, MM risk increased with increasing hip circumference (HR per 1-inch increase: 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.06) but was not associated with other body fat distribution measures. Conclusions: Maintaining a lean and stable weight throughout life may provide the strongest benefit in terms of MM prevention.

17.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5442-5451, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462430

RESUMO

Growing epidemiologic evidence supports chronic inflammation as a mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis. An association between a circulating marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ovarian cancer risk has been consistently observed, yet, potential heterogeneity of this association by tumor and patient characteristics has not been adequately explored. In this study, we pooled data from case-control studies nested within six cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the association between CRP and epithelial ovarian cancer risk overall, by histologic subtype and by participant characteristics. CRP concentrations were measured from prediagnosis serum or plasma in 1,091 cases and 1,951 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). When CRP was evaluated using tertiles, no associations with ovarian cancer risk were observed. A 67% increased ovarian cancer risk was found for women with CRP concentrations >10 mg/L compared with <1 mg/L (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.12-2.48). A CRP concentration >10 mg/L was positively associated with risk of mucinous (OR = 9.67; 95% CI = 1.10-84.80) and endometrioid carcinoma (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.07-10.92), and suggestively positive, although not statistically significant, for serous (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 0.82-2.49) and clear cell carcinoma (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 0.36-11.57; P heterogeneity = 0.20). Heterogeneity was observed with oral contraceptive use (P interaction = 0.03), where the increased risk was present only among ever users (OR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.62-6.47). This study adds to the existing evidence that CRP plays a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and suggests that inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma. SIGNIFICANCE: C-reactive protein is involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, and chronic inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of mucinous and endometrioid carcinomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Carcinoma/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Idoso , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1215-1221, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intake of nuts has been inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, partly through inducing a healthy lipid profile. How nut intake may affect lipid metabolites remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the plasma lipid metabolites associated with habitual nut consumption in US men and women. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1099 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHS II, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Metabolic profiling was conducted on plasma by LC-mass spectrometry. Nut intake was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires. We included 144 known lipid metabolites that had CVs ≤25%. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations of nut consumption with individual plasma lipid metabolites. RESULTS: We identified 17 lipid metabolites that were significantly associated with nut intake, based on a 1 serving (28 g)/d increment in multivariate models [false discovery rate (FDR) P value <0.05]. Among these species, 8 were positively associated with nut intake [C24:0 sphingomyelin (SM), C36:3 phosphatidylcholine (PC) plasmalogen-A, C36:2 PC plasmalogen, C24:0 ceramide, C36:1 PC plasmalogen, C22:0 SM, C34:1 PC plasmalogen, and C36:2 phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen], with changes in relative metabolite level (expressed in number of SDs on the log scale) ranging from 0.36 to 0.46 for 1 serving/d of nuts. The other 9 metabolites were inversely associated with nut intake with changes in relative metabolite level ranging from -0.34 to -0.44. In stratified analysis, 3 metabolites were positively associated with both peanuts and peanut butter (C24:0 SM, C24:0 ceramide, and C22:0 SM), whereas 6 metabolites were inversely associated with other nuts (FDR P value <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A panel of lipid metabolites was associated with intake of nuts, which may provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying associations between nuts and cardiometabolic health. Metabolites that were positively associated with intake of nuts may be helpful in identifying potential biomarkers of nut intake.


Assuntos
Dieta , Lipídeos/sangue , Nozes , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(6): 827-841, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058573

RESUMO

Background: Little research to date has focused on lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) prevention and bladder health promotion in women. To address this gap, the Prevention of LUTS Research Consortium developed the following working bladder health definition: "A complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being related to bladder function [that] permits daily activities [and] allows optimal well-being." To begin to inform and quantify this definition, we used data from the Boston Area Community Health Survey, drawing upon its rare collection of information on LUTS and LUTS-specific interference with activities. Methods: At baseline, participants reported their frequency of 15 LUTS and interference with 7 activities. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated by generalized linear models with robust variance estimation, adjusting for LUTS risk factors and individual LUTS. Results: Of the 3169 eligible participants, 17.5% reported no LUTS or interference, whereas the remaining 82.5% reported some frequency of LUTS/interference: 15.1% rarely; 21.7% a few times; 22.6% fairly often/usually; and 22.9% almost always. LUTS independently associated with interference were urgency incontinence, any incontinence, urgency, nocturia, perceived frequency, and urinating again after <2 hours (PRs = 1.2-1.5, all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that bladder health exists on a continuum, with approximately one in five women considered to have optimal bladder health (no LUTS/interference), the majority to have intermediate health (LUTS/interference rarely to usually), and a further one in five to have worse or poor health (LUTS/interference almost always). These findings underscore the need for LUTS prevention and bladder health promotion.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , Disuria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noctúria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
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