Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 127
Filtrar
1.
Evol Appl ; 17(3): e13670, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468711

RESUMO

Since the emergence of a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease (DFT1), in the 1980s, wild Tasmanian devil populations have been in decline. In 2016, a second, independently evolved transmissible cancer (DFT2) was discovered raising concerns for survival of the host species. Here, we applied experimental and modelling frameworks to examine competition dynamics between the two transmissible cancers in vitro. Using representative cell lines for DFT1 and DFT2, we have found that in monoculture, DFT2 grows twice as fast as DFT1 but reaches lower maximum cell densities. Using co-cultures, we demonstrate that DFT2 outcompetes DFT1: the number of DFT1 cells decreasing over time, never reaching exponential growth. This phenomenon could not be replicated when cells were grown separated by a semi-permeable membrane, consistent with exertion of mechanical stress on DFT1 cells by DFT2. A logistic model and a Lotka-Volterra competition model were used to interrogate monoculture and co-culture growth curves, respectively, suggesting DFT2 is a better competitor than DFT1, but also showing that competition outcomes might depend on the initial number of cells, at least in the laboratory. We provide theories how the in vitro results could be translated to observations in the wild and propose that these results may indicate that although DFT2 is currently in a smaller geographic area than DFT1, it could have the potential to outcompete DFT1. Furthermore, we provide a framework for improving the parameterization of epidemiological models applied to these cancer lineages, which will inform future disease management.

2.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1286352, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515744

RESUMO

The world's largest extant carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil, is challenged by Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD), a fatal, clonally transmitted cancer. In two decades, DFTD has spread across 95% of the species distributional range. A previous study has shown that factors such as season, geographic location, and infection with DFTD can impact the expression of immune genes in Tasmanian devils. To date, no study has investigated within-individual immune gene expression changes prior to and throughout the course of DFTD infection. To explore possible changes in immune response, we investigated four locations across Tasmania that differed in DFTD exposure history, ranging between 2 and >30 years. Our study demonstrated considerable complexity in the immune responses to DFTD. The same factors (sex, age, season, location and DFTD infection) affected immune gene expression both across and within devils, although seasonal and location specific variations were diminished in DFTD affected devils. We also found that expression of both adaptive and innate immune genes starts to alter early in DFTD infection and continues to change as DFTD progresses. A novel finding was that the lower expression of immune genes MHC-II, NKG2D and CD8 may predict susceptibility to earlier DFTD infection. A case study of a single devil with regressed tumor showed opposite/contrasting immune gene expression patterns compared to the general trends observed across devils with DFTD infection. Our study highlights the complexity of DFTD's interactions with the host immune system and the need for long-term studies to fully understand how DFTD alters the evolutionary trajectory of devil immunity.


Assuntos
Daunorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Faciais , Marsupiais , Animais , Neoplasias Faciais/genética , Neoplasias Faciais/veterinária , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Marsupiais/genética
3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1879(2): 189088, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387823

RESUMO

Although conventional anti-cancer therapies remove most cells of the tumor mass, small surviving populations may evolve adaptive resistance strategies, which lead to treatment failure. The size of the resistant population initially may not reach the threshold of clinical detection (designated as measurable residual disease/MRD) thus, its investigation requires highly sensitive and specific methods. Here, we discuss that the specific molecular fingerprint of tumor-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) is suitable for longitudinal monitoring of MRD. Furthermore, we present a concept that exploiting the multiparametric nature of sEVs may help early detection of recurrence and the design of dynamic, evolution-adjusted treatments.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Humanos , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232666, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351808

RESUMO

Wildlife is increasingly exposed to sublethal transient cancer risk factors, including mutagenic substances, which activates their anti-cancer defences, promotes tumourigenesis, and may negatively impact populations. Little is known about how exposure to cancer risk factors impacts the behaviour of wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of a sublethal, short-term exposure to a carcinogen at environmentally relevant concentrations on the activity patterns of wild Girardia tigrina planaria during a two-phase experiment, consisting of a 7-day exposure to cadmium period followed by a 7-day recovery period. To comprehensively explore the effects of the exposure on activity patterns, we employed the double hierarchical generalized linear model framework which explicitly models residual intraindividual variability in addition to the mean and variance of the population. We found that exposed planaria were less active compared to unexposed individuals and were able to recover to pre-exposure activity levels albeit with a reduced variance in activity at the start of the recovery phase. Planaria showing high activity levels were less predictable with larger daily activity variations and higher residual variance. Thus, the shift in behavioural variability induced by an exposure to a cancer risk factor can be quantified using advanced tools from the field of behavioural ecology. This is required to understand how tumourous processes affect the ecology of species.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Animais Selvagens , Fatores de Risco
5.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 43(1): 74-86, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750553

RESUMO

Reproductive costs must be balanced with survival to maximize lifetime reproductive rates; however, some organisms invest in a single, suicidal bout of breeding known as semelparity. The northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) is an endangered marsupial in which males, but not females, are semelparous. Northern quolls living near mining sites on Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia, accumulate manganese (Mn) in their brains, testes, and hair, and elevated Mn impacts motor performance. Whether Mn is associated with other health declines is yet unknown. In the present study we show that male and female northern quolls with higher Mn accumulation had a 20% reduction in immune function and a trend toward reduced cortisol concentrations in hair. The telomere lengths of male quolls did not change pre- to postbreeding, but those with higher Mn levels had longer telomeres; in contrast, the telomeres of females shortened during the breeding season but recovered between the first year and second year of breeding. In addition, the telomeres of quolls that were recaptured declined at significantly higher rates in quolls with higher Mn between prebreeding, breeding, and/or postbreeding seasons. Future research should determine whether changes in cortisol, immune function, or telomere length affect reproductive output or survival-particularly for semelparous males. Environ Toxicol Chem 2024;43:74-86. © 2023 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.


Assuntos
Manganês , Marsupiais , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Manganês/toxicidade , Hidrocortisona , Austrália
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169491, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154641

RESUMO

The presence of doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) in bivalves represents a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission, whereby paternal (male-transmitted M-type) and maternal (female-transmitted F-type) haplotypes are transmitted to offspring separately. Male embryos retain both haplotypes, but the M-type is selectively removed from females. Due to the presence of heteroplasmy in males, mtDNA can recombine resulting in a 'masculinized' haplotype referred to as Mf-type. While mtDNA recombination is usually rare, it has been recorded in multiple mussel species across the Northern Hemisphere. Given that mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell, different mtDNA haplotypes may have different selective advantages under diverse environmental conditions. This may be particularly important for sperm fitness and fertilization success. In this study we aimed to i) determine the presence, prevalence of the Mf-type in Australian blue mussels (Mytilus sp.) and ii) investigate the effect of Mf-mtDNA on sperm performance (a fitness correlate). We found a high prevalence of recombined mtDNA (≈35 %) located within the control region of the mitochondrial genome, which occurred only in specimens that contained Southern Hemisphere mtDNA. The presence of two female mitotypes were identified in the studied mussels, one likely originating from the Northern Hemisphere, and the other either representing the endemic M. planulatus species or introduced genotypes from the Southern Hemisphere. Despite having recombination events present in a third of the studied population, analysis of sperm performance indicated no difference in fertilization success related to mitotype.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Mytilus edulis , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Austrália , Sêmen , Mitocôndrias , DNA Mitocondrial , Bivalves/genética , Fertilização , Recombinação Genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19825, 2023 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963956

RESUMO

The inability to control cell proliferation results in the formation of tumors in many multicellular lineages. Nonetheless, little is known about the extent of conservation of the biological traits and ecological factors that promote or inhibit tumorigenesis across the metazoan tree. Particularly, changes in food availability have been linked to increased cancer incidence in humans, as an outcome of evolutionary mismatch. Here, we apply evolutionary oncology principles to test whether food availability, regardless of the multicellular lineage considered, has an impact on tumorigenesis. We used two phylogenetically unrelated model systems, the cnidarian Hydra oligactis and the fish Danio rerio, to investigate the impact of resource availability on tumor occurrence and progression. Individuals from healthy and tumor-prone lines were placed on four diets that differed in feeding frequency and quantity. For both models, frequent overfeeding favored tumor emergence, while lean diets appeared more protective. In terms of tumor progression, high food availability promoted it, whereas low resources controlled it, but without having a curative effect. We discuss our results in light of current ideas about the possible conservation of basic processes governing cancer in metazoans (including ancestral life history trade-offs at the cell level) and in the framework of evolutionary medicine.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos , Evolução Biológica , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias/etiologia
9.
Ecol Evol ; 13(9): e10547, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37745791

RESUMO

The hygiene hypothesis, according to which the recent reduction of exposure to infectious agents in the human species would be the origin of various diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cancer, has often been proposed but not properly tested on animals. Here, we evaluated the relevance of this hypothesis to cancer risk in mammals in an original way, namely by using information on zoo mammals. We predicted that a higher richness of parasitic cohorts in the species' natural habitat would result in a greater occurrence of evolutionary mismatch due to the reduction of parasites in captive conditions. This, in turn, could contribute to an increased risk of developing lethal cancers. Using a comparative analysis of 112 mammalian species, we explored the potential relationship between cancer risk and parasite species richness using generalized phylogenetic least squares regressions to relate parasite species richness to cancer risk data. We found no strong evidence that parasite species richness increased cancer risk in zoo mammals for any of the parasite groups we tested. Without constituting definitive proof of the irrelevance of the hygienic hypothesis, our comparative study using zoo mammals does not support it, at least with respect to cancer risks.

10.
Evol Appl ; 16(7): 1316-1327, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37492149

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are a major threat for biodiversity conservation and can exert strong influence on wildlife population dynamics. Understanding the mechanisms driving infection rates and epidemic outcomes requires empirical data on the evolutionary trajectory of pathogens and host selective processes. Phylodynamics is a robust framework to understand the interaction of pathogen evolutionary processes with epidemiological dynamics, providing a powerful tool to evaluate disease control strategies. Tasmanian devils have been threatened by a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), for more than two decades. Here we employ a phylodynamic approach using tumour mitochondrial genomes to assess the role of tumour genetic diversity in epidemiological and population dynamics in a devil population subject to 12 years of intensive monitoring, since the beginning of the epidemic outbreak. DFTD molecular clock estimates of disease introduction mirrored observed estimates in the field, and DFTD genetic diversity was positively correlated with estimates of devil population size. However, prevalence and force of infection were the lowest when devil population size and tumour genetic diversity was the highest. This could be due to either differential virulence or transmissibility in tumour lineages or the development of host defence strategies against infection. Our results support the view that evolutionary processes and epidemiological trade-offs can drive host-pathogen coexistence, even when disease-induced mortality is extremely high. We highlight the importance of integrating pathogen and population evolutionary interactions to better understand long-term epidemic dynamics and evaluating disease control strategies.

11.
Evol Appl ; 16(7): 1239-1256, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37492150

RESUMO

It is traditionally assumed that during cancer development, tumor cells abort their initially cooperative behavior (i.e., cheat) in favor of evolutionary strategies designed solely to enhance their own fitness (i.e., a "selfish" life style) at the expense of that of the multicellular organism. However, the growth and progress of solid tumors can also involve cooperation among these presumed selfish cells (which, by definition, should be noncooperative) and with stromal cells. The ultimate and proximate reasons behind this paradox are not fully understood. Here, in the light of current theories on the evolution of cooperation, we discuss the possible evolutionary mechanisms that could explain the apparent cooperative behaviors among selfish malignant cells. In addition to the most classical explanations for cooperation in cancer and in general (by-product mutualism, kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, group selection), we propose the idea that "greenbeard" effects are relevant to explaining some cooperative behaviors in cancer. Also, we discuss the possibility that malignant cooperative cells express or co-opt cooperative traits normally expressed by healthy cells. We provide examples where considerations of these processes could help understand tumorigenesis and metastasis and argue that this framework provides novel insights into cancer biology and potential strategies for cancer prevention and treatment.

12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(2001): 20230940, 2023 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37357861

RESUMO

Reproduction is a central activity for all living organisms but is also associated with a diversity of costs that are detrimental for survival. Until recently, the cost of cancer as a selective force has been poorly considered. Considering 191 mammal species, we found cancer mortality was more likely to be detected in species having large, rather than low, litter sizes and long lactation lengths regardless of the placentation types. However, increasing litter size and gestation length are not per se associated with an enhanced cancer mortality risk. Contrary to basic theoretical expectations, the species with the highest cancer mortality were not those with the most invasive (i.e. haemochorial) placentation, but those with a moderately invasive (i.e. endotheliochorial) one. Overall, these results suggest that (i) high reproductive efforts favour oncogenic processes' dynamics, presumably because of trade-offs between allocation in reproduction effort and anti-cancer defences, (ii) cancer defence mechanisms in animals are most often adjusted to align reproductive lifespan, and (iii) malignant cells co-opt existing molecular and physiological pathways for placentation, but species with the most invasive placentation have also selected for potent barriers against lethal cancers. This work suggests that the logic of Peto's paradox seems to be applicable to other traits that promote tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Placentação , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Placentação/fisiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Lactação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Neoplasias/etiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7449, 2023 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37156860

RESUMO

Hydras are freshwater cnidarians widely used as a biological model to study different questions such as senescence or phenotypic plasticity but also tumoral development. The spontaneous tumors found in these organisms have been so far described in two female lab strains domesticated years ago (Hydra oligactis and Pelmatohydra robusta) and the extent to which these tumors can be representative of tumors within the diversity of wild hydras is completely unknown. In this study, we examined individuals isolated from recently sampled wild strains of different sex and geographical origin, which have developed outgrowths looking like tumors. These tumefactions have common features with the tumors previously described in lab strains: are composed of an accumulation of abnormal cells, resulting in a similar enlargement of the tissue layers. However, we also found diversity within these new types of tumors. Indeed, not only females, but also males seem prone to form these tumors. Finally, the microbiota associated to these tumors is different from the one involved in the previous lineages exhibiting tumors. We found that tumorous individuals hosted yet undescribed Chlamydiales vacuoles. This study brings new insights into the understanding of tumor susceptibility and diversity in brown hydras from different origins.


Assuntos
Chlamydiales , Hydra , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Água Doce
14.
Evol Med Public Health ; 11(1): 45-52, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36945299

RESUMO

Background: Why humans historically began to incorporate spices into their diets is still a matter of unresolved debate. For example, a recent study (Bromham et al. There is little evidence that spicy food in hot countries is an adaptation to reducing infection risk. Nat Hum Behav 2021;5:878-91.) did not support the most popular hypothesis that spice consumption was a practice favoured by selection in certain environments to reduce food poisoning, parasitic infections, and foodborne diseases. Methods: Because several spices are known to have anticancer effects, we explored the hypothesis that natural selection and/or cultural evolution may have favoured spice consumption as an adaptive prophylactic response to reduce the burden of cancer pathology. We used linear models to investigate the potential relationship between age-standardized gastrointestinal cancer rates and spice consumption in 36 countries. Results: Patterns of spice are not consistent with a cancer mitigation mechanism: the age-standardized rate of almost all gastrointestinal cancers was not related to spice consumption. Conclusions: Direction other than foodborne pathogens and cancers should be explored to understand the health reasons, if any, why our ancestors developed a taste for spices.

15.
Ecol Evol ; 13(3): e9934, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36993149

RESUMO

The harmful effects of close inbreeding have been recognized for centuries and, with the rise of Mendelian genetics, was realized to be an effect of homozygosis. This historical background led to great interest in ways to quantify inbreeding, its depression effects on the phenotype and flow-on effects on mate choice and other aspects of behavioral ecology. The mechanisms and cues used to avoid inbreeding are varied and include major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and the peptides they transport as predictors of the degree of genetic relatedness. Here, we revisit and complement data from a Swedish population of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) showing signs of inbreeding depression to assess the effects of genetic relatedness on pair formation in the wild. Parental pairs were less similar at the MHC than expected under random mating but mated at random with respect to microsatellite relatedness. MHC clustered in groups of RFLP bands but no partner preference was observed with respect to partner MHC cluster genotype. Male MHC band patterns were unrelated to their fertilization success in clutches selected for analysis on the basis of showing mixed paternity. Thus, our data suggest that MHC plays a role in pre-copulatory, but not post-copulatory partner association, suggesting that MHC is not the driver of fertilization bias and gamete recognition in sand lizards.

16.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 130(2): 64-72, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36474024

RESUMO

Conservation genetic theory suggests that small and isolated populations should be subject to reduced genetic diversity i.e., heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Our 34 years study of an isolated island population of adders (Vipera berus) in southern Sweden challenges this notion. Despite a lack of gene flow and a yearly mean estimated reproductive adult population size of only 65 adult adders (range 12-171), the population maintains high levels of heterozygosity and allelic diversity similar to that observed in two mainland populations. Even a 14-year major "bottleneck" i.e., a reduction in adult adder numbers, encompassing at least four adder generations, did not result in any reduction in the island adders' heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Female adders are polyandrous, and fertilisation is non-random, which our empirical data and modelling suggest are underpinning the maintenance of the population's high level of heterozygosity. Our empirical results and subsequent modelling suggest that the positive genetic effects of polyandry in combination with non-random fertilisation, often overlooked in conservation genetic analyses, deserve greater consideration when predicting long-term survival of small and isolated populations.


Assuntos
Viperidae , Animais , Feminino , Viperidae/genética , Densidade Demográfica , Heterozigoto , Variação Genética , Fertilização
17.
Mol Ecol ; 31(24): 6531-6540, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205590

RESUMO

A plethora of intrinsic and environmental factors have been shown to influence the length of telomeres, the protector of chromosome ends. Despite the growing interest in infection-telomere interactions, there is very limited knowledge on how transmissible cancers influence telomere maintenance. An emblematic example of transmissible cancer occurs in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), whose populations have been dramatically reduced by infectious cancer cells. To investigate associations between telomere dynamics and the transmissible cancer, we used longitudinal data from a Tasmanian devil population that has been exposed to the disease for over 15 years. We detected substantial temporal variation in individual telomere length (TL), and a positive significant association between TL and age, as well as a marginally significant trend for devils with devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) having longer telomeres. A proportional hazard analysis yielded no significant effect of TL on the development of DFTD. Like previous studies, we show the complexity that TL dynamics may exhibit across the lifetime of organisms. Our work highlights the importance of long-term longitudinal sampling for understanding the effects of wildlife diseases on TL.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Faciais , Marsupiais , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Neoplasias Faciais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Faciais/genética , Neoplasias Faciais/patologia , Marsupiais/genética , Telômero/genética
18.
iScience ; 25(10): 105034, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147948

RESUMO

Although tumors can occur during the lifetime of most multicellular organisms and have the potential to influence health, how they alter life-history traits in tumor-bearing individuals remains poorly documented. This question was explored using the freshwater cnidarian Hydra oligactis, a species sometimes affected by vertically transmitted tumors. We found that tumorous polyps have a reduced survival compared to healthy ones. However, they also displayed higher asexual reproductive effort, by producing more often multiple buds than healthy ones. A similar acceleration is observed for the sexual reproduction (estimated through gamete production). Because tumoral cells are not transmitted through this reproductive mode, this finding suggests that hosts may adaptively respond to tumors, compensating the expected fitness losses by increasing their immediate reproductive effort. This study supports the hypothesis that tumorigenesis has the potential to influence the biology, ecology, and evolution of multicellular species, and thus should be considered more by evolutionary ecologists.

19.
Med ; 3(8): 523-525, 2022 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963232

RESUMO

The survival duration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the vasculature is a critical parameter in the establishment of the metastatic cascade. Diamantopoulou and colleagues demonstrate that the metastatic capacity of CTCs is strongly influenced by circadian rhythms, suggesting a rationale for the time-controlled interrogation and treatment of metastatic cancers.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Contagem de Células , Humanos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia
20.
Front Oncol ; 12: 945376, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36003770

RESUMO

The basis of the conventional gene-centric view on tumor evolution is that vertically inherited mutations largely define the properties of tumor cells. In recent years, however, accumulating evidence shows that both the tumor cells and their microenvironment may acquire external, non-vertically inherited genetic properties via horizontal gene transfer (HGT), particularly through small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). Many phases of sEV-mediated HGT have been described, such as DNA packaging into small vesicles, their release, uptake by recipient cells, and incorporation of sEV-DNA into the recipient genome to modify the phenotype and properties of cells. Recent techniques in sEV separation, genome sequencing and editing, as well as the identification of new secretion mechanisms, shed light on a number of additional details of this phenomenon. Here, we discuss the key features of this form of gene transfer and make an attempt to draw relevant conclusions on the contribution of HGT to tumor evolution.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...