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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

RESUMO

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 934-939, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153427

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, 13 morcegos Megadermalyra foram observados empoleirados em uma sala escura em forma de cúpula no Forte Rohtas, distrito de Jhelum, dos quais 6 espécimes foram capturados no local usando rede manual. Todos os espécimes capturados eram machos. Esses morcegos foram identificados por suas características faciais únicas, uma folha nasal ereta e alongada, grandes orelhas ovais que se juntam acima da testa e sem cauda. O comprimento médio da cabeça e do corpo dos espécimes capturados foi de 80 mm, o comprimento do antebraço foi de 67 mm, enquanto os comprimentos médios do 3º, 4º e 5º metacarpos foram de 51,73 mm, 55,17 mm e 60,42 mm, respectivamente. O comprimento médio do crânio foi de 29,84 mm, e a largura da caixa craniana, de 12,77 mm. O comprimento médio do pênis de duas amostras foi de 6,6 mm, e o comprimento total do báculo foi de 3,08 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de Megadermalyra no distrito de Jhelum.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729385

RESUMO

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Verduras , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Solo
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 77-82, Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153328

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to explore morphometric variations of Pteropus medius (the Indian flying fox) and the roosting trees in Lower Dir, Pakistan. The bats were captured from Morus alba, Morus nigra, Brousonetia papyrifera, Pinus raxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populous nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Grevillea robusta through sling shot and mess net methods. A total of 12 bats were studied for the differential morphological features based on age and sex. Male bats were recorded higher in weight than females. The variations were found in body mass (821.1±34.65gm), circumference of body with wings (25.43±0.39cm), wingspan (112.58±1.90cm), Body length (20.73±0.68cm), Snout length (3.42±0.04cm), Eye length (1.45±0.033cm), Length of ear (3.56±0.05cm), Width of ear (2.46±0.04cm), Length b/w ear (5.51±0.11cm), Circumference of neck (12.23±0.24cm), Circumference of body without wings (18.68±0.31cm), Arm wing length (23.2±1.03cm), Length of thumb (5.43±0.1cm), Length of nail (1.89±0.05cm), Hand wing length (29.1±0.51cm), Maximum width of wing (21.03±0.68cm), Length b/w tip of wing to 5th digit (29.39±0.30cm), Length b/w 5th digit to foot (22.97±1.09cm), Length b/w feet (18.31±0.74cm) and Length of foot claw (4.23±0.05cm). This study was designed for analysis of external morphological variations for P. medius (the Indian flying fox) that may help in identification of these bats and their roosting sites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido com o intuito de explorar variações morfométricas de Pteropus medius (raposa-voadora indiana) e árvores de repouso em Lower Dir, Paquistão. Os morcegos foram capturados de Morus alba, Morus nigra, Broussonetia papyrifera, Pinus roxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populus nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis e Grevillea robusta por meio de estilingues e redes. Doze morcegos foram estudados quanto às características morfológicas diferenciais com base na idade e no sexo. Os morcegos machos apresentaram maior peso do que as fêmeas. As variações foram encontradas em massa corporal (821,1 ± 34,65 g), circunferência do corpo com asas (25,43 ± 0,39 cm), envergadura (112,58 ± 1,90 cm), comprimento do corpo (20,73 ± 0,68 cm), comprimento do focinho (3,42 ± 0,04 cm), comprimento do olho (1,45 ± 0,033 cm), comprimento da orelha (3,56 ± 0,05 cm), largura da orelha (2,46 ± 0,04 cm), comprimento entre as orelhas (5,51 ± 0,11 cm), circunferência do pescoço (12,23 ± 0,24 cm), circunferência do corpo sem asas (18,68 ± 0,31 cm), comprimento da asa da pata dianteira (23,2 ± 1,03 cm), comprimento do polegar (5,43 ± 0,1 cm), comprimento da unha (1,89 ± 0,05 cm), comprimento da asa até a ponta do dedo (29,1 ± 0,51 cm), largura máxima da asa (21,03 ± 0,68 cm), comprimento entre a ponta da asa e o quinto dedo (29,39 ± 0,30 cm), comprimento entre o quinto dedo e a pata (22,97 ± 1,09 cm), comprimento entre as patas (18,31 ± 0,74 cm) e comprimento da garra da pata (4,23 ± 0,05 cm). Este estudo foi desenvolvido para análise de variações morfológicas externas de P. medius (raposa-voadora indiana) e pode auxiliar na identificação desses morcegos e seus locais de nidificação.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146253

RESUMO

During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965336

RESUMO

Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401851

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to explore morphometric variations of Pteropus medius (the Indian flying fox) and the roosting trees in Lower Dir, Pakistan. The bats were captured from Morus alba, Morus nigra, Brousonetia papyrifera, Pinus raxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populous nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Grevillea robusta through sling shot and mess net methods. A total of 12 bats were studied for the differential morphological features based on age and sex. Male bats were recorded higher in weight than females. The variations were found in body mass (821.1±34.65gm), circumference of body with wings (25.43±0.39cm), wingspan (112.58±1.90cm), Body length (20.73±0.68cm), Snout length (3.42±0.04cm), Eye length (1.45±0.033cm), Length of ear (3.56±0.05cm), Width of ear (2.46±0.04cm), Length b/w ear (5.51±0.11cm), Circumference of neck (12.23±0.24cm), Circumference of body without wings (18.68±0.31cm), Arm wing length (23.2±1.03cm), Length of thumb (5.43±0.1cm), Length of nail (1.89±0.05cm), Hand wing length (29.1±0.51cm), Maximum width of wing (21.03±0.68cm), Length b/w tip of wing to 5th digit (29.39±0.30cm), Length b/w 5th digit to foot (22.97±1.09cm), Length b/w feet (18.31±0.74cm) and Length of foot claw (4.23±0.05cm). This study was designed for analysis of external morphological variations for P. medius (the Indian flying fox) that may help in identification of these bats and their roosting sites.

12.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 39(8): 1079-1094, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174189

RESUMO

The present study investigated the reproductive toxicity of furan in an Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study in rats. Sprague Dawley F0 weaning rats (30 per sex per group) were exposed to furan orally at 0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg kg-1 for 10 weeks (males) and 2 weeks (females) and then mated. Results of F0 indicated that in the furan-treated groups (5 mg kg-1 and 10 mg kg-1), body weight (bw) gain decreased during prebreed and gestational period while increased during lactation periods. F0 animals prebreeding exposure resulted in head tilt and foot splay at 10 mg kg-1. Number of live pups at birth were decreased (p < 0.001) at 10 mg kg-1. At postnatal day (PND) 70, a significant (p = 0.03) decrease in testosterone levels of male rats and estrogen levels of female rats (p = 0.05) was observed in 10 mg kg-1 furan-treated group in F1 generation. Luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone levels were also reduced, but their reduction was not statistically significant in all groups. In higher dose furan group (10 mg kg-1), testicular and ovarian weights were reduced in F1 generation at PND 70, with decreased daily sperm production (p = 0.01) and disturbed estrous cyclicity (p < 0.01). Some histopathological changes were also observed in testis and ovaries in groups whose parents were previously exposed to 10 mg kg-1 bw of furan group. Based on the above results, it is suggested that exposure to food-based contaminant furan induced remarkable changes in the F0 (parental stage) and F1 (offspring, pubertal, and adult stage) generations of Sprague Dawley rats.

13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(10): 2899-2912, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321473

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The widely divergent species 4xTrifolium ambiguum and 2xT.occidentale are inter-fertile long after speciation (including polyploidisation) has occurred. Tri-species hybrids (T. repens × T. ambiguum × T. occidentale) have the potential to achieve introgression of stress resistant traits from both wild species into white clover. Trifolium ambiguum and T. occidentale are geographically, adaptionally and phenotypically contrasting species in the white clover section (Trifoliastrum) of the genus. T. ambiguum occurs as a high-altitude polyploid series (2x, 4x, 6x) in W Asia and NE Europe. T. occidentale is a diploid coastal species, occurring at sea level in W Europe. This study investigated hybridisation between 4xT. ambiguum and 2xT. occidentale and considered the significance of the hybrids for introgression breeding of white clover. Partially fertile F1 hybrids between 4xT. ambiguum and 2x and 4xT. occidentale were generated by embryo rescue. Hybrid plant morphology and fertility varied widely and hybrids generally expressed traits from both species. Advanced generation (F2-F5) 4x hybrids were highly fertile and constitute a new synthetic allotetraploid species. FISH analyses of 4x hybrids showed multivalent chromosome configurations with homoeologous associations between T. ambiguum and T. occidentale chromosomes. Crosses of the hybrids with T. repens produced fertile tri-species progeny. These very divergent species remain inter-fertile long after speciation (including polyploidisation) has occurred. Tri-species hybrids have the potential to achieve introgression of stress resistance traits from both wild species into white clover.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Poliploidia , Trifolium/genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Fenótipo , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(4): 1421-1433, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378296

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate associations between dietary patterns, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric measurements in adult New Zealanders. METHODS: Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis in adults 15 years plus (n = 4657) using 24-h diet recall data from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Multivariate regression was used to investigate associations between dietary patterns and age, gender and ethnicity. After controlling for demographic factors, associations between dietary patterns and food insecurity, deprivation, education, and smoking were investigated. Associations between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference were examined adjusting for demographic factors, smoking and energy intake. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were identified. 'Healthy' was characterised by breakfast cereal, low fat milk, soy and rice milk, soup and stock, yoghurt, bananas, apples, other fruit and tea, and low intakes of pies and pastries, potato chips, white bread, takeaway foods, soft drinks, beer and wine. 'Traditional' was characterised by beef, starchy vegetables, green vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, savoury sauces, regular milk, cream, sugar, tea and coffee, and was low in takeaway foods. The 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with age, female gender, New Zealand European or other ethnicity, and a secondary school qualification, and inversely associated with smoking, food insecurity, area deprivation, BMI and waist circumference. The 'traditional' pattern was positively associated with age, male gender, smoking, food insecurity and inversely associated with a secondary school qualification. CONCLUSIONS: A 'Healthy' dietary pattern was associated with higher socio-economic status and reduced adiposity, while the 'traditional' pattern was associated with lower socio-economic status.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Dieta , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 24(6): 612-617, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the characteristics, treatment outcomes and risk factors for poor treatment outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with MDR-TB who sought care at the MDR-TB unit in Peshawar was conducted between January 2012 and April 2014. Patients were followed until an outcome of TB treatment was recorded as successful (cured or completed) or unsuccessful. Binary logistic regression was used to identify predictors of poor outcome, i.e. unsuccessful treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 535 patients were included. The proportion of female subjects was relatively higher (n = 300, 56.1%) than male subjects. The mean (standard deviation) age of patients was 30.37 (14.09) years. Of 535 patients for whom treatment outcomes were available, 402 (75.1%) were cured, 4 (0.7%) completed therapy, 34 (6.4%) had disease that failed to respond to therapy, 93 (17.4%) died and two (0.4%) defaulted; in total, 129 (24.1%) had an unsuccessful outcome. We found three significant predictors of unsuccessful treatment during multivariate logistic regression: being married (odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 4.66), resistance to second-line drugs (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.61, 4.21) and presence of extensively drug-resistant TB (OR = 7.82, 95% CI 2.90, 21.07). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 75% of the treatment success rate set by the Global Plan to Stop TB was achieved. Resistance to second-line drugs and presence of extensively drug-resistant TB are the main risk factors for poor treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Paquistão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653740

RESUMO

Marine bacteria have been exceptional sources of halotolerant enzymes since decades. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria producing hydrolytic enzymes from seven different mangroves collected from the coastal area of Thuwal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to further screen them for other enzymatic and antifungal activities. We have isolated 46 different rhizo- and endophytic bacteria from the soil, roots, and leaves of the mangroves using different enzymatic media. These bacterial strains were capable of producing industrially important enzymes (cellulase, protease, lipase, and amylase). The bacteria were screened further for antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens. Finally, these bacterial strains were identified on the basis of the16S rDNA sequence. Taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed 95.9-100% sequence identity to type strains of related species. The dominant phylum was Gammaproteobacteria (γ-Proteobacteria), which comprised 10 different genera - Erwinia, Vibrio, Psychrobacter, Aidingimonas, Marinobacter, Chromohalobacter, Halomonas, Microbulbifer, and Alteromonas. Firmicutes was the second dominant phylum, which contained only the genus Bacillus. Similarly, only Isoptericola belonged to Actinobacteria. Further these enzyme-producing bacteria were tested for the production of other enzymes. Most of the active strains showed cellulytic and lipolytic activities. Several were also active against fungal pathogens. Our results demonstrated that the mangroves represent an important source of potentially active bacteria producing enzymes and antifungal metabolites (bioactive products). These bacteria are a source of novel halophilic enzymes and antibiotics that can find industrial and medicinal use.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hidrolases , Áreas Alagadas , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Biotecnologia , Endófitos , Variação Genética , Rizosfera , Arábia Saudita , Água do Mar
17.
Parasite Immunol ; 38(11): 651-662, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591404

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases in the world and is distributed over 98 countries. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk for leishmaniasis. There are three different generation of vaccines that have been developed to provide immunity and protection against leishmaniasis. However, their use has been limited due to undesired side effects. These vaccines have also failed to provide effective and reliable protection and, as such, currently, there is no safe and effective vaccine for leishmaniasis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a unique population of cells that come from bone marrow and become specialized to take up, process and present antigens to helper T cells in a mechanism similar to macrophages. By considering these significant features, DCs stimulated with different kinds of Leishmania antigens have been used in recent vaccine studies for leishmaniasis with promising results so far. In this review, we aim to review and combine the latest studies about this issue after defining potential problems in vaccine development for leishmaniasis and considering the importance of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
18.
Trop Biomed ; 32(2): 276-85, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26691256

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Equidae , Feminino , Testes de Fixação do Látex , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 5: e1150, 2014 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24675468

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol syndrome is a neurological and developmental disorder caused by exposure of developing brain to ethanol. Administration of osmotin to rat pups reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Osmotin, a plant protein, mitigated the ethanol-induced increases in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP-1. Osmotin and ethanol reduced ethanol neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro by reducing the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, intracellular [Ca(2+)]cyt, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, and also upregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Osmotin is a homolog of adiponectin, and it controls energy metabolism via phosphorylation. Adiponectin can protect hippocampal neurons against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Abrogation of signaling via receptors AdipoR1 or AdipoR2, by transfection with siRNAs, reduced the ability of osmotin and adiponectin to protect neurons against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. Metformin, an activator of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase), increased whereas Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK pathway, reduced the ability of osmotin and adiponectin to protect against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Osmotin exerted its neuroprotection via Bcl-2 family proteins and activation of AMPK signaling pathway. Modulation of AMPK pathways by osmotin, adiponectin, and metformin hold promise as a preventive therapy for fetal alcohol syndrome.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Encéfalo/patologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Degeneração Neural/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Hipocampo/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Adiponectina/metabolismo
20.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(2): 1872-81, 2013 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359057

RESUMO

This research was carried out at the Agriculture Research Farm, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, and the Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, during 2009 and 2010. Half-sib families (HS) derived from the maize variety Pahari in spring crop seasons 2009 and 2010 were developed at the Cereal Crops Research Institute. All HS families were detasseled well before pollen shedding. At maturity, each family was harvested and shelled separately. During the summer crop of seasons 2009 and 2010, these HS families were evaluated in 12 x 12 and 11 x 11 partially balanced lattice square arrangements at the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, for various flowering and yield traits, respectively. The data on days to mid-silking, anthesis, anthesis-silking interval, 100-grain weight, and grain yield were recorded. The results revealed significant differences among families for all traits in both cycles. High heritability (0.88) was observed for days to mid-silking in cycle 0 (C0), while moderate heritability (0.42) was recorded for 100-grain weight in C1. The selection differential was quite reasonable and varied according to the traits of interest. The observed response for grain yield in C0 (815.74 kg/ha) was greater than the expected response (681.76 kg/ha).


Assuntos
Padrões de Herança/genética , Seleção Genética , Zea mays/genética , Análise de Variância , Biomassa , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Flores/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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