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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8320, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594322

RESUMO

Stroke affects the interconnection between the nervous and immune systems, leading to a down-regulation of immunity called stroke-induced immunosuppression (SII). The primary aim of this study is to investigate SII role as a predictor of functional, neurological, and motor outcomes in the neurorehabilitation setting (NRB). We conducted a prospective observational study enrolling post-acute stroke patients hospitalized for neurorehabilitation. At NRB admission (T0) and discharge (T1), we assessed presence of SII (defined by a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥ 5) and we evaluated functional independence (Functional Independence Measure-FIM, Barthel Index-BI), motor performances (Tinetti Score, Hauser Ambulation Index) and neurological impairment (NIHSS). We enrolled 96 patients (45.8% females, 70.6 ± 13.9 years, 88.5% ischemic stroke). At T0, 15.6% of patients (15/96) had SII. When compared to immunocompetent patients (IC), the SII group was characterized by worse baseline functional independence, motor performances and neurological disability. The same was confirmed at T1 (FIM p = 0.012, BI p = 0.007, Tinetti p = 0.034, NIHSS p = 0.001). Neurological disability demonstrated a less pronounced improvement in SII (ΔNIHSS: SII: - 2.1 ± 2.3 vs. IC: - 3.1 ± 2.5, p = 0.035). SII group presented a higher percentage of infectious complications during the neurorehabilitation period (SII 80% vs. IC 25.9%; p = 0.001). SII may represent a negative prognostic factor in the neurorehabilitation setting. SII patients were characterized by poorer functional, motor, neurological performances and higher risk of infectious complications. ClinicaTrial registration: NCT05889169.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Neurológica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Neutrófilos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 27, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden and disability associated with headaches are conceptualized and measured differently at patients' and populations' levels. At the patients' level, through patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs); at population level, through disability weights (DW) and years lived with a disability (YLDs) developed by the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD). DW are 0-1 coefficients that address health loss and have been defined through lay descriptions. With this literature review, we aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of disability in headache disorders, and to present a coefficient referring to patients' disability which might inform future GBD definitions of DW for headache disorders. METHODS: We searched SCOPUS and PubMed for papers published between 2015 and 2023 addressing disability in headache disorders. The selected manuscript included a reference to headache frequency and at least one PROM. A meta-analytic approach was carried out to address relevant differences for the most commonly used PROMs (by headache type, tertiles of medication intake, tertiles of females' percentage in the sample, and age). We developed a 0-1 coefficient based on the MIDAS, on the HIT-6, and on MIDAS + HIT-6 which was intended to promote future DW iterations by the GBD consortium. RESULTS: A total of 366 studies, 596 sub-samples, and more than 133,000 single patients were available, mostly referred to cases with migraine. Almost all PROMs showed the ability to differentiate disability severity across conditions and tertiles of medication intake. The indexes we developed can be used to inform future iterations of DW, in particular considering their ability to differentiate across age and tertiles of medication intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our review provides reference values for the most commonly used PROMS and a data-driven coefficient whose main added value is its ability to differentiate across tertiles of age and medication intake which underlie on one side the increased burden due to aging (it is likely connected to the increased impact of common comorbidities), and by the other side the increased burden due to medication consumption, which can be considered as a proxy for headache severity. Both elements should be considered when describing disability of headache disorders at population levels.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Feminino , Humanos , Carga Global da Doença , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/terapia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Cefaleia/terapia , Envelhecimento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339171

RESUMO

Resistant migraine characterizes those patients who have failed at least three classes of migraine prophylaxis. These difficult-to-treat patients are likely to be characterized by a high prevalence of psychological disturbances. A dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), including alteration in the levels of endocannabinoid congeners, may underlie several psychiatric disorders and the pathogenesis of migraines. Here we explored whether the peripheral gene expression of major components of the ECS and the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and related lipids are associated with psychological disorders in resistant migraine. Fifty-one patients (age = 46.0 ± 11.7) with resistant migraine received a comprehensive psychological evaluation according to the DSM-5 criteria. Among the patients, 61% had personality disorders (PD) and 61% had mood disorders (MD). Several associations were found between these psychological disorders and peripheral ECS alterations. Lower plasma levels of palmitoiletanolamide (PEA) were found in the PD group compared with the non-PD group. The MD group was characterized by lower mRNA levels of diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) and CB2 (cannabinoid-2) receptor. The results suggest the existence of peripheral dysfunction in some components of the ECS and an alteration in plasma levels of PEA in patients with resistant migraine and mood or personality disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética
4.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 13, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several risk factors are associated with the chronic evolution of migraine. Clinical and preclinical studies have provided data about the role of hypertension (HT) as one of the potential modifiable risk factors of chronic migraine (CM). This review is focused on the biological and clinical evidence supporting common mechanisms underlying HT and migraine and the potential role of HT in the transition from episodic to chronic migraine. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review from a literature search covering the available evidence from studies investigating: i) the role of HT in the transition to CM in clinical practice; ii) the biological mechanisms potentially underpinning the association between HT and evolution to CM; iii) the role of antihypertensive medications in migraine prophylaxis. RESULTS: HT proved to be at the base of multiple mechanisms underlying migraine and migraine chronicization. Endothelial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier alterations, calcitonin gene-related peptide signaling, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system dysregulation are involved in the worsening effect of HT on migraine frequency, and the role of HT in the transition to CM is supported by clinical observations. CONCLUSIONS: The observed evidence supports HT contribution to CM evolution due to shared pathophysiologic mechanisms. While a bidirectional influence appears to be ascertained, data are still lacking about the one-way role of HT as direct risk factor for CM transition. Further research is needed to confirm a causal role of HT in this process.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
5.
CNS Drugs ; 37(12): 1069-1080, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37999868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world studies on fremanezumab, an anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibody for migraine prevention, are few and with limited follow-up. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the long-term (up to 52 weeks) effectiveness and tolerability of fremanezumab in high-frequency episodic migraine and chronic migraine. METHODS: This s an independent, prospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling outpatients in 17 Italian Headache Centers with high-frequency episodic migraine or chronic migraine and multiple preventive treatment failures. Patients were treated with fremanezumab 225 mg monthly. The primary outcomes included changes from baseline (1 month before treatment) in monthly headache days, response rates (reduction in monthly headache days from baseline), and persistence in medication overuse at months 3, 6, and 12 (all outcome timeframes refer to the stated month). Secondary outcomes included changes from baseline in acute medication intake and disability questionnaires scores at the same timepoints. A last observation carried forward analysis was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients who received at least one dose of fremanezumab and with a potential 12-month follow-up were included. Among them, 15 (18.0%) patients discontinued treatment for the entire population, a reduction in monthly headache days compared with baseline was reported at month 3, with a significant median [interquartile range] reduction in monthly headache days (- 9.0 [11.5], p < 0.001). A statistically different reduction was also reported at month 6 compared with baseline (- 10.0 [12.0]; p < 0.001) and at 12 months of treatment (- 10.0 [14.0]; p < 0.001). The percentage of patients with medication overuse was significantly reduced compared with baseline from 68.7% (57/83) to 29.6% (24/81), 25.3% (19/75), and 14.7% (10/68) at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, respectively (p < 0.001). Acute medication use (days and total number) and disability scores were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001). A ≥ 50% response rate was achieved for 51.9, 67.9, and 76.5% of all patients at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Last observation carried forward analyses confirmed these findings. Fremanezumab was well tolerated, with just one patient discontinuing treatment because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the real-world effectiveness of fremanezumab in treating both high-frequency episodic migraine and chronic migraine, with meaningful and sustained improvements in multiple migraine-related variables. No new safety issue was identified.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Método Duplo-Cego , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Neurol Sci ; 2023 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While migraine is markedly prevalent in women, gender-related phenotype differences were rarely assessed. For this reason, we investigated, through a multicenter observational cross-sectional study, based on an online questionnaire, gender-related differences in stress factors, emotions, and pain perception in migraine patients and controls and their impact on migraine severity. METHODS: The study was designed as an online questionnaire. The link was emailed to healthy subjects (C) and migraine patients (MIG) (age 18-75, education ≥ 13 years) recruited during the first visit in 8 Italian Headache Centers adhering to Italian Society for Headache Study (SISC). The questionnaire included personal/social/work information, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Romance Quality Scale, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Body Perception Questionnaire, the pain perception, and a self-assessment of migraine severity in the last 3 months. RESULTS: 202 MIG and 202 C completed the survey. Independently from gender, migraine was characterized by higher pain sensitivity and more severe partner relationships. The female gender, in MIG, exhibited higher anxiety scores, body awareness, and reduced emotional suppression. Body awareness and emotional suppression were discriminating factors between genders in control and migraine groups without relevant influence on disease features. Perceived perception of migraine severity was similar between genders. CONCLUSION: Gender-related emotional and stress factors did not contribute to delineate a distinct phenotype in migraine men and women. The possible impact of emotional and stress factors characterizing genders could be considered for a single case-tailored therapeutic approach.

7.
Cerebellum ; 2023 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848701

RESUMO

Antibodies against the neuronal protein Ma2 have been reported in a peculiar form of paraneoplastic encephalitis with prominent involvement of the limbic, brainstem, and diencephalic structures and usually associated with germ cell testicular, lung, or breast cancer. The diagnosis is frequently challenged by atypical clinical manifestations including parkinsonism, sleep disturbances, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions, and motor neuron-like syndrome. In recent years, the advent of monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoints has deeply changed the treatment of different tumors, especially melanoma and lung cancer. However, given their nature, an increasing number of neurological immune-related adverse events, including ocular motor abnormalities, have been described. Here, we report a woman with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-L1 durvalumab, presenting with an isolated pendular torsional nystagmus, in association with anti-Ma2 antibodies. This peculiar case widens our knowledge on the clinical presentation of anti-Ma2 encephalitis associated with checkpoint inhibitors.

8.
J Headache Pain ; 24(1): 120, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37653377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a highly prevalent primary headache disorder and a leading cause of disability. Difficulties in access to care during diagnostic and therapeutic journey contribute to the disease burden. Several target-specific drugs have reached the market in the past four years and have modified the treatment paradigm in migraine. The aim of this study is to provide an updated snapshot of the pathways and hurdles to care for migraine in different European countries by directly asking patients. METHODS: In 2021 the European Migraine and Headache Alliance proposed a 39-item questionnaire that was administered online to an adult migraine population in European countries. Questions were focused on socio-demographic and migraine data, access to diagnosis and treatment, disease-related burden and the main channel for disease information. RESULTS: A total of 3169 questionnaires were returned from 10 European countries. Responders were predominantly females, age range 25-59 years, with a migraine history longer than 10 years in 82% of cases, and with at least 8 headache days per month in 57% of cases. Respondents reported limitations in social, working and personal life during both the ictal and interictal phase. The activities mostly impaired during the attacks were driving (55%), cooking or eating (42%), taking care of family/childcare (40%) and getting medicines at the pharmacy (40%). The most frequently reported unmet need was the long delay between the first visit and migraine diagnosis: 34% of respondents had to see ≥ 4 specialists before being correctly diagnosed, and between the diagnosis and treatment prescription: > 5 years in 40% of cases. The most relevant needs in terms of quality of life were the desire for a lower migraine frequency, an effective treatment and a greater involvement in society. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the present survey point to the existence and persistence of multiple hurdles that result in significant limitations to access to care and to the patients' social life. A close cooperation between decision makers, healthcare workers and patients is needed to overcome these barriers.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Cefaleia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 15(6)2023 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37368665

RESUMO

OnabotulinumtoxinA (BonT-A) reduces migraine frequency in a considerable portion of patients with migraine. So far, predictive characteristics of response are lacking. Here, we applied machine learning (ML) algorithms to identify clinical characteristics able to predict treatment response. We collected demographic and clinical data of patients with chronic migraine (CM) or high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM) treated with BoNT-A at our clinic in the last 5 years. Patients received BoNT-A according to the PREEMPT (Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy) paradigm and were classified according to the monthly migraine days reduction in the 12 weeks after the fourth BoNT-A cycle, as compared to baseline. Data were used as input features to run ML algorithms. Of the 212 patients enrolled, 35 qualified as excellent responders to BoNT-A administration and 38 as nonresponders. None of the anamnestic characteristics were able to discriminate responders from nonresponders in the CM group. Nevertheless, a pattern of four features (age at onset of migraine, opioid use, anxiety subscore at the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS-a) and Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score correctly predicted response in HFEM. Our findings suggest that routine anamnestic features acquired in real-life settings cannot accurately predict BoNT-A response in migraine and call for a more complex modality of patient profiling.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle
10.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 36(3-4): 221­228, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36445913

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the potential contributions of diastolic and systolic blood pressure (BP) and the circadian rhythm of BP to chronic migraine evolution. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included four groups of patients selected based on migraine frequency (high frequency ≥ 10 days per month and low frequency < 10) and on the presence of hypertension. Among-group and pairwise comparisons were carried out to investigate potential neurophysiologic differences in the cerebral vessel reactivity to a nitroglycerin test, in autonomic balance (tilting test), and BP circadian rhythm. RESULTS: A more marked decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity was observed in hypertensive high-frequency migraineurs compared to all other groups (P = .037). Moreover, a smaller decrease in vagal tone was recorded in the orthostatic position in hypertensive subjects, whether they were high- (P = .032) or low-frequency migraineurs (P = .014), with a consistently higher vagal to sympathetic tone ratio (P = .033). Finally, in nonhypertensive subjects, a higher but not significant prevalence of systolic nondippers was detected in high-frequency migraineurs (67%) compared to low-frequency subjects (25%; P = .099). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that hypertension may contribute to the chronic evolution of headache with mechanisms shared with migraine; ie, vascular tone alteration and autonomic dysregulation.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Hipertensão/complicações , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações
11.
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 123, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Italy, monoclonal antibodies targeting the CGRP pathway are subsidized for the preventive treatment of high frequency and chronic migraine (CM) in patients with a MIgraine Disability ASsessment (MIDAS) score ≥ 11. Eligibility to treatment continuation requires a ≥ 50% MIDAS score reduction at three months (T3). In this study, we evaluate whether a ≥ 50% MIDAS score reduction at T3 is a reliable predictor of response to one-year erenumab treatment. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, real-world study, 77 CM patients were treated with erenumab 70-140 mg s.c. every 28 days for one year (T13). We collected the following variables: monthly migraine days (MMDs), monthly headache days (MHDs), days of acute medication intake, MIDAS, HIT-6, anxiety, depression, quality of life and allodynia. Response to erenumab was evaluated as: i) average reduction in MMDs during the 1-year treatment period; and ii) percentage of patients with ≥ 50% reduction in MMDs during the last 4 weeks after the 13th injection (RespondersT13). RESULTS: Erenumab induced a sustained reduction in MMDs, MHDs and intake of acute medications across the 12-month treatment period, with 64.9% of patients qualifying as RespondersT13. At T3, 55.8% of patients reported a ≥ 50% reduction in MIDAS score (MIDASRes) and 55.4% of patients reported a ≥ 50% reduction in MMDs (MMDRes). MIDASRes and MMDRes patients showed a more pronounced reduction in MMDs during the 1-year treatment as compared to NON-MIDASRes (MIDASRes: T0: 23.5 ± 4.9 vs. T13: 7.7 ± 6.2; NON- MIDASRes: T0: 21.6 ± 5.4 vs. T13: 11.3 ± 8.8, p = 0.045) and NON-MMDRes (MMDRes: T0: 23.0 ± 4.5 vs. T13: 6.6 ± 4.8; NON-MMDRes: T0: 22.3 ± 6.0 vs. T13: 12.7 ± 9.2, p < 0.001) groups. The percentage of RespondersT13 did not differ between MIDASRes (74.4%) and NON-MIDASRes (52.9%) patients (p = 0.058), while the percentage of RespondersT13 was higher in the MMDRes group (83.3%) when compared to NON-MMDRes (42.9%) (p = 0.001). MMDRes predicted the long-term outcome according to a multivariate analysis (Exp(B) = 7.128; p = 0.001), while MIDASRes did not. Treatment discontinuation based on MIDASRes would have early excluded 36.0% of RespondersT13. Discontinuation based on "either MIDASRes or MMDRes" would have excluded a lower percentage (16%) of RespondersT13. CONCLUSION: MIDASRes only partly reflects the 12-month outcome of erenumab treatment in CM, as it excludes more than one third of responders. A criterion based on the alternative consideration of ≥ 50% reduction in MIDAS score or MMDs in the first three months of treatment represents a more precise and inclusive option. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov (NCT05442008). CGRP: Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide. MIDAS: MIgraine Disability Assessment. MMDs: monthly migraine days. MIDASRes: Patients with a MIDAS score reduction of at least 50% at T3. MMDRes: Patients with a MMDs reduction of at least 50% at T3. ResponderT13: Patients with a MMDs reduction from baseline of at least 50% in the last 4 weeks of observation period (after 13 erenumab administrations). T0: First erenumab administration. T3, T6, T9, T12: Follow-up visits at three, six, nine, and twelve months after first erenumab administration. T13: Last visit of the protocol.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Neurol Sci ; 43(11): 6561-6564, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953579

RESUMO

Vestibular symptoms accompanying headache are quite common in migraine patients. Based on the association of vertigo with migraine, vestibular migraine was included in the appendix of the 3rd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders as a possible migraine subtype worthy of further investigation. In this post hoc, exploratory analysis, we investigated the occurrence of oculo-vestibular signs (OVSs) during experimentally induced migraine attacks in 24 episodic migraine patients and 19 healthy controls exposed to sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG - 0.9 mg). A comprehensive clinical examination was performed at baseline, at the onset of the migraine-like attack, and immediately before hospital discharge (180 minutes after NTG administration). Three of the 13 migraine patients who developed a spontaneous-like migraine attack during the hospital observation period (23.1%) also developed OVSs during the induction test. Noteworthy, none of the patients with a negative induction test developed OVSs and no OVSs were reported in healthy subjects at any time point. The exploratory nature of our study does not allow to draw definite conclusions on the possible implications of a vestibular dysfunction in migraine pathophysiology. Our results however suggest that NTG administration may lend itself to investigate vestibular dysfunction in migraine, at least in a subset of patients. The present findings represent a starting point for designing future ad hoc and well-powered studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Humanos , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/complicações , Transtornos da Cefaleia/complicações
13.
Neurology ; 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584921

RESUMO

We report a case of a 60-year-old patient with a 10-year history of Parkinson's disease who developed a dyskinetic-dystonic gait pattern highly impacting his personal and social life. After multiple unsuccessful attempts to improve the clinical condition by adapting the pharmacological treatment, the patient underwent gait rehabilitation based on the use of visual cueing. This approach induced a relevant improvement in the dyskinetic-dystonic gait.Our case contributes to the phenotypic description of motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease and suggests an additional therapeutic option to mitigate their impact on motor performances.

15.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 114, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway represent the first disease-specific preventive migraine therapy. Growing evidence suggests that they are effective in the preventive treatment of difficult-to-treat patients. In this study, we evaluated the psychological predictors of the outcome of treatment with the anti-CGRP monoclonal antibody erenumab in patients with chronic migraine (CM). METHODS: Seventy-five patients with CM who had already failed at least 3 preventive therapies received erenumab every 28 days for a period of 12 months. Before the first administration, patients received a full psychological evaluation using The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 Clinician Version (SCID-5-CV) to assess personality disturbances (primary outcome), mood and anxiety disorders, and as well specific questionnaires to evaluate alexithymia traits, childhood traumas, and current stressors (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: After 12 months of treatment, 53 patients reported a reduction of at least 50% in headache days/per month (Responders), whereas 22 did not (Non Responders). When compared to Responders, Non Responders were characterized by a higher prevalence of personality disorders belonging to Cluster C (avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive) (77% vs 37%, p = .001). Non Responders were also characterized by a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders (90% vs 60%, p = 0.007), showed more alexithymic traits (51.7 ± 13.7 vs 42.9 ± 14.3, p = 0.017), and reported a higher number of 'at least serious' current stressors (3.2 ± 4.0 vs 0.8 ± 1.4, p < .0001) than Responders. At the multivariate analysis, higher prevalence of Cluster C personality disorders (OR 3.697; p = 0.05) and higher number of 'at least serious' life events (OR 1.382; p = 0.017) arose as prognostic factors of erenumab failure. CONCLUSIONS: Erenumab confirmed its effectiveness in a population of difficult-to-treat migraine. The presence of "anxious-fearful" personality together with current stressors and anxiety represent negative predictors of treatment outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04361721 ).


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(2): 206-211, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global pandemic. Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), often treated with immunosuppressants, might be at higher risk of developing COVID-19 and of demonstrating a severe disease course. We aimed to study prevalence and describe features of COVID-19 in MG patients. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted telephonic interviews with MG patients followed at our referral center. We collected structured data regarding MG and COVID-19, which was diagnosed as probable or confirmed according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control case definition. We compared confirmed-COVID-19 prevalence calculated from the beginning of the pandemic in MG patients with that of the overall Pavia district. RESULTS: We interviewed 162 MG patients (median age, 66 y; interquartile range 41-77; males 59.9%), 88 from the Pavia district. Three patients had SARS-CoV-2-confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and eight had probable-COVID-19. In the Pavia district, the prevalence of confirmed-COVID-19 among MG patients (1/88, 1.14%) and overall population (4777/546 515, 0.87%) did not differ (P = .538). Higher Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinicalclass and the need for recent rescue treatment, but not ongoing immunosuppressive treatments, were associated with COVID-19 risk. Of 11 MG patients with probable/confirmed-COVID-19, 3 required ventilator support, and 2 elderly patients died of COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency. Only 1 of11 patients experienced worsening MG symptoms, which improved after increasing their steroid dose. DISCUSSION: The risk of COVID-19 in MG patients seems to be no higher than that of the general population, regardless of immunosuppressive therapies. In our cohort, COVID-19 barely affected MG course.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Miastenia Gravis/diagnóstico , Miastenia Gravis/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 595758, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746732

RESUMO

Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a distressful condition. We aimed to investigate the BPSD distribution in subjects with cognitive impairment, and the potential correlations between BPSD and neurodegeneration in terms of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and brain atrophy. Methods: One-hundred patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia (Alzheimer's disease, AD; Lewy-body disease, LBD; frontotemporal dementia, FTD; vascular dementia, VD) underwent a complete diagnostic workup, including 3T-MRI and/or CT and CSF. Cortical atrophy was assessed with medial temporal atrophy (MTA), posterior atrophy (PA), and global cortical atrophy-frontal lobe (GCA-F) scales. BPSD were rated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and BPSD clusters were defined according to the European Alzheimer Disease Consortium. Results: Delusions, hallucinations, and psychosis cluster were differently distributed among the diagnostic groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.05), with LBD patients showing higher scores for hallucinations (vs. MCI, p < 0.001, and AD, p < 0.05) and psychosis cluster (vs. MCI, p < 0.05). In primary dementias, we found a negative correlation between NPI total score and tau levels (p = 0.08), confirmed by beta regression (p < 0.01), while a positive non-significant relationship was observed in MCI. Higher GCA-F scores were associated with delusions and apathy (p < 0.05, on both hemispheres) and hallucinations (left: p < 0.01, right: p < 0.05). GCA-F scores were positively correlated with psychosis cluster (right: p < 0.05), and agitation/aggression (left: p < 0.05). Conversely, nighttime disturbances were positively correlated with both GCA-F and MTA scores (left: p < 0.01; right: p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that psychotic symptoms are significantly more represented in LBD patients and that CSF tau and frontal atrophy are associated with the occurrence and severity of BPSD in clinical practice. Longitudinal studies are however required to ascertain their actual predictive value.

18.
J Neurovirol ; 26(6): 870-879, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910431

RESUMO

Cognition was assessed in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, who did not meet the criteria for a minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Their liver function was compensated. We then disentangled potential cognitive changes associated with a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR-12), following treatment with direct antiviral agents (DAAs). We studied 23 selected HCV patients with a battery of standard neuropsychological tests, and with recordings of the P300 wave, a cerebral potential of "cognitive" significance. There was a baseline evaluation (T0) and a second one 6 months later (T1). We had 2 control groups of comparable age and sex, i.e., 15 patients suffering from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 15 healthy subjects. At T0, we detected a significant (p < 0.05) cognitive impairment in the HCV group, which involved episodic and working memory, attention, visuospatial and verbal abilities, executive functions, and logic reasoning. The P300 latency was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed in the group. At T1, we observed some significant (p < 0.05) HCV recovery in given test domains, e.g., memory, executive functions, and reasoning. Accordingly, the P300 latency shortened significantly (p < 0.05). HCV patients exhibited subtle cognitive defects, somehow independent of their liver condition, possibly linked to direct or indirect brain involvement by the virus. These defects partly recovered following the SVR-12, as achieved through DAAs. The P300 wave was a valid neurophysiologic counterpart of these changes. DAAs can have a role in the early preservation of cognition in HCVs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/virologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/virologia , Potenciais Evocados P300/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados P300/fisiologia , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/psicologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/psicologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/virologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada
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