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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(2): 199-213, mar. 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552114

RESUMO

To study the effect of 50% ethanol extract of Bougainvillea xbuttiana on the enzymatic activity, cell via bility and cytokine production provoked by the venom of Bothrops jararaca in macro - phages. Three assays were used to study the effects of B. xbuttiana extract on the damage pro - duced by B. jararaca : Enzymatic activity was detected by measuring the proteoly tic and phos - pholipase A2; macrophages cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method; levels of cytokine were evaluated using ELISA and a biological assay. After treatment with 300 µg/mL B. xbuttiana extract for 30 min, the proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities of the venom were reduced to 95 and 61%, respectively. In macrophages cultures treated with B. xbuttiana extract combined with venom, the production of TNF - α, IL - 6 and IFN - γ was reduced, whereas IL - 10 was potenti - ated. Our results support the potential effect of the B. xbuttiana extract as a complementary therapy against the toxicity caused by the venom of B . jararaca snakes


Estudiar el efecto del extracto etanólico al 50% de Bougainvillea xbuttiana sobre la actividad enzimática viabilidad celular y producci ón de citoquinas provocada por el veneno de Bothrops jararaca en macrófagos Se utilizaron tres ensayos para estudiar los efectos del extracto de B. xbuttiana sobre el daño producido por B. jararaca : Se detectó actividad enzimática mediante la medición del proteolítico y fosfolipasa A2; la citotoxicidad de los macrófagos se determinó por el método MTT; Los niveles de citoquinas se evaluaron utilizando ELISA y un ensayo biológico. Después del tratamiento con 300 µg/mL de extracto de B. xbuttiana durante 30 mi n, las actividades proteolíticas y de fosfolipasa A2 del veneno se redujeron a 95 y 61%, respectivamente. En cultivos de macrófagos tratados con extracto de B. xbuttiana combinado con veneno, la producción de TNF - α, IL - 6 e IFN - γ se redujeron, mientras que IL - 10 se potenció. Nuestros resultados apoyan el efecto potencial del extracto de B. xbuttiana como terapia complementaria frente a la toxicidad provocada por el veneno de B. jararaca .


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Venenos de Crotalídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Citocinas/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos
2.
Bol Latinoam Caribe Plantas Med Aromat, v. 23, n. 2, p. 199-213, mar. 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-5232

RESUMO

To study the effect of 50% ethanol extract of Bougainvillea xbuttianaon the enzymatic activity, cell viability and cytokine production provoked by the venom of Bothrops jararacain macro-phages. Three assays were used to study the effects of B. xbuttianaextract on the damage pro-duced by B. jararaca: Enzymatic activity was detected by measuring the proteolytic and phos-pholipase A2; macrophages cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method; levels of cytokine were evaluated using ELISA and a biological assay. After treatment with 300 μg/mL B. xbuttianaextract for 30 min, the proteolytic and phospholipase A2activities of the venom were reduced to 95 and 61%, respectively. In macrophages cultures treated with B. xbuttianaextract combined with venom, the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ was reduced, whereas IL-10 was potenti-ated. Our results support the potential effect of the B. xbuttianaextract as a complementary therapy against the toxicity caused by the venom of B. jararacasnakes.

3.
J Food Prot ; 86(6): 100084, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37019182

RESUMO

In this research, we evaluated the aphicidal effect of the ethanolic extract of stems and bark of Ficus petiolaris Kunth (Moraceae), in laboratory bioassays in an artificial diet against apterous adult females of Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The extract was evaluated at different concentrations (500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 2,500 ppm), and the highest percentage of mortality (82%) was found at 2,500 ppm after 72 h. The positive control imidacloprid (Confial®) at 1% eliminated 100% of the aphids, and the negative control (artificial diet) only presented mortality of 4%. The chemical fractionation of the stem and bark extract of F. petiolaris yielded five fractions of FpR1-5, which were each evaluated at 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 ppm. FpR2 had the strongest aphicidal effect, with 89% mortality at 72 h at 1,000 ppm. The pure xanthotoxin compound extracted from this fraction was even more effective, with 91% aphid mortality after 72 h at 100 ppm. The lethal concentration (LC50) of xanthotoxin was 58.7 ppm (72 h). Our results indicate that the extract of F. petiolaris showed toxic activity against this aphid, and its xanthotoxin compound showed strong aphicidal activity at low concentrations.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Ficus , Sorghum , Animais , Feminino , Metoxaleno , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
J Sch Health ; 93(6): 500-507, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36973577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early sexual reproductive health (SRH) education is linked to a reduction in risky sexual behaviors. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising at alarming rates. Risky sexual behaviors, including initiation of sex before age 13, having more than four sexual partners, and lack of use of condoms, increase the chance of infection and cancer. Informing students about the link between risky behaviors and cancer is vital to reduce morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A trend analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data between 2001 and 2019 was conducted. Results from four survey responses related to sexual risk behaviors among 9th to 12th grade in Mississippi students are compared with their US peers. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2019, favorable declines in 3 out of 4 sexual risk behaviors were observed. Declining prevalence was reported for "ever had sexual intercourse," "age of sexual initiation at age 13 or younger," and "having 4 or more sexual partners in their lifetime" are promising. However, fewer students report using condoms. The adjusted prevalence rates for Mississippi students in all 4 measures were higher than the national responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis supports the need for early skill-based sex education to promote health. States with increased behavioral risk among students should consider trends in data to improve education and policy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes
5.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235092

RESUMO

Bougainvillea × buttiana is a plant widely used in traditional Mexican medicine and other parts of the world for the treatment of various health disorders. In this study, the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of three ethanolic extracts of B. × buttiana (BxbO (Orange), BxbR1 (Rose1) and BxbR2 (Rose2)) were investigated. Antioxidant activities were determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), DPPH free radicals scavenging activity, and radical scavenging effects on nitric oxide (NO). The in vitro cytoprotective effect of the extracts against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide-(H2O2) in a model of L929 cells was also determined as well as NO uptake with or without H2O2 through the MTT assay. The results revealed that there was a difference between the compounds present in each of the extracts, with the 2-Hydroxycinnamic acid compound being observed in all the extracts. The 2-Hydroxycinnamic acid compound was tested in silico to predict its biological (PASSonline) and toxicological (Osiris Property Explorer) activity. All extracts with 1 to 4 mg/mL inhibited the activity of the NO radical. In cells exposed to 1 mg/mL of extracts followed by H2O2 exposure, cell protection ranged from 66.96 to 83.46%. The treatment of the cells with extracts prevented the morphological changes caused by H2O2. The 2-Hydroxycinnamic acid compound showed a probability of in silico antioxidant and cytoprotective activity greater than 0.5 and 0.6, respectively. Therefore, the results demonstrated that Bxb extracts exert antioxidant and protective activities against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in L929 cells.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Nyctaginaceae , Rosa , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos , Radicais Livres , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Óxido Nítrico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 97: 107366, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: The mesenteric cyst (MC) is a rare entity, a benign lesion that causes the growth of an abdominal mass and other clinical presentations. The presentation of MC during pregnancy is even less frequent. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old Mexican woman presented with a mesenteric cyst treated with laparotomy aspiration during the 16th week of pregnancy; the pregnancy was resolved by cesarean section without problems. Nevertheless, 17 months later, the lesion recurred. New assessment and surgical treatment with complete excision are performed without evidence of further recurrence. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: This case is essential due to the low frequency of association between pregnancy and mesenteric cyst. Incomplete resection, aspiration, and marsupialization of the lesion carry a high risk of recurrence. Therefore, the opportune moment to perform a complete resection of the lesion and avoid complications should be evaluated during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: MC should be considered a differential diagnosis in cystic lesions during pregnancy. Imaging studies, complete surgical resection, histological evaluation, and follow-up are necessary for adequate treatment.

7.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E09, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading of cause of death in Mississippi. We explored trends in CVD death rates among adults in Mississippi aged 35 years or older to assess changes from 2000 through 2018. METHODS: We extracted data from Mississippi Vital Statistics from 2000 through 2018. We used underlying cause-of-death codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to identify CVD deaths; we included all cases with codes I00-I09, I11, I13, I20-I51, I60-I69, and I70. We calculated age-adjusted CVD death rates for the overall population by age, race, sex, and race-by-sex groups. RESULTS: Overall, the age-adjusted CVD death rate declined from 832.3 deaths per 100,000 population in 2000 to 550.5 deaths per 100,000 in 2018, a relative decline of 33.9% and an average annual decline of -2.3% (95% CI, -2.7% to -1.8%). Age-adjusted CVD death rates declined from 2000 through 2018 for all groups, but the magnitude of decline varied by subgroup (men, -2.0%; women, -2.6%; non-Hispanic Black, -2.4%; non-Hispanic White, -2.2%; non-Hispanic Black women, -3.0%; non-Hispanic White women, -2.5%; non-Hispanic Black men -2.1%; non-Hispanic White men -2.0%). Age-specific analysis indicated a significant average annual increase of 1.7% (95% CI, 0.6%-2.9%) from 2011 through 2018 for the group aged 55 to 64 years. CONCLUSION: From 2000 through 2018, age-adjusted CVD death rates in Mississippi declined for all age/race/sex groups. However, the magnitude of decline varied by subgroup. Targeted interventions for CVD risk reduction are needed for adults aged 55 to 64 years in Mississippi, the only age group in which we observed a significant annual increase in CVD death rates.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , População Negra , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Mississippi/epidemiologia
8.
Am J Hypertens ; 34(9): 956-962, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mississippi, hypertension as a leading cause of death moved from 15th in 2000 to 11th in 2018, but research on temporal trends is limited. We examined temporal trends in hypertension-related mortality among Mississippi adults by age, sex, and race. METHODS: We extracted data on the number of deaths due to hypertension among adults aged 45 or older annually from 2000 to 2018 from Mississippi Vital Statistics. We used underlying cause-of-death codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision to identify hypertension deaths. We calculated the annual percentage change (trend segment) and average annual percentage change (AAPC) in age-adjusted hypertension death rates from 2000 to 2018 and examined differences in the AAPC by age, sex, and race. RESULTS: From 2000 through 2018, the age-adjusted hypertension death rate increased annually by 3.0% (AAPC 3.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.9%-4.0%) with 3 distinct time periods. There was an average annual increase in age-adjusted hypertension death rates for all subgroups, i.e., men, women, Blacks, Whites, White females, Black males, and White males. The highest magnitude of increase was among those aged 45-64 years (AAPC 6.0%), men (AAPC 4.5%), Whites (AAPC 3.5%), and White men (AAPC 6.2%) compared with other age groups, women, Blacks, and Black men, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For nearly 2 decades, there was an increase in age-adjusted hypertension death rates among Mississippi adults aged 45 years or older. Blood pressure lowering interventions that target hypertensive adults are needed.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos , População Branca/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
PeerJ ; 9: e10649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505804

RESUMO

Studies evaluating the health status and characteristics of free-ranging wildlife populations are scarce or absent for most species. Saurian health assessments are usually performed in species that have conservation issues or that are kept in captivity. The Berthold's bush anole (Polychrus guturossus) is one of eight species belonging to the genus Polychrus, the only representative of the family Polychrotidae. Only a handful of studies have been reported concerning these lizard's morphological variation, ecology, and natural history, probably because P. gutturosus is a canopy dweller and it can be difficult to locate individuals. It is believed that deforestation and habitat modification could pose a threat for this species, although to date no health assessment has been done. The aim of this study was to generate health baseline data on P. gutturosus. Forty Berthold's bush anoles (20 males and 20 females) were sampled at the Pacific versant in Costa Rica, where physical examination, skin and cloacal temperatures, and blood samples were obtained from individuals immediately after capture. Animals from the studied population were all healthy (body condition 2.5-3.0/5.0). No lesions or ectoparasites were detected, but hemoparasites were found in nine individuals. Hematological and biochemical values were obtained, and the morphology of leukocytes were found to be similar to other iguanians. A positive correlation was found between the tissue enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine kinase (CK) and a negative correlation was found between skin and cloacal temperatures and AST and CK. There were positive correlations between female weight and total protein, calcium, and the calcium and phosphorus ratio. No significant inter-sex differences were found in biochemical values, despite females being larger than males. This is the first health assessment performed on a free-ranging canopy dwelling lizard. These findings provide baseline data that may be useful for future monitoring if the species faces changes in health status due to anthropogenic causes or natural disturbances.

10.
J Biomed Res ; 34(6): 446-457, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100275

RESUMO

We compared subgroup differences in COVID-19 case and mortality and investigated factors associated with case and mortality rate (MR) measured at the county level in Mississippi. Findings were based on data published by the Mississippi State Department of Health between March 11 and July 16, 2020. The COVID-19 case rate and case fatality rate (CFR) differed by gender and race, while MR only differed by race. Residents aged 80 years or older and those who live in a non-metro area had a higher case rate, CFR, and MR. After controlling for selected factors, researchers found that the percent of residents who are obese, low income, or with certain chronic conditions were associated with the county COVID-19 case rate, CFR, and/or MR, though some were negatively related. The findings may help the state to identify counties with higher COVID-19 case rate, CFR, and MR based on county demographics and the degree of its chronic conditions.

11.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911850

RESUMO

This study investigates updated information in different search engines on the distribution, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) using the extracts or chemical compounds at present. This plant has been used in traditional medicine in different cultures as a hallucinatory, analgesic, aphrodisiac, nematicide, sleep inducer, and muscle relaxant, as well as a treatment for rheumatism, asthma, and inflammation. The flowers, fruits, stems, and roots of the plant are used, and different chemical compounds have been identified, such as alkaloids, volatile compounds (mainly terpenes), coumarins, flavonoids, steroids, and hydrocarbons. The concentration of the different compounds varies according to the biotic and abiotic factors to which the plant is exposed. The toxic effect of the plant is mainly attributed to atropine and scopolamine, their averages in the flowers are 0.79 ± 0.03 and 0.72 ± 0.05 mg/g of dry plant, respectively. Pharmacological studies have shown that an aqueous extract exhibits the antinociceptive effect, at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p. in mice. On the other hand, the ethanolic extract at 1000 mg/L, showed a nematocidal activity in vitro of 64% against Meloidogyne incognita in 72 h. Likewise, it showed a 100% larvicidal activity at 12.5 mg/L against Ancylostoma spp. In another study, the lethal activity of shrimp in brine from an ethanolic extract showed an LC50 of 106 µg/mL at double serial concentrations of 1000-0 (µg/mL). Although there are pharmacological and phytochemical studies in the plant, they are still scarce, which has potential for the examination of the biological activity of the more than one hundred compounds that have been reported, many of which have not been evaluated.

12.
Int J Hypertens ; 2020: 2401747, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724672

RESUMO

In 2017, Mississippi had the third highest age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in the United States. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension by sociodemographic characteristics and occupation and examined the association between hypertension with occupation and sociodemographic characteristics among Mississippi workers. We calculated adjusted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) by sociodemographic characteristics and occupation among Mississippi adult workers. We analyzed combined 2013, 2015, and 2017 data from the Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 6,965 workers in ten Standard Occupational Classification System major groups. Of the estimated 1.1 million Mississippi workers during the three survey years, 31.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 30.0-32.8) had hypertension. The likelihood of having hypertension was significantly higher among workers aged 30-44 years, 45-64 years, blacks, and those classified as overweight and obese workers compared to their counterparts. The likelihood of having hypertension among workers in the fields of installation, repair and maintenance, and production were 26% higher (APR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03-1.55) and 33% higher (APR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.11-1.58), respectively, than workers in all other occupational groups. Among Mississippi workers, hypertension prevalence varied by sociodemographic characteristics and occupational groups. Age, race, obesity status, installation, repair, maintenance, and production occupation groups are associated with an increased likelihood of hypertension. Novel and/or community-based or linked programs are needed that could target workers at risk of hypertension that are outside of a single-site workplace.

13.
Pharmacogn Mag, v. 16, n. 69, p. 428-434, jun. 2020
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3288

RESUMO

Background: Bougainvillea x buttiana is a plant used in folk Mexican medicine to treat different inflammatory diseases. Objective: In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of B. x buttiana orange extract (BxbO) was evaluated on edema formation, cytokine production, and lethality in mice in response to venom of Bothrops jararaca (VBj) snake. Materials and Methods: The BxbO extract was tested in vitro to determine its effect on phospholipase A2(PLA2) and in vivo for the formation of edema, the paw edema model was used, as well as the toxicity of the extract and the production of cytokines. Lethality induced by VBj, the survival percentage, was calculated. Results: BxbO extract significantly inhibited in vitro PLA2and in vivo, blocked the edema formation and cytokine production, and prevented lethality induced by VBj. The constituents of BxbO may bind to components of VBj, such as PLA2, thereby blocking the proteolytic action of the venom. In animals treated with BxbO extract injected 1 h after the venom injection, no difference was observed in the cytokine secretion. In contrast, for all mice treated with BxbO extract for 1 h before VBj administration or together with VBj, the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the serum was attenuated and an exacerbated production anti-inflammatory cytokine. In the presence of the BxbO extract injected 1 h before the VBj injection or together with the VBj injection, mortality was significantly lower. Conclusion: Altogether, our results show that BxbO extract can inhibit the local and systemic activities of VBj. However, new studies are still required to identify the interaction mechanisms between bioactive compounds and cellular components.

14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374928

RESUMO

In this study the effect of the ethanol concentration of Bougainvillea x buttiana extracts on the flavonoids content, and its antioxidant and cytoprotective activities in vitro were determined and compared. For the elucidation of the chemical constituents, the high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) was used, and verification of the antioxidant activity was carried out using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method. The cytoprotective effects of extracts were determined by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin rhamnoside. Among the extracts investigated the best recuperation of the rutin content was observed in extracts with 80% ethanol (83 ± 5 mg/mL). The amounts of rutin present in all extracts contribute to the antioxidant capacity and the IC50 was 427.49 (0%), 275.41 (50%), 271.61 (80%), and 272.14 (100%) µg/mL. The lowest percentage of viability was found in the cultures exposed to 100% ethanol (92%). In cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide the percentages of protection were 25%, 33%, 78%, and 65% for cultures treated for 72 h at 0%, 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, respectively. The ethanolic extract of B. x buttiana was confirmed to have high rutin content with potent antioxidant activity, low cytotoxic and strong cytoprotective effects.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2034247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, have been described among natural products. We previously described that the Bougainvillea xbuttiana (Variety Orange) ethanolic extract (BxbO) has an anti-inflammatory effect; however, this action is not fully understood. In this study, the action of the BxbO extract on the secretion of inflammatory mediators in two experimental models, in vitro and in vivo, after LPS challenge was evaluated. METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from female BALB/c mice and LPS-challenged with or without the BxbO extract. For the evaluation of mediators, the supernatants at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours were collected. For in vivo estimation, groups of female BALB/c mice were first intraperitoneously injected with different amounts of LPS and later administered the oral BxbO extract (v.o.) for 144 hours. To understand the mechanism of action, sera obtained from mice were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after LPS challenge (with or without BxbO) for the detection of mediators. RESULTS: The results showed that, in both peritoneal macrophages and sera of mice treated with the BxbO extract 1 hour before or together with LPS challenge, proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release were unquestionably repressed. In contrast, in both systems studied here, the IL-10 levels were elevated to 5 to 9 times. At lethal doses of LPS, the BxbO extract treatment was found to protect animals from death. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that the inhibitory, protective, and benign effects of the BxbO extract were due to its capacity to balance the secretion of mediators.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nyctaginaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química
16.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934947

RESUMO

In this work, we explore the current knowledge about the phytochemistry and in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the extracts and, where appropriate, the main active components characterized and isolated from the Allamanda cathartica. Of the 15 Allamanda species, most phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies have focused on A. cathartica. These plants are used for the treatment of various health disorders. Numerous phytochemical investigations of plants from the A. cathartica have shown the presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, phospholipids, volatile compounds, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, lactones, and carbohydrates. Various studies have confirmed that extracts and active substances isolated from the A. cathartica have multiple pharmacological activities. The species A. cathartica has emerged as a source of traditional medicine used for human health. Further studies on the phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological properties and their mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy in the species of A. cathartica is recommended.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Medicina Tradicional , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Toxicologia/métodos
17.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E21, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767859

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: On average, more than 1,700 people in Mississippi die from stroke annually, but data on trends by age, sex, and race in Mississippi are limited. We examined trends in the stroke death rate among adults in Mississippi aged 35 or older by age, sex, and race. METHODS: We used Mississippi Vital Statistics data to calculate age-specific death rates for stroke among people in Mississippi aged 35 or older from 2000 to 2016. We identified cases according to underlying cause-of-death codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). We used Joinpoint software to calculate annual percentage change (APC) and the average annual percentage change (AAPC) in death rates for stroke by age, sex, and race (non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white). RESULTS: Among adults aged 35 or older, the age-adjusted stroke death rate declined 30.7% from 141.3 per 100,000 population in 2000 to 97.9 per 100,000 population in 2016, with an AAPC of -2.4% (95% confidence interval, -3.1% to -1.6%). Stroke death rates declined significantly among both men and women in the first trend segment (2000-2009 for men and 2000-2007 for women) but did not decline in the second trend segment (2009-2016 for men and 2007-2016 for women). Non-Hispanic black men had the smallest decline in stroke death rates during the full study period. Among people aged 55 to 64 and non-Hispanic white men, rates shifted from a significant annual decline during the first segment to a significant annual increase during the second segment. CONCLUSION: Age-adjusted stroke death rates among adults in Mississippi aged 35 or older declined significantly between 2000 and 2016, but trends differed by age, race, and sex. Clinical and community interventions aimed at reducing stroke risk factors, particularly for adults aged 55 to 64, are needed in Mississippi.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , População Branca/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223555

RESUMO

Background: Food insecurity is a public health problem. There is limited data on food insecurity in Mississippi. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which included the Social Context Module for 5870 respondents. Respondents who indicated that in the past 12 months they were "always", "usually", or "sometimes" "worried or stressed about having enough money to buy nutritious meals" were considered food insecure. Food insecurity was compared across sociodemographic and health characteristics using chi-square tests, and the association between food insecurity and select cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was 42.9%. Compared to the referent group, Mississippi adults with high blood pressure had 51% higher odds, those with diabetes had 30% higher odds, those who were not physically active had 36% higher odds, and those who consumed fewer than five fruits and vegetables daily had 50% higher odds of being food insecure. Conclusion: Among Mississippi adults, food insecurity is associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and smoking.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034502

RESUMO

This review discusses the current knowledge of the phytochemistry and in vitro and in vivo evaluations carried out using the extracts and, where appropriate, the main active components isolated from the genus Bougainvillea. Out of 18 species, most phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies focused on four species with different cultivars and one hybrid. Some plants are used for the treatment of various health disorders. Numerous phytochemical investigations of plants in this genus confirm the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, volatile compounds, phenolic compounds, peltogynoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenes, carbohydrates, and betalains. Various studies have confirmed that these extracts or active substances that were isolated from the genus Bougainvillea have multiple pharmacological activities. Some species of Bougainvillea have emerged as sources of traditional medicine in human health. More studies of the phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological properties and their mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy in all Bougainvillea species, cultivars, and hybrids are advisable for future research.

20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 14: E137, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to excessive weight gain, diabetes, and risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between SSB consumption and sociodemographic characteristics among Mississippi adults. METHODS: We used data from the 2012 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on SSB consumption from 7,485 respondents. We used logistic regression models to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for characteristics associated with SSB consumption. RESULTS: In 2012, 40.8% of Mississippi adults reported consuming at least one SSB daily. The likelihood of consuming SSBs at least once daily among respondents aged 18 to 34 years was 2.81 times higher (APR, 2.81; 95% CI, 2.49-3.18) than among those aged 65 years or older. The prevalence among men was 20% higher (APR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30) than among women and 23% higher (APR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35) among black respondents than among white respondents. The prevalence among respondents with less than a high school education was 25% higher (APR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.41) than among those who with more than a high school education and 33% higher (APR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.16-1.52) among those with an annual household income of less than $20,000 than among those with an income of $50,000 or more. CONCLUSION: Among Mississippi adults, age, sex, race, education level, and income are associated with an increased likelihood of SSB consumption. Findings highlight the need for policies and interventions to address SSB consumption and promote alternatives to SSBs among Mississippians.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Açúcares , Edulcorantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Sacarose Alimentar/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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