Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(3): 362-369, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2015, pertussis vaccine has been offered universally and free of charge to pregnant women in Uruguay. Although it is mandatory, vaccination coverage is not yet complete. AIM: To study the pertussis vaccination coverage in 2017 in pregnant women in two state hospitals and to search for barriere for uptaking the vaccine. METHODS: We conducted an observational, descriptive and transversal study, using a survey in patients undergoing immediate postpartum period. RESULTS: 884 surveys were analyzed (mean age 25.2 years; 16% teenagers, most of them in a relationship and incomplete high school). 317 women (36%) were vaccinated. Main barriere for uptaking Tdap vaccine were: teenage and being single were associated with a greater risk for the uptake. Not being aware of the vaccine mandatoriness and not being informed about its benefits were associated with 9,44 and 4 higher risks for not uptaking the vaccine (IC 95% 6.63-13.45 and IC 95% 2.43-6.41, respectively). Not believing in the benefits of pertussis vaccine during pregnancy was associated with 6.37 higher risk (OR 6.37; IC 95% 4.61-8.78). DISCUSSION: Most pregnant women in this study during 2017 did not uptake pertussis vaccine and did not have medical indication for it. The lack of information about the obligation and benefits, and also patients' beliefs about the vaccination were identified as barriere. Health professionals who treat pregnant women should recommend and inform about the benefits of pertussis vaccine for women and the infant, and create the necessary perception of risk, in order to improve the vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular , Coqueluche , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Gravidez , Gestantes , Uruguai , Vacinação , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
2.
Rev. Urug. med. Interna ; 6(2): 87-95, jul. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288127

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: La resistencia antimicrobiana es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública mundial. Representa una causa importante de morbilidad en la población general y un elevado costo para los sistemas sanitarios. La Neumonía Aguda Comunitaria (NAC) representa una de las principales infecciones bacterianas en nuestro medio. Objetivo general: Evaluar la adecuación al flujograma del Programa de Optimización de Antimicrobianos (PROA) para el manejo de NAC en Departamento de Emergencia del Hospital de Clínicas (HC) entre julio y agosto de 2019. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal, en el período de julio-agosto de 2019, en Departamento de Emergencia del Hospital de Clínicas. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años, que firmaron el consentimiento informado, diagnosticados con NAC, cumpliendo criterios clínicos e imagenológicos establecidos en el flujograma del PROA del Hospital de Clínicas. Se elaboró una base de datos diseñada a partir del flujograma. Resultados: Se incluyeron 51 pacientes para el análisis. La edad promedio fue 54 años, 28 eran mujeres. Las comorbilidades más prevalentes fueron: tabaquismo, consumo de pasta base de cocaína y alcoholismo, presentes en 51% de la muestra. Treinta y cinco pacientes presentaron criterios de severidad, predominando insuficiencia respiratoria en 71%. Un 43 % presentaron factores de riesgo para microorganismos multirresistentes. Se observó una adecuación al PROA de 41%. Discusión: La adecuación al tratamiento recomendado fue inferior a la descrita en otros trabajos. El principal problema fue una errónea clasificación en los grupos de riesgo propuestos en el flujograma, ocasionando la hospitalización de pacientes que debieron recibir tratamiento ambulatorio, recibiendo antibioticoterapia de mayor espectro. Conclusiones: La existencia de PROA hospitalarios permite realizar monitoreo de prácticas diagnósticas y prescripción de antimicrobianos. Se observó una inadecuada aplicación del flujograma, lo que determinó el uso de antibióticos de mayor espectro con riesgo potencial del desarrollo de resistencia.


Abstract: Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the main world public health problems. It represents an important cause of morbidity in general population and a high cost for health systems. Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) represents one of the main bacterial infections in our midst. Objective: To evaluate the adequacy of the Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) in the management of CAP in the Emergency Department of Hospital de Clínicas (HC) between July and August 2019. Materials and methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from July-August 2019, in the Emergency Department of Hospital de Clínicas. Patients older than 18 years old were included, who signed the informed consent, diagnosed with CAP, fulfilling clinical and imaging criteria established in the flowchart. A database designed from the AMS flow chart of the Hospital de Clínicas was developed. Results: 51 patients were included for the analysis. The average age was 54 years, 28 were women. The most prevalent comorbidities were smoking, consumption of cocaine paste or alcoholism, present in 51% of the sample. Thirty-five patients presented severity criteria, prevailing respiratory failure in 71%. Risk factors for multiresistant microorganisms was 43%. PROA adequacy of 41.2% was observed. Discussion: The adequacy to the recommended treatment was lower than that described in other papers. The main problem was an erroneous classification in the risk groups proposed in the flowchart, causing hospitalization of patients who had to receive treatment at home, receiving broader spectrum antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: The existence of hospital stewardships allows monitoring of diagnostic practices and antimicrobial prescription. Inadequate application of the flow chart was observed, which determined the use of broader spectrum antibiotics with potential risk of developing resistance.


Resumo: Introdução: A resistência antimicrobiana é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública global. Representa uma das principais causas de morbidade na população em geral e um alto custo para os sistemas de saúde. A Pneumonia Aguda Comunitária (PAC) representa uma das principais infecções bacterianas em nosso meio. Objetivo: Avaliar a adequação do fluxograma do Programa de Otimização de Antimicrobianos (PROA) para o gerenciamento do PAC no Pronto Atendimento do Hospital de Clínicas (HC) entre julho e agosto de 2019. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, transversal, no período de julho a agosto de 2019, no Pronto-Socorro do Hospital de Clínicas. Foram incluídos pacientes maiores de 18 anos, que assinaram o termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido, com diagnóstico de PAC, que preenchessem os critérios clínicos e de imagem estabelecidos no fluxograma do PROA do Hospital de Clínicas. Um banco de dados projetado a partir do fluxograma foi desenvolvido. Resultados: 51 pacientes foram incluídos para análise. A idade média era de 54 anos, 28 eram mulheres. As comorbidades mais prevalentes foram: tabagismo, consumo de pasta base de cocaína e etilismo, presentes em 51% da amostra. Trinta e cinco pacientes apresentaram critérios de gravidade, predominando insuficiência respiratória em 71%. 43% apresentaram fatores de risco para microrganismos multirresistentes. Observou-se adequação ao PROA de 41%. Discussão: A adequação ao tratamento recomendado foi inferior ao descrito em outros estudos. O principal problema era uma classificação errônea nos grupos de risco propostos no fluxograma, ocasionando a internação de pacientes que precisavam receber tratamento ambulatorial, recebendo antibioticoterapia de maior espectro. Conclusões: A existência de PROAs hospitalares permite o monitoramento das práticas diagnósticas e prescrição de antimicrobianos. Observou-se uma aplicação inadequada do fluxograma, que determinou o uso de antibióticos de maior espectro e com potencial risco de desenvolvimento de resistência.

3.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-4, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mitigation measures to face the health emergency due to the COVID 19 pandemic generated a deep economic, social, and psychological crisis at the community level. This effect is greater in the people, who are the most violated in their rights. In relation to the social crisis and gender perspective, women are particularly affected by the pandemic. Given the disadvantaged situation of women socially, economically, and politically, their self-care is diminished. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is an association between the classic risk factors for prematurity and fetal growth restriction and the increase in these pathologies in the period March-September 2020, in a maternity hospital that assists women from low resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study, with a comparative analysis of the periods between 15 March and 30 September 2019 and the same period in 2020. The data were obtained from an electronic clinical database. The prevalence of preterm birth and small-for-gestational age newborn was analyzed. Indicators available in the database that reflect maternal conditions that lead to an unfavorable maternal environment were selected and they were classified into categories. RESULTS: In the period of 2019, 3225 births were registered and in the period of 2020, 3036 births. In the 2019 period, 12.2% of prematurity was evidenced, while in the 2020 period, 14.5% (RR = 1.19, IC 95% = 1.05-1.35, p = .005). In relation to PEG 5.5% in the first period versus 6.9% in the second (RR = 1.26, CI 95% = 1.04-1.53, p = .01). No increases were found in the indicators that are traditionally related to the etiologies proposed to explain the increase in prematurity and small-for-age gestational, there was no evidence of an increase in inflammatory or vascular conditions. CONCLUSION: The economic, psychological and social crises, in the 1st semester of the health emergency, seriously affected the social determinants of the health of pregnant women who use the Public Maternity of reference in Uruguay. This situation is at the base of the poor perinatal results in the period of the maximum mediated mitigation of the pandemic.

4.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(1): 85-92, mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1094229

RESUMO

Resumen: Los síndromes obstétricos de parto de pretérmino (PP) y restricción de crecimiento fetal (RCIU) comparten mecanismos etiopatogénicos y fisiopatológicos que muchas veces interactúan y se retroalimentan. Desde el punto de vista etiológico, las condiciones específicas que los generan esquemáticamente se pueden clasificar en inflamación, estrés materno, déficit en las condiciones socioeconómicas y vulnerabilidad de derechos, actuación de disruptores endocrinos, alteraciones de la dieta y de la microbiota y afecciones vasculares. Estas condiciones, actuando aislada o más frecuentemente combinadamente, generan un entorno materno desfavorable para el desarrollo del embarazo provocando efectos específicos como son la reacción inmune materna, mediada o no por la presencia de infecciones, la activación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal, la disminución de la acción de la progesterona, las disbiosis, tanto intestinales como vaginales, y la disfunción por envejecimiento placentario. El entorno desfavorable así generado impactará en la unidad útero-placento-fetal, produciendo, bien el PP o bien el RCIU, de acuerdo a la primacía de diferentes respuestas; independientemente de cuál de las respuestas sindromáticas predomine, ambos, el PP y el RCIU, tienen en común el desarrollo del feno-genotipo ahorrador, imprescindible para la sobrevida fetal. El costo de esta modulación epigenética es el aumento de las enfermedades crónicas del adulto, que conceptualmente son enfermedades transmisibles por la vulnerabilidad social donde se desarrolla el ciclo de vida de esas personas.


Summary: Preterm birth and growth restriction are obstetric syndromes which share etiopathogenic and pathophysiological mechanisms that often interact and feed from each other. Etiologically, they may be classified into inflammation, maternal stress, low socio-economic background and vulnerability of rights, endocrine disruptors, diet and microbiota alterations and vascular conditions, depending on specific conditions. These conditions, either in isolation or more often combined, create an unfavorable environment for the development of pregnancy, causing specific effects such as maternal immune response that may be mediated by infections, the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, drop in progesterone levels, dysbiosis, both intestinal and vaginal, and placental dysfunction caused by ageing. The unfavorable environment has an impact on the utero-feto-placental unit resulting in either preterm birth of growth restriction, depending on the predominance of the different responses. Regardless of the prevailing syndromic response, both preterm birth and growth restriction share the development of the thrifty pheno-genotype, essential for fetal survival. The cost of this epigenetic modulation is an increase in chronic adult diseases, which, conceptually, are transmissible diseases due to social vulnerability where these people live.


Resumo: As síndromes obstétricas de parto de pré-termo (PP) e de restrição do crescimento fetal (RCIU) compartem mecanismos etiopatogênicos e fisiopatológicos, que muitas vezes interagem e se retroalimentam. Do ponto de vista da etiologia, as condições específicas que as geram podem ser classificadas esquematicamente em inflamação, estresse materno, déficit nas condições socio econômicas e vulnerabilidade de direitos, ação de disruptores endócrinos, alterações da dieta e da microbiota e afecções vasculares. Estas condições, agindo de forma isolada ou mais frequentemente combinada, geram um ambiente materno desfavorável para o desenvolvimento da gravidez provocando efeitos específicos como a reação imune materna, mediada ou não pela presença de infecções, a ativação do eixo hipotálamo - hipófiso - adrenal, a diminuição da ação da progesterona, as disbioses, tanto intestinais como vaginais e a disfunção por envelhecimento placentário. Esse ambiente desfavorável impactará na unidade útero-placento-fetal, produzindo PP ou RCIU, de acordo com a preferência de diferentes respostas. Independentemente de qual das respostas sindromáticas predomine, ambos PP e RCIU, têm em comum o desenvolvimento do feno-genótipo poupador, imprescindível para a sobrevida fetal. O custo desta modulação epigenética é o aumento das doenças crônicas do adulto, que conceitualmente, são patologias transmissíveis pela vulnerabilidade social na qual o ciclo de vida dessas pessoas se desenvolve.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Doença Crônica , Fatores de Risco
5.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(3): 84-88, Set. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1022504

RESUMO

La osteogénesis imperfecta (OI) pertenece al grupo de enfermedades raras, dada su baja incidencia mundial. Esta dolencia consiste en una formación inadecuada del hueso, cuya principal consecuencia, desde el punto de vista clínico, es la tendencia a fracturas patológicas por excesiva fragilidad ósea, lo que lleva, muchas veces, a una calidad de vida limitada en las personas afectadas, con deformidades e invalidez. Para el diagnóstico prenatal de esta enfermedad, se emplean procedimientos invasivos, y no invasivos que permiten realizar el diagnóstico a edades gestacionales tempranas. Presentaremos el caso de una paciente vista en el Hospital de Rivera, de 35 años, portadora de osteogénesis imperfecta tipo IV, que curso su segunda gestación, con sospecha prenatal y confirmación diagnóstica al nacimiento de misma patología en el recién nacido.


Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) belongs to the group of rare diseases due to its low incidence in the world population. It is a disorder which involves an inadequate bone formation that, from the clinical point of view, mainly leads to pathological fractures caused by extremely brittle bones. This frequently causes affected people to have a limited quality of life because of deformities and disability. Before birth, there are both invasive and noninvasive procedures that allow us to diagnose the disorder at early gestational ages. This is the case of a 35-year-old patient treated at the Hospital de Rivera, who had OI type IV and was pregnant with her second child. The same condition was suspected prenatally in the baby and subsequently confirmed at birth.


Assuntos
Gravidez , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Gravidez
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 136(2): 242-246, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence of healthcare providers to cesarean-delivery techniques before and after the introduction of a technique checklist at a university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional cohort study included data from all cesarean deliveries at Gynecology Clinic B of the University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay, between January 1 and December 31, 2011. The data were grouped based on whether delivery occurred before or after the implementation of the checklist and were compared across a range of cesarean-delivery techniques. RESULTS: Data from 296 cesarean deliveries were included; 130 from before implementation and 166 from after. After the implementation of the checklist, complete adherence to all techniques was observed in 28 (16.9%) deliveries. Following the introduction of the checklist, the odds of prophylactic cefazolin (OR 8.35, 95% CI 3.74-20.9), chlorhexidine (OR 8.98, 95% CI 3.72-23.7), cord traction for the third stage of labor (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.33-3.85), and double-layer hysterorrhaphy (OR 3.65, 95% CI 2.09-6.55) being properly applied increased compared with before the implementation of the checklist. CONCLUSIONS: Overall adherence to the prescribed techniques was low. The implementation of this checklist improved the odds of several techniques being applied by between two- and eight-fold.


Assuntos
Cesárea/normas , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uruguai
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 30(1): 30-6, mar. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-737568

RESUMO

Introducción: rituximab es un anticuerpo monoclonal que se une específicamente al antígeno CD20 expresado en los linfocitos B. El uso de rituximab en el tratamiento de la trombocitopenia inmune refractaria no se encuentra aprobado en su ficha técnica. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, la respuesta terapéutica y los aspectos vinculados a la seguridad con el uso de rituximab en los pacientes con trombocitopenia inmune refractaria asistidos en la Cátedra de Hematología del Hospital de Clínicas y revisar la evidencia sobre el beneficio clínico esperado en este grupo de pacientes. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de los pacientes con trombocitopenia inmune refractaria asistidos en la Cátedra de Hematología del Hospital de Clínicas a quienes se les prescribió rituximab. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en PubMed sobre el uso de rituximab en este tipo de patología. Resultados: se trataron cuatro pacientes con trombocitopenia inmune refractaria con rituximab. Se obtuvo respuesta en tres de cuatro pacientes. La media de tiempo de respuesta fue 9,25 semanas. La respuesta se ha mantenido en los tres pacientes. No se registraron efectos adversos durante la perfusión de rituximab. La evidencia publicada se limita a estudios observacionales, en adultos, con pocos pacientes, habiendo mostrado respuestas favorables. Conclusiones: existen limitaciones en la evidencia sobre el tratamiento de la trombocitopenia inmune refractaria, pero rituximab constituye una alternativa efectiva. Es indispensable la integración clínica para monitorizar la efectividad y seguridad del uso de anticuerpos monoclonales, especialmente en indicaciones no aprobadas...


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/terapia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...