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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(39): 8820-8827, 2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750826

RESUMO

New diagnostic approaches are needed to drive progress in the field of electrocatalysis and address the challenges of developing electrocatalytic materials with superior activity, selectivity, and stability. To this end, we developed a versatile experimental setup that combines two complementary in-situ techniques for the simultaneous chemical and structural analysis of planar electrodes under electrochemical conditions: high-energy surface X-ray diffraction (HE-SXRD) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). We tested the potential of the experimental setup by performing a model study in which we investigated the oxidation of preadsorbed CO on a Pt(111) surface as well as the oxidation of the Pt(111) electrode itself. In a single experiment, we were able to identify the adsorbates, their potential dependent adsorption geometries, the effect of the adsorbates on the surface morphology, and the structural evolution of Pt(111) during surface electro-oxidation. In a broader perspective, the combined setup has a high application potential in the field of energy conversion and storage.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(8): 2065-2071, 2023 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36798987

RESUMO

Three different platinum oxides are observed by in situ X-ray diffraction during electrochemical potential cycles of platinum thin film model electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) at a temperature of 702 K in air. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy performed before and after the in situ electrochemical X-ray experiments indicate that approximately 20% of the platinum electrode has locally delaminated from the substrate by forming pyramidlike blisters. The oxides and their locations are identified as (1) an ultrathin PtOx at the buried Pt/YSZ interface, which forms reversibly upon anodic polarization; (2) polycrystalline ß-PtO2, which forms irreversibly upon anodic polarization on the inside of the blisters; and (3) an ultrathin α-PtO2 at the Pt/air interface, which forms by thermal oxidation and which does not depend on the electrochemical polarization. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are discussed to explain the coexistence of multiple phases at the same electrochemical conditions.

3.
Nanoscale ; 15(9): 4506-4514, 2023 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36753337

RESUMO

We demonstrate that oleyl phosphate ligand-stabilized iron oxide nanocubes as building blocks can be assembled into 2D supercrystalline mono- and multilayers on flat YSZ substrates within a few minutes using a simple spin-coating process. As a bottom-up process, the growth takes place in a layer-by-layer mode and therefore by tuning the spin-coating parameters, the exact number of deposited monolayers can be controlled. Furthermore, ex situ scanning electron and atomic force microscopy as well as X-ray reflectivity measurements give evidence that the choice of solvent allows the control of the lattice type of the final supercrystalline monolayers. This observation can be assigned to the different Hansen solubilities of the solvents used for the nanoparticle dispersion because it determines the size and morphology of the ligand shell surrounding the nanoparticle core. Here, by using toluene and chloroform as solvents, it can be controlled whether the resulting monolayers are ordered in a square or hexagonal supercrystalline lattice.

4.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(6): 065111, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777992

RESUMO

Characterizing electrode surface structures under operando conditions is essential for fully understanding structure-activity relationships in electrocatalysis. Here, we combine in a single experiment high-energy surface x-ray diffraction as a characterizing technique with a rotating disk electrode to provide steady state kinetics under electrocatalytic conditions. Using Pt(111) and Pt(100) model electrodes, we show that full crystal truncation rod measurements are readily possible up to rotation rates of 1200 rpm. Furthermore, we discuss possibilities for both potentiostatic as well as potentiodynamic measurements, demonstrating the versatility of this technique. These different modes of operation, combined with the relatively simple experimental setup, make the combined rotating disk electrode-surface x-ray diffraction experiment a powerful technique for studying surface structures under operando electrocatalytic conditions.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(16)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051906

RESUMO

We report on differences in the magnetite (111) surface structure when prepared under oxidizing and reducing conditions. Both preparations were done under UHV conditions at elevated temperatures, but in one case the sample was cooled down while keeping it in an oxygen atmosphere. Scanning tunneling microscopy after each of the preparations showed a different apparent morphology, which is discussed to be an electronic effect and which is reflected in the necessity of using opposite bias tunneling voltages in order to obtain good images. Surface x-ray diffraction revealed that both preparations lead to Fe vacancies, leading to local O-terminations, the relative fraction of which depending on the preparation. The preparation under reducing conditions lead to a larger fraction of Fe-termination. The geometric structure of the two different terminations was found to be identical for both treatments, even though the surface and near-surface regions exhibit small compositional differences; after the oxidizing treatment they are iron deficient. Further evidence for the dependence of iron vs oxygen fractional surface terminations on preparation conditions comes from Fourier transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, which is used to study the adsorption of formic acid. These molecules dissociate and adsorb in chelating and bidentate bridging geometries on the Fe-terminated areas and the signal of typical infrared absorption bands is stronger after the preparation under reducing conditions, which results in a higher fraction of Fe-termination. The adsorption of formic acid induced an atomic roughening of the magnetite (111) surface which we conclude from the quantitative analysis of the crystal truncation rod data. The roughening process is initiated by atomic hydrogen, which results from the dissociation of formic acid after its adsorption on the surface. Atomic hydrogen adsorbs at surface oxygen and after recombination with another H this surface hydroxyl can form H2O, which may desorb from the surface, while iron ions diffuse into interstitial sites in the bulk.

6.
Sci Adv ; 7(40): eabh0757, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597137

RESUMO

The imaging of active nanoparticles represents a milestone in decoding heterogeneous catalysts' dynamics. We report the facet-resolved, surface strain state of a single PtRh alloy nanoparticle on SrTiO3 determined by coherent x-ray diffraction imaging under catalytic reaction conditions. Density functional theory calculations allow us to correlate the facet surface strain state to its reaction environment­dependent chemical composition. We find that the initially Pt-terminated nanoparticle surface gets Rh-enriched under CO oxidation reaction conditions. The local composition is facet orientation dependent, and the Rh enrichment is nonreversible under subsequent CO reduction. Tracking facet-resolved strain and composition under operando conditions is crucial for a rational design of more efficient heterogeneous catalysts with tailored activity, selectivity, and lifetime.

7.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 15771-15780, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633788

RESUMO

We investigated the atomic structure of graphene supported Pd nanoclusters and their interaction with hydrogen up to atmospheric pressures at room temperature by surface X-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. We find that Ir seeded Pd nanocluster superlattices with 1.2 nm cluster diameters can be grown on the graphene/Ir(111) moiré template with high structural perfection. The superlattice clusters are anchored through the rehybridized graphene to the Ir support, which superimposes a 2.0% inplane compression onto the clusters. During hydrogen exposure at 10 mbar pressure and room temperature, a significant part of the clusters gets unpinned from the superlattice. The clusters in registry undergo an out-of-plane expansion only, whereas the detached clusters expand in in- and out-of-plane directions. The formation of a hydrogen rich PdHx α' phase was not observed. After exposure to 1 bar, the majority of the clusters are unpinned from superlattice sites, due to their surface interaction with hydrogen and possible spill over to the graphene support. Only minor sintering was observed, which is more pronounced for the unpinned clusters. The results give evidence that ultrasmall Pd clusters on graphene are a stable hydrogen storage system with reduced hydrogen storage hysteresis and maintain a large surface area for hydrogen chemisorption.

8.
ACS Nano ; 15(8): 13267-13278, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350766

RESUMO

The role of metal-support epitaxy on shape and size heterogeneity of nanoparticles and their response to gas atmospheres is not very well explored. Here we show that an ensemble of Pd nanoparticles, grown on MgO(001) by deposition under ultrahigh vacuum, mostly consists of two distinctly epitaxially oriented particles, each having a different structural response to redox cycles. X-ray reciprocal space patterns were acquired in situ under oxidizing and reducing environments. Each type of nanoparticle has a truncated octahedral shape, whereby the majority grows with a cube-on-cube epitaxy on the substrate. Less frequently occurring and larger particles have their principal crystal axes rotated ±3.7° with respect to the substrate's. Upon oxidation, the top (001) facets of both types of particles shrink. The relative change of the rotated particles' top facets is much more pronounced. This finding indicates that a larger mass transfer is involved for the rotated particles and that a larger portion of high-index facets forms. On the main facets of the cube-on-cube particles, the oxidation process results in a considerable strain, as concluded from the evolution to largely asymmetric facet scattering signals. The shape and strain responses are reversible upon reduction, either by annealing to 973 K in vacuum or by reducing with hydrogen. The presented results are important for unraveling different elements of heterogeneity and their effect on the performance of real polycrystalline catalysts. It is shown that a correlation can exist between the particle-support epitaxy and redox-cycling-induced shape changes.

10.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(26)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878738

RESUMO

Niobium's superconducting properties are affected by the presence and precipitation of impurities in the near-surface region. A systematic wide-temperature range x-ray diffraction study is presented addressing the effect of low temperatures (108 K-130 K) and annealing treatments (523 K in nitrogen atmosphere, 400 K in UHV) on the near-surface region of a hydrogen-loaded Nb(100) single-crystal. Under these conditions, the response of the natural surface oxides (Nb2O5, NbO2, and NbO) and the changes in the subsurface concentration of interstitial species in Nb are explored, thereby including the cryogenic temperature regime relevant for device operation. The formation and suppression of niobium hydrides in such conditions are also investigated. These treatments are shown to result in: (i) an increase in the concentration of interstitial species (oxygen and nitrogen) occupying the octahedral sites of the Nb bcc lattice at room temperature, both in the near-surface region and in the bulk. (ii) A decrease in the concentration of interstitials within the first 10 nm from the surface at 130 K. (iii) Hydride formation suppression at temperatures as low as 130 K. These results show that mild annealing in nitrogen atmosphere can suppress the formation of superconducting-detrimental niobium hydrides, while subsurface interstitial atoms tend to segregate towards the surface at 130 K, therefore altering the local concentration of impurities within the RF penetration depth of Nb. These processes are discussed in the context of the improvement of niobium superconducting radio-frequency cavities for next-generation particle accelerators.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(15): 3847-3852, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852797

RESUMO

We report a novel heterogeneous adsorption mechanism of formic acid on the magnetite (111) surface. Our experimental results and density functional theory (DFT) calculations give evidence for dissociative adsorption of formic acid in quasibidentate and chelating geometries. The latter is induced by the presence of iron vacancies at the surface, making oxygen atoms accessible for hydrogen atoms from dissociated formic acid. DFT calculations predict that both adsorption geometries are energetically favorable under our experimental conditions. The calculations prove that the locally observed (√3 × âˆš3)R 30° superstructure consists of three formate molecules in a triangular arrangement, adsorbed predominantly in a chelating geometry. The results show how defects can stabilize alternative adsorption geometries, which is a crucial ingredient for a detailed atomistic understanding of reaction barriers on magnetite and other oxide surfaces, as well as for the stability of carboxylic acid based nanocomposite materials.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(2): 1371-1380, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393575

RESUMO

Efficient hydrogen release from liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs) requires a high level of control over the catalytic properties of supported noble metal nanoparticles. Here, the formation of carbon-containing phases under operation conditions has a direct influence on the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. We studied the formation and stability of carbide phases using well-defined Pd/α-Al2O3(0001) model catalysts during dehydrogenation of a model LOHC, methylcyclohexane, in a flow reactor by in situ high-energy grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The phase composition of supported Pd nanoparticles was investigated as a function of particle size and reaction conditions. Under operating conditions, we detected the formation of a PdxC phase followed by its conversion to Pd6C. The dynamic stability of the Pd6C phase results from the balance between uptake and release of carbon by the supported Pd nanoparticles in combination with the thermodynamically favorable growth of carbon deposits in the form of graphene. For small Pd nanoparticles (6 nm), the Pd6C phase is dynamically stable under low flow rate of reactants. At the high reactant flow, the Pd6C phase decomposes shortly after its formation due to the growth of graphene. Structural analysis of larger Pd nanoparticles (15 nm) reveals the formation and simultaneous presence of two types of carbides, PdxC and Pd6C. Formation and decomposition of Pd6C proceeds via a PdxC phase. After an incubation period, growth of graphene triggers the decomposition of carbides. The process is accompanied by segregation of carbon from the bulk of the nanoparticles to the graphene phase. Notably, nucleation of graphene is more favorable on bigger Pd nanoparticles. Our studies demonstrate that metastability of palladium carbides associated with dynamic formation and decomposition of the Pd6C and PdxC phases is an intrinsic phenomenon in LOHC dehydrogenation on Pd-based catalysts and strongly depends on particle size and reaction conditions.

13.
Commun Chem ; 4(1): 7, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697506

RESUMO

From the catalytic, semiconducting, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) numerous potential applications emerge. For the physical and chemical properties of the surface, under-coordinated atoms often play an important role, necessitating systematic studies of their influence. Here we study the vicinal ZnO([Formula: see text]) surface, rich in under-coordinated sites, using a combination of several experimental techniques and density functional theory calculations. We determine the atomic-scale structure and find the surface to be a stable, long-range ordered, non-polar facet of ZnO, with a high step-density and uniform termination. Contrary to an earlier suggested nano-faceting model, a bulk termination fits much better to our experimental observations. The surface is further stabilized by dissociatively adsorbed H2O on adjacent under-coordinated O- and Zn-atoms. The stabilized surface remains highly active for water dissociation through the remaining under-coordinated Zn-sites. Such a vicinal oxide surface is a prerequisite for future adsorption studies with atomically controlled local step and terrace geometry.

14.
Langmuir ; 36(45): 13448-13456, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151688

RESUMO

This study reports on the potential-induced charge and mass transfer between an ultrathin polypyrrole (PPy) film and an electrolyte by simultaneous in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and electrochemistry (EC) utilizing their sensitivity to electrons. An about 30 nm thin PPy film was deposited on a silicon single crystal by fast potential cycling, providing a dense film of an extraordinary small surface roughness. XRR was recorded from the PPy film in an aqueous 0.1 M perchloric acid at electric potentials between -0.2 V and +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. The PPy film shows typical reversible and linear changes in film thickness and electron density arising from the potential-dependent electrolyte incorporation. By introducing EC-XRR, a comprehensive analysis combining in situ XRR and EC, the net number of electrons passing through the PPy-electrolyte interface was deduced along with the potential-induced thickness variations, indicating a complex exchange mechanism. Evidently, along with the anion transfer, parallel charge compensation by protons and a volume and electron compensating counterflow of solvent molecules take place. Complementary time-dependent EC-XRR scans indicate that these exchange mechanisms are individual in two potential ranges. The low actuation along with a high pseudocapacitance suggest the fast potentiodynamically deposited PPy film as a promising supercapacitor material.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(40): 22956-22962, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026372

RESUMO

We investigate with in situ surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) experiments the cathodic stability of an ultrathin single-crystalline IrO2(110) film with a regular array of mesoscopic rooflike structures that is supported on a RuO2(110)/Ru(0001) template. It turns out that the planarity of the single-crystalline IrO2(110) film is lost in that IrO2(110) oxide domains delaminate at a cathodic potential of -0.18 V. Obviously, the electrolyte solution is able to reach the RuO2(110) layer presumably through the surface grain boundaries of the IrO2(110) layer. Subsequently, the single-crystalline RuO2(110) structure-directing template is reduced to amorphous hydrous RuO2, with the consequence that the IrO2(110) film loses partly its adhesion to the template. From in situ XRR experiments we find that the IrO2(110) film does not swell upon cathodic polarization down to -0.18 V, while from in situ SXRD experiments, the lattice constants of IrO2(110) are shown to be not affected. The rooflike mesostructure of the IrO2(110) flakes remains intact after cathodic polarization to -0.18 V, evidencing that the crystallinity of IrO2(110) is retained.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(21): 9057-9062, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045835

RESUMO

Down to a cathodic potentials of -1.20 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, the structure of IrO2(110) electrodes supported by TiO2(110) is found to be stable by in situ synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. Such high cathodic potentials should lead to reduction to metallic Ir (Pourbaix diagram). From the IrO2 lattice parameters, determined during cathodic polarization in a H2SO4 electrolyte solution (pH 0.4), it is estimated that the unit cell volume increases by 1% due likely to proton incorporation, which is supported by the lack of significant swelling of the IrO2(110) film derived from X-ray reflectivity experiments. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that protons are incorporated into the IrO2(110) lattice below -1.0 V, although Ir remains exclusively in the IV+ oxidation state down to -1.20 V. Obviously, further hydrogenation of the lattice oxygen of IrO2(110) toward water is suppressed for kinetic reasons and hints at a rate-determining chemical step that cannot be controlled by the electrode potential.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4801, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968079

RESUMO

Exsolution of metal nanoparticles from perovskite-type oxides is a very promising approach to obtain catalysts with superior properties. One particularly interesting property of exsolution catalysts is the possibility of electrochemical switching between different activity states. In this work, synchrotron-based in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments on electrochemically polarized La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ thin film electrodes are performed, in order to simultaneously obtain insights into the phase composition and the catalytic activity of the electrode surface. This shows that reversible electrochemical switching between a high and low activity state is accompanied by a phase change of exsolved particles between metallic α--Fe and Fe-oxides. Reintegration of iron into the perovskite lattice is thus not required for obtaining a switchable catalyst, making this process especially interesting for intermediate temperature applications. These measurements also reveal how metallic particles on La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ electrodes affect the H2 oxidation and H2O splitting mechanism and why the particle size plays a minor role.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(16): 8336-8343, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255111

RESUMO

We present surface X-ray diffraction and fast scanning tunneling microscopy results to elucidate the nature of the surface phase transition on magnetite (001) from a reconstructed to a non-reconstructed surface around 720 K. In situ surface X-ray diffraction at a temperature above the phase transition, at which long-range order is lost, gives evidence that the subsurface cation vacancy reconstruction still exists as a local structural motif, in line with the characteristics of a 2D second-order phase transition. Fast scanning tunneling microscopy results across the phase transition underpin the hypothesis that the reconstruction lifting is initiated by surplus Fe ions occupying subsurface octahedral vacancies. The reversible near-surface iron enrichment and reduction of the surface to stoichiometric composition is further confirmed by in situ low-energy ion scattering, as well as ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission results.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(36): 20204-20210, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486466

RESUMO

In this paper a growth recipe for well-ordered iron sulfide films and the results of their characterisation are presented. The film was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). XRD data reveal that the film has a NiAs-like structure with Fe vacancies, similar to iron sulfides such as pyrrhotite and smythite, although no indication of any ordering of these vacancies was observed. LEED and STM results show that the film exhibits a 2 × 2 surface reconstruction. XPS data provide additional evidence for a large number of Fe vacancies, and the oxidation states of the Fe and S in the film are analysed.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2662, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422517

RESUMO

Surface X-ray Diffraction was used to study the transformation of a carbon-supersaturated carbidic precursor toward a complete single layer of graphene in the temperature region below 703 K without carbon supply from the gas phase. The excess carbon beyond the 0.45 monolayers of C atoms within a single Ni2C layer is accompanied by sharpened reflections of the |4772| superstructure, along with ring-like diffraction features resulting from non-coincidence rotated Ni2C-type domains. A dynamic Ni2C reordering process, accompanied by slow carbon loss to subsurface regions, is proposed to increase the Ni2C 2D carbide long-range order via ripening toward coherent domains, and to increase the local supersaturation of near-surface dissolved carbon required for spontaneous graphene nucleation and growth. Upon transformation, the intensities of the surface carbide reflections and of specific powder-like diffraction rings vanish. The associated change of the specular X-ray reflectivity allows to quantify a single, fully surface-covering layer of graphene (2 ML C) without diffraction contributions of rotated domains. The simultaneous presence of top-fcc and bridge-top configurations of graphene explains the crystal truncation rod data of the graphene-covered surface. Structure determination of the |4772| precursor surface-carbide using density functional theory is in perfect agreement with the experimentally derived X-ray structure factors.

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