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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630489

RESUMO

Importance: Purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2Y12) inhibitor monotherapy after a certain period of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) may be an attractive option of maintenance antiplatelet treatment for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who are at both high bleeding and ischemic risk (birisk). Objective: To determine if extended P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with clopidogrel is superior to ongoing DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel after 9 to 12 months of DAPT after PCI in birisk patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial including birisk patients with ACS who had completed 9 to 12 months of DAPT after drug-eluting stent implantation and were free from adverse events for at least 6 months at 101 China centers between February 2018 and December 2020. Study data were analyzed from April 2023 to May 2023. Interventions: Patients were randomized either to clopidogrel plus placebo or clopidogrel plus aspirin for an additional 9 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) types 2, 3, or 5 bleeding 9 months after randomization. The key secondary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE; the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke or clinically driven revascularization). The primary end point was tested for superiority, and the MACCE end point was tested for sequential noninferiority and superiority. Results: A total of 7758 patients (mean [SD] age, 64.8 [9.0] years; 4575 male [59.0%]) were included in this study. The primary end point of BARC types 2, 3, or 5 bleeding occurred in 95 of 3873 patients (2.5%) assigned to clopidogrel plus placebo and 127 of 3885 patients (3.3%) assigned to clopidogrel plus aspirin (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.97; difference, -0.8%; 95% CI, -1.6% to -0.1%; P = .03). The incidence of MACCE was 2.6% (101 of 3873 patients) in the clopidogrel plus placebo group and 3.5% (136 of 3885 patients) in the clopidogrel plus aspirin group (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.96; difference, -0.9%; 95% CI, -1.7% to -0.1%; P < .001 for noninferiority; P = .02 for superiority). Conclusions and Relevance: Among birisk patients with ACS who completed 9 to 12 months of DAPT after drug-eluting stent implantation and were free from adverse events for at least 6 months before randomization, an extended 9-month clopidogrel monotherapy regimen was superior to continuing DAPT with clopidogrel in reducing clinically relevant bleeding without increasing ischemic events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03431142.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 665: 825-837, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564946

RESUMO

Photocatalytic peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation systems demonstrate significant potential and promising prospects through the interconnection of photocatalytic and PMS oxidation for simultaneously achieving efficient pollutant removal and reduction of PMS dosage, which prevents resource wastage and secondary pollution. In this study, a Z-scheme Bi25FeO40/BiOCl (BOFC) heterojunction was constructed to carry out the photocatalytic PMS oxidation process for tetracyclines (TCs) pollutants at low PMS concentrations (0.08 mM). The photocatalytic PMS oxidation rate of Bi25FeO40/BiOCl composites for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and doxycycline (DXC) reaches 86.6%, 83.6%, 86.7%, and 88.0% within 120 min. Simultaneously, the BOFC/PMS system under visible light (Vis) equally displayed the practical application prospects for the solo and mixed simulated TCs antibiotics wastewater. Based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) valence band spectrum, a Z-scheme electron migration pathway was proposed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the performance enhancement of BOFC composites. Bi25FeO40 in BOFC composites can serve as active site for activating PMS by the formation of Fe3+/Fe2+ cycle. Toxicity estimation software tool (T.E.S.T.) and mung beans planting experiment demonstrates that BOFC/PMS/Vis system can reduce toxicity of TCs wastewater. Therefore, BOFC/PMS/Vis system achieves efficient examination in different water environments and efficient utilization of PMS, which displays a scientific reference for achieving environmentally-friendly and resource-saving handling processes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Peróxidos , Águas Residuárias , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Antibacterianos , Tetraciclina , Luz , Tetraciclinas , Oxigênio
3.
Chemistry ; : e202400740, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623910

RESUMO

Diversified molecular information-processing methods have significant implications for nanoscale manipulation and control, monitoring and disease diagnosis of organisms, and direct intervention in biological activities. However, as an effective approach for implementing multifunctional molecular information processing, DNA reaction networks (DRNs) with numerous functionally specialized molecular structures have challenged them on scale and modular design, leading to increased network complexity, further causing problems such as signal leakage, attenuation, and cross-talk in network reactions. Our study developed a strategy for performing various signal-processing tasks through engineering modular DRNs composed of simple molecular structures. This strategy is based on a universal core unit with signal selection capability, and a timeadjustable signal self-resetting module is achieved by combing the core unit and self-resetting unit, which improves the time controllability of modular DRNs. In addition, multi-input and -output signal crosscatalytic and continuously adjustable signal delay modules were realized by combining core and threshold units, providing a flexible, precise method for modular DRNs to process the signal. The strategy simplifies the design of DRNs, helps generate design ideas for largescale integrated DRNs with multiple functions, and provides prospects in biocomputing, gene regulation, and biosensing.

4.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 16: 1353449, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633981

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to explore the relationship between physical activity (PA) and postoperative delirium (POD). Methods: We selected 400 patients from the Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorder and Biomarkers Lifestyle (PNDABLE) database, and the patients in the PNDABLE database were sampled and tested Alzheimer's biomarkers. The diagnosis of POD was made using the Confusion Assessment Scale (CAM) and the severity was assessed using Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS). Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale was used to detect the mental state of the patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of preoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as amyloid ß plaque 42 (Aß42), total tau protein (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau). Logistic regression, sensitivity analysis, and post hoc analysis were used to explore the relationship between risk and protective factors on POD. We used the mediating effect to explore whether PA mediates the occurrence of POD through CSF biomarkers. Results: The incidence of POD was 17.5%. According to our research, the consequence prompted that PA might be the protective factor for POD [odds ratio (OR): 0.336, 95% confidence interval (95 CI) 0.206-0.548, P < 0.001]. The result of logistic regression revealed that CSF biomarker Aß42 (OR: 0.997, 95 CI 0.996-0.999, P < 0.001) might be a protective factor against POD, and the T-tau (OR: 1.006, 95 CI 1.003-1.009, P = 0.001) and P-tau (OR: 1.039, 95 CI 1.018-1.059, P < 0.001) might risk factors for POD. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the correlation between PA and CSF biomarkers in the patients with POD. Mediation effect analysis showed that PA may reduce the occurrence of POD partly through CSF biomarkers, such as Aß42 (proportion: 11%, P < 0.05), T-tau (proportion: 13%, P < 0.05), and P-tau (proportion: 12%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Physical activity is probably a protective factor for POD and may exert a mediating effect through CSF biomarkers.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 131462, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614163

RESUMO

The rapid development of the industry has led to the destruction of the earth's ozone layer, resulting in an increasingly serious problem of excessive ultraviolet radiation. Exploring effective measures to address these problems has become a hot topic. Lignin shows promise in the design and preparation of anti-ultraviolet products due to its inherent properties. However, it is important to investigate way to enhance the reactivity of lignin and determine its application form in related products. In this study, phenolic reactions with tea polyphenols were conducted through acid-catalyzed conversion, utilizing organic solvent lignin as the primary material. The phenolic hydroxyl content of the original lignin increased significantly by 218.8 %, resulting in notable improvements in UV resistance and oxidation resistance for phenolic lignin. Additionally, micro-nanocapsule emulsions were formed using phenolic lignin particles as surfactants through ultrasonic cavitation with small-molecule sunscreens. A bio-based sunscreen was prepared with phenolated lignin micro-nanocapsules as the active ingredient, achieving an SPF 100.2 and demonstrating excellent stability. The sunscreen also exhibited strong antioxidant properties and impermeability, ensuring user safety. This research offers a current solution for improving the application of lignin in sunscreens while also broadening the potential uses of plant-based materials in advanced functional products.

6.
Exp Gerontol ; : 112432, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614224

RESUMO

The beneficial effect of social interaction in mitigating the incidence of post-stroke depression (PSD) and ameliorating depressive symptoms has been consistently demonstrated through preclinical and clinical studies. However, the underlying relationship with oxytocin requires further investigation. In light of this, the present study aimed to explore the protective effect of pair housing on the development of PSD and the potential relationship with oxytocin receptors. The PSD model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 50 min, followed by 4-week isolated housing and restrained stress. Subsequently, each mouse in the pair-housing group (PH) was pair-housed with an isosexual healthy partner. Another group was continuously administrated fluoxetine (10 mg/Kg, i.p, once a day) for 3 weeks. To elucidate the potential role of oxytocin, we subjected pair-housed PSD mice to treatment with an oxytocin receptor (OXTR) antagonist (L368,889) (5 mg/Kg, i.p, once a day) for 3 weeks. At 31 to 32 days after MCAO, anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were assessed using sucrose consumption, forced swim test, and tail-suspension test. The results showed that pair housing significantly improved post-stroke depression to an extent comparable to that of fluoxetine treatment. Furthermore, pair housing significantly decreased corticosterone in serum, increasing OXT mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Treatment with L368,889 essentially reversed the effect of pair housing, with no discernible sex differences apart from changes in body weight. Pair housing increased hippocampal serotonin (5-HT), but treatment with L368,889 had no significant impact. Additionally, pair housing effectively reduced the number of reactive astrocytes and increased Nissl's body in the cortex and hippocampal CA3 regions. Correspondingly, treatment with L368,889 significantly reversed the changes in the Nissl's body and reactive astrocytes. Moreover, pair housing downregulated mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in the cortex caused by PSD, which was also reversed by treatment with L368,889. In conclusion, pair housing protects against the development of PSD depending on OXT and OXTR in the brain, with no significant divergence based on sex. These findings provide valuable insights into the potential of social interaction and oxytocin as therapeutic targets for PSD. Further research into the underlying mechanisms of these effects may contribute to the development of novel treatments for PSD.

7.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 85, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate DNA damage repair promotes aberrant differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. Mammary luminal cell fate is mainly determined by a few transcription factors including GATA3. We previously reported that GATA3 functions downstream of BRCA1 to suppress aberrant differentiation in breast cancer. How GATA3 impacts DNA damage repair preventing aberrant cell differentiation in breast cancer remains elusive. We previously demonstrated that loss of p18, a cell cycle inhibitor, in mice induces luminal-type mammary tumors, whereas depletion of either Brca1 or Gata3 in p18 null mice leads to basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) with activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We took advantage of these mutant mice to examine the role of Gata3 as well as the interaction of Gata3 and Brca1 in DNA damage repair in mammary tumorigenesis. RESULTS: Depletion of Gata3, like that of Brca1, promoted DNA damage accumulation in breast cancer cells in vitro and in basal-like breast cancers in vivo. Reconstitution of Gata3 improved DNA damage repair in Brca1-deficient mammary tumorigenesis. Overexpression of GATA3 promoted homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA damage repair and restored HR efficiency of BRCA1-deficient cells. Depletion of Gata3 sensitized tumor cells to PARP inhibitor (PARPi), and reconstitution of Gata3 enhanced resistance of Brca1-deficient tumor cells to PARP inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gata3 functions downstream of BRCA1 to promote DNA damage repair and suppress dedifferentiation in mammary tumorigenesis and progression. Our findings suggest that PARP inhibitors are effective for the treatment of GATA3-deficient BLBCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Mamárias Animais , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Camundongos , Animais , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Reparo do DNA , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Dano ao DNA , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
8.
Langmuir ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630545

RESUMO

In this study, five kinds of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([CXami]Br) ionic liquids with different alkyl chain lengths (8, 10, 12, 14, and 16) were selected as inhibitors. Then, their corrosion inhibition performances for Q235 steel in 1.0 mol L-1 HCl solution were investigated via a weight loss test, polarization curve method, and surface analysis techniques. The results show that these five imidazolium-based ionic liquids are all mixed-type inhibitors, and they can be spontaneously adsorbed onto the Q235 steel surface. The adsorption process follows the Langmuir model and involves mixed physical-chemical adsorption. Theoretical calculations confirm that the increase in alkyl chain length is conducive to the imidazolium-based ionic liquids exhibiting stronger chemical bonding abilities and forming denser adsorption films. The inhibition efficiency significantly increases below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) with an increase in alkyl chain length, and the highest inhibition efficiency is 95.17% for the [C16ami]Br inhibitor at the concentration of 0.005 mM. However, above the CMC, the inhibition efficiency is minimally affected by the alkyl chain length since all ionic liquid inhibitors have reached adsorption saturation on the steel surface.

9.
Spine J ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Vertebral endplate defects are often implicated in degenerative disc disorders, yet their connection to patient-reported symptoms remains unclear. COX-2 and PGE-2 are known for their roles in inflammation and pain, with EP-4 receptor involvement in pain signaling. Examining their expression in vertebral endplate tissues may provide insights into pathomechanism of low back pain. PURPOSE: To investigate the association between endplate defects and patient-reported symptoms and to further clarify the role of the COX-2/PGE-2/EP-4 axis in the pathogenesis of chronic low back pain. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective study PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 71 patients who had undergone single-level L4/5 or L5/S1 modified laminectomy decompression preserving proximal upper laminae and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery were included in this study, including 18 patients diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation, 19 with lumbar disc herniation accompanied by degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, and 34 with degenerative spondylolisthesis. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, Pfirrmann grade, Modic changes, endplate defect score, visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before surgery, 3-month and 6-month follow-up, and the percentage of immune-positive cells (COX-2, PGE-2, and EP-4) in endplate tissue sections. METHODS: Patients were divided into Defect and Non-defect groups according to endplate morphology on lumbar MR. All intraoperative endplate specimens were immediately fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then embedded in paraffin 3 days later for tissue sections. The outcome measures were compared between the Defect group and Non-defect group. Data were analyzed using independent t-tests and χ² tests. Pearson's rank correlation test was used to assess correlations between patient-reported symptoms and the percentage of immune-positive cells in the groups. Multivariable logistic regression models using the forward stepwise likelihood ratio method were used to identify the factors that were independently associated with endplate defects. RESULTS: The age of Defect group was significantly higher than that of Non-defect group (52.5±7.7 vs. 57.2±9.1. P=0.024). There were no significant differences in gender, diagnosis, BMI, comorbidities, or surgical level between the two groups. Modic changes (Type Ⅱ/Type Ⅲ) were more common in patients of Defect group than Non-defect group (38.5% vs. 11.1%, P<0.001), and so was disc degeneration (Pfirrmann grade Ⅳ/Ⅴ) (69.2% vs. 33.3%, P<0.001). Defect group had significantly higher VAS-Back (6.5±2.0 vs. 4.9±1.6, P<0.001) and ODI scores (62.9±10.7 vs. 45.2±14.8, P<0.001) than Non-defect group, while there was no significant differences between the two groups during the 3 and 6-month follow-up after surgery. Histologically, Defect group was characterized by upregulation of COX-2, PGE-2, and EP-4 in endplate tissue sections. Both in Defect and Non-defect groups, VAS-Back showed moderate positive correlations with the expressions of COX-2 (r=0.643; r=0.558, p both<0.001), PGE-2 (r=0.611; r=0.640, p both<0.001), and EP-4 (r=0.643; r=0.563, p both<0.001). Multivariate regression analyses reveled that percentage of COX-2-positive cells was associated with endplate defects (OR=1.509, 95%CI [1.048∼2.171], P=0.027), as well as percentage of PGE-2-positive (OR=1.291, 95%CI [1.106∼1.508], P=0.001) and EP-4-positive cells (OR=1.284, 95%CI [1.048∼2.171], P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with endplate defects had worse quality of life, more severe disc degeneration and Modic changes, and up-regulated COX-2/PGE-2/EP-4 axis expression in cartilage endplates in patients with defected endplates. Inflammatory factors may significantly contribute to the onset and progression of chronic low back pain in patients with endplate defects, consequently impacting patient-reported symptoms.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(3)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) may disproportionately suffer the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution, but relevant evidence on microvascular outcome is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between air pollution exposure and the risk of microvascular complications among patients with T2D. METHODS: This prospective study included 17 995 participants with T2D who were free of macro- and micro-vascular complications at baseline from the UK Biobank. Annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were assessed using land use regression models. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the associations of air pollution exposure with incident diabetic microvascular complications. The joint effects of the air pollutant mixture were examined using quantile-based g-computation in a survival setting. RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for composite diabetic microvascular complications per interquartile range increase in PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and NOx were 1.09 (1.04-1.14), 1.06 (1.01-1.11), 1.07 (1.02-1.12) and 1.04 (1.00-1.08), respectively. Similar significant results were found for diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy, but not for diabetic retinopathy. The associations of certain air pollutants with composite microvascular complications and diabetic nephropathy were present even at concentrations below the World Health Organization limit values. Multi-pollutant analyses demonstrated that PM2.5 contributed most to the elevated risk associated with the air pollutant mixture. In addition, we found no interactions between air pollution and metabolic risk factor control on the risk of diabetic microvascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term individual and joint exposure to PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and NOx, even at low levels, was associated with an increased risk of diabetic microvascular complications, with PM2.5 potentially being the main contributor.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598403

RESUMO

Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), one of the most popular electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms, can achieve high performance using calibration-based recognition algorithms. As calibration-based recognition algorithms are time-consuming to collect calibration data, the least-squares transformation (LST) has been used to reduce the calibration effort for SSVEP-based BCI. However, the transformation matrices constructed by current LST methods are not precise enough, resulting in large differences between the transformed data and the real data of the target subject. This ultimately leads to the constructed spatial filters and reference templates not being effective enough. To address these issues, this paper proposes multi-stimulus LST with online adaptation scheme (ms-LST-OA). METHODS: The proposed ms-LST-OA consists of two parts. Firstly, to improve the precision of the transformation matrices, we propose the multi-stimulus LST (ms-LST) using cross-stimulus learning scheme as the cross-subject data transformation method. The ms-LST uses the data from neighboring stimuli to construct a higher precision transformation matrix for each stimulus to reduce the differences between transformed data and real data. Secondly, to further optimize the constructed spatial filters and reference templates, we use an online adaptation scheme to learn more features of the EEG signals of the target subject through an iterative process trial-by-trial. RESULTS: ms-LST-OA performance was measured for three datasets (Benchmark Dataset, BETA Dataset, and UCSD Dataset). Using few calibration data, the ITR of ms-LST-OA achieved 210.01±10.10 bits/min, 172.31±7.26 bits/min, and 139.04±14.90 bits/min for all three datasets, respectively. CONCLUSION: Using ms-LST-OA can reduce calibration effort for SSVEP-based BCIs.

12.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634698

RESUMO

Neuronal death resulting from ischemic stroke is the primary cause of adult mortality and disability, and effective neuroprotective agents for poststroke intervention are still lacking. Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) has demonstrated significant protective effects against ischemia in various organs; however, the specific mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective mechanisms of RIPostC in the context of ischemic stroke. Using a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion, we found that RIPostC mitigated neurological damage, improved movement in the open-field test, and protected against neuronal apoptosis. In terms of energy metabolism, RIPostC enhanced ATP levels, suppressed lactate content, and increased the production of ketone bodies (KBs). In the ferroptosis assay, RIPostC protected against lipoperoxidation, reversed the reduction of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), and mitigated the excessive expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase family member 4 (ACSL4). In oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-treated HT22 cells, KBs maintained GPX4 levels, suppressed ACSL4 expression, and preserved the mitochondrial cristae number. However, the effect of KBs on the expression of GPX4, ACSL4, and the number of mitochondrial cristae was blocked by erastin. Moreover, both RIPostC and KBs reduced total iron and ferrous ion content by repressing iron transporters both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, KBs-induced mitigation of ferroptosis could represent a new therapeutic mechanism for RIPostC in treating stroke.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202403963, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635317

RESUMO

(±)-Penindolenes A-D (1-4), the first representatives of indole terpenoids featuring a γ-lactam skeleton, were isolated from the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium brocae MA-231. Our bioactivity tests revealed their potent antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. The biosynthetic reactions by the five enzymes PbaABCDE leading to γ-lactam ring formation were identified with heterologous expression and in vitro enzymatic assays. Remarkably, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase PbaB and its homolog in Aspergillus oryzae  catalyzed the 2,3-cleavage of the indole ring to generate two keto groups in 1, in different manners from well-known tryptophan dioxygenases. This is the first example of the oxidative cleavage of indole by a P450 monooxygenase. In addition, rare secondary amide bond formation by the glutamine synthetase-like enzyme PbaD was reported. These findings will contribute to the engineered biosynthesis of unnatural, bioactive indole terpenoids.

14.
PeerJ ; 12: e17039, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590700

RESUMO

Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is classified as a subset of diseases that are characterized by lung obstruction due to various types of emboli. Current clinical APE treatment using anticoagulants is frequently accompanied by high risk of bleeding complications. Recombinant hirudin (R-hirudin) has been found to have antithrombotic properties. However, the specific impact of R-hirudin on APE remains unknown. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to five groups, with thrombi injections to establish APE models. Control and APE group rats were subcutaneously injected with equal amounts of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The APE+R-hirudin low-dose, middle-dose, and high-dose groups received subcutaneous injections of hirudin at doses of 0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively. Each group was subdivided into time points of 2 h, 6 h, 1 d, and 4 d, with five animals per point. Subsequently, all rats were euthanized, and serum and lung tissues were collected. Following the assessment of right ventricular pressure (RVP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), blood gas analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA), pulmonary artery vascular testing, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot experiments were conducted. Results: R-hirudin treatment caused a significant reduction of mPAP, RVP, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as H2O2 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while increasing pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity. R-hirudin also decreased wall area ratio and wall thickness to diameter ratio in APE rat pulmonary arteries. Serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thromboxaneB2 (TXB2) decreased, while prostaglandin (6-K-PGF1α) and NO levels increased. Moreover, R-hirudin ameliorated histopathological injuries and reduced apoptotic cells and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), p-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2/ERK1/2, and p-P65/P65 expression in lung tissues. Conclusion: R-hirudin attenuated pulmonary hypertension and thrombosis in APE rats, suggesting its potential as a novel treatment strategy for APE.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombose , Ratos , Animais , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hirudinas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2400136, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593288

RESUMO

In the work, we designed a natural medicine baicalin for the treatment of psoriasis with the aid of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based MNs patches. In order to improve the solubility of baicalin and increase its residence time in infected part, which was made into nanoparticles by complexation with humic acid and Eu2+. The baicalin nanoparticles loaded-MNs exhibited satisfactory rigidity, minimum injury, and controlled drug delivery. The anti-reactive oxygen species (anti-ROS) and anti-inflammatory action were verified by the effective scavenging oxygen and nitrogen radicals. In addition, the loading of baicalin nanoparticles brought remarkable photothermic effect to the MNs, enabled the device to release a controlled drug under near-infrared region II (NIR-II) laser irradiation. With the aid of NIR-II laser, the baicalin-mediated treatment of psoriasis was significant improved by expediting radical scavenging and suppressing inflammation. The design of baicalin MNs provided a new idea for the treatment of chronic disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
J Org Chem ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591967

RESUMO

A visible-light-induced radical-cascade selenocyanation/cyclization of N-alkyl-N-methacryloyl benzamides, 2-aryl-N-acryloyl indoles, and N-methacryloyl-2-phenylbenzimidazoles with potassium isoselenocyanate (KSeCN) was developed. The reactions were carried out with inexpensive KSeCN as a selenocyanation reagent, potassium persulfate as an oxidant, 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate as a bifunctional catalyst for phase-transfer catalysis, and photocatalysis. A library of selenocyanate-containing isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-diones, indolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline-6(5H)-ones, and benzimidazo[2,1-a]isoquinolin-6(5H)-ones were achieved in moderate to excellent yields at room temperature under visible-light and ambient conditions. Importantly, the present protocol features mild reaction conditions, large-scale synthesis, simple manipulation, product derivatization, good functional group, and heterocycle tolerance.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592631

RESUMO

Microorganisms are highly sensitive to toxic metal pollution and play an important role in the material cycling and energy flow of the water ecosystem. Herein, 13 sediment samples from Junchong Reservoir (Guangxi Province, China) were collected in December 2021. The spatial distribution of pollution levels for toxic metals and the effects of toxic metals on the composition, functional characteristics, and metabolism of microorganisms were investigated. The results demonstrated that the area is a proximate area to industrial zones with severity of toxic metal pollution. Their mean concentrations of As, Cu, Zn, and Pb were up to 128.79 mg/kg, 57.62 mg/kg, 594.77 mg/kg, and 97.12 mg/kg respectively. There was a strong correlation between As, Cu, Zn, and Pb, with the highest correlation coefficient reaching 0.94. As the level of toxic metal pollution increases, the diversity and abundance of microorganisms gradually decrease. Compared to those with lower pollution levels, the Shannon index in regions with higher pollution levels decreases by up to 0.373, and the Chao index decreases by up to 143.507. However, the relative abundance of Bacteroidota, Patescibacteria, and Chloroflexi increased by 23%, 20%, and 5%, respectively, indicating their higher adaptability to toxic metals. Furthermore, microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism were also affected by the presence of toxic metals. FAPROTAX analysis demonstrated an abundant reduction of ecologically functional groups associated with carbon and nitrogen transformations under high toxic metal pollution levels. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism pathways were inhibited with increasing toxic metal concentrations. These findings would contribute to a better understanding of the effects of toxic metal pollution on sediment microbial communities and function, shedding light on the ecological consequences of toxic metal contamination.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202401682, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587230

RESUMO

Polyesters, a highly promising class of circular polymers for achieving a closed-loop sustainable plastic economy, inherently exhibit material stability defects, especially in thermal and hydrolytic instability. Here, we introduce a class of polyesters, P(4R-BL) (R = Ph, Bu), featuring conformationally rigid 1,3-cyclobutyl rings in the backbone. These polyesters not only exhibit superior thermostability (Td,5% = 376-380 °C) but also demonstrate exceptional hydrolytic resistance with good integrity even after 1 year in basic and acidic aqueous solutions, distinguishing themselves from typical counterparts. Tailoring the flexibility of the side group R enables the controlled thermal and mechanical performance of P(4Ph-BL) and P(4Bu-BL) to rival durable syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE), respectively. Significantly, despite their high stability, both polyesters can be effectively depolymerized into pristine monomers, establishing a circular life cycle.

19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301702, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChatGPT is a large language model designed to generate responses based on a contextual understanding of user queries and requests. This study utilised the entrance examination for the Master of Clinical Medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine to assesses the reliability and practicality of ChatGPT within the domain of medical education. METHODS: We selected 330 single and multiple-choice questions from the 2021 and 2022 Chinese Master of Clinical Medicine comprehensive examinations, which did not include any images or tables. To ensure the test's accuracy and authenticity, we preserved the original format of the query and alternative test texts, without any modifications or explanations. RESULTS: Both ChatGPT3.5 and GPT-4 attained average scores surpassing the admission threshold. Noteworthy is that ChatGPT achieved the highest score in the Medical Humanities section, boasting a correct rate of 93.75%. However, it is worth noting that ChatGPT3.5 exhibited the lowest accuracy percentage of 37.5% in the Pathology division, while GPT-4 also displayed a relatively lower correctness percentage of 60.23% in the Biochemistry section. An analysis of sub-questions revealed that ChatGPT demonstrates superior performance in handling single-choice questions but performs poorly in multiple-choice questions. CONCLUSION: ChatGPT exhibits a degree of medical knowledge and the capacity to aid in diagnosing and treating diseases. Nevertheless, enhancements are warranted to address its accuracy and reliability limitations. Imperatively, rigorous evaluation and oversight must accompany its utilization, accompanied by proactive measures to surmount prevailing constraints.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Medicina Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Idioma , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 347, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582751

RESUMO

CO2 electroreduction has garnered significant attention from both the academic and industrial communities. Extracting crucial information related to catalysts from domain literature can help scientists find new and effective electrocatalysts. Herein, we used various advanced machine learning, natural language processing techniques and large language models (LLMs) approaches to extract relevant information about the CO2 electrocatalytic reduction process from scientific literature. By applying the extraction pipeline, we present an open-source corpus for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction. The database contains two types of corpus: (1) the benchmark corpus, which is a collection of 6,985 records extracted from 1,081 publications by catalysis postgraduates; and (2) the extended corpus, which consists of content extracted from 5,941 documents using traditional NLP techniques and LLMs techniques. The Extended Corpus I and II contain 77,016 and 30,283 records, respectively. Furthermore, several domain literature fine-tuned LLMs were developed. Overall, this work will contribute to the exploration of new and effective electrocatalysts by leveraging information from domain literature using cutting-edge computer techniques.

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