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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122244, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627064

RESUMO

Under the situation of increasingly severe challenge of energy consumption, it is of great importance to make full use of bioresources such as forestry and agricultural residues. Herein, the corncob residues generated after processing corncob were enzymatically hydrolyzed to yield fermentable sugars. To overcome the recalcitrance of corncob residues, three kinds of pretreatment methods, i.e., sulfonation, PFI refining, and wet grinding, were applied; their effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and main characteristics of corncob residues substrate were investigated. The results showed that the enzymatic digestibility of the substrate was greatly enhanced by employing each method. The wet grinding exhibited obvious advantages, e.g., the conversion yield of cellulose to glucose and glucose concentration reached 96.7% and 32.2 g/L after 59 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis was mainly attributed to the altered characteristics of the substrate such as swelling ability, specific surface area, and particle size and distribution.


Assuntos
Celulose , Zea mays , Fermentação , Glucose , Hidrólise
2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(6): 3604-3609, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748058

RESUMO

Chlorinated aromatic compounds (CACs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants, which have serious damage to water environment due to their own stable structure. But a good many of CACs were abandoned because of their tremendous yields and wide applications, so it is urgent to find the effective degradation methods for CACs. The electrochemical method is supposed to be a simple, environmentally friendly and effective pathway to degrade CACs. In this paper, a Pd/GO/Cu composite electrode was prepared by a combination of impregnation method and constant current electrodeposition method, which showed good electrochemical degradation efficiency for the 2,4-dichlorophenol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface structure, functional group composition, crystal structure and surface element valence of the electrode. Moreover, the stability of the electrode was investigated, and the preparation conditions of the electrode were optimized.

3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124638, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466006

RESUMO

In this study, we reported on the recycling of carbon materials from spent commercial supercapacitors and its application as low-cost adsorbent for high-efficiency removal of Ag(I) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms, and effects of initial pH were carried out to investigate the adsorption performance of the recycled supercapacitor activated carbon (RSAC), whereas a series of characterizations such as SEM, EDX, BET, XPS, XRD and FTIR were employed to detailedly analyse the adsorption mechanism. The RSAC showed maximal adsorption capacity for Ag(I) and Cr(VI) of 104.0 and 96.3 mg g-1, respectively, with adsorbent dosage of 2 g L-1 and initial ions concentration of ∼2000 mg L-1 at room temperature (23 ±â€¯1 °C), and the adsorption was rapid and influenced by the initial pH value. The outstanding adsorption performance of RSAC was attributed to the high specific surface area (1403 m2 g-1) and abundant multifarious oxygenic groups which could participate in the electrostatic attraction and reduction reaction of Ag(I) and Cr(VI) during the adsorption process. Furthermore, the predominate species of the adsorbed toxic Ag(I) and Cr(VI) on the surface of RSAC was metallic silver particle (about 2 µm) and harmless Cr(III), respectively, thus it was possible for further recycling and disposal.

4.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124684, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524621

RESUMO

A novel biochar composite was fabricated via the pyrolysis of distillers grains treated phosphogypsum for phosphate removal from water. Batch adsorption experiments were performed on the adsorption characteristics of phosphate. Effects of pyrolysis temperature, solution pH, the dosage of adsorbent, ambient temperature on phosphate adsorption were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the optimum initial solution pH for phosphate adsorption was 6.0, and high pyrolysis temperature was favorable for phosphate adsorption. The optimal dosage of biochar was 1.25 g L-1. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model can well explain the adsorption kinetics, indicative of the energetically heterogeneous solid surface of the composite. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of the phosphogypsum modified biochar obtained from Langmuir isotherm reached 102.4 mg g-1 which was almost five times that of distillers grains biochar alone (21.5 mg g-1). The mechanism is mainly attributed to electrostatic adsorption, surface precipitation and ligand exchange. The ideal adsorption performance indicated that biochar supported phosphogypsum can be used as high-quality adsorbent for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment.

5.
Talanta ; 207: 120288, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594593

RESUMO

The exploration of advanced photoactive materials with fine photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance is always the hot subject in PEC bioanalysis. Herein, Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals (CdS:Mn)-sensitized 2D/2D heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 was prepared and served as photoactive matrix of PEC sensing platform for myoglobin (Myo) detection using CuO nanoparticles labeled anti-Myo (anti-Myo-CuO) conjugates as signal amplification tags. The heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 could effectively promote the electron transfer and evidently restrain the recombination of electron-hole pairs, producing the high photocurrent response. Upon loaded CdS:Mn on the heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 to form co-sensitized structure, the photocurrent further gives a dramatically increase. To proof the performance of the co-sensitized structure in PEC bioanalysis, a sandwich type PEC immunosensor was designed by using the co-sensitized structure as photomatrix, Myo as model protein, and anti-Myo-CuO conjugates as amplifying tags. The introduction of anti-Myo-CuO conjugates in this system could significantly quench the PEC response of the sensing interface owing to the competition of the light-generated electron, poor conductivity and steric hindrance of the anti-Myo-CuO conjugates. In virtue of synergistic amplification of the CdS:Mn sensitized heterostructured g-C3N4-MoS2 and the anti-Myo-CuO conjugates, the immunosensor could respond down to 0.42 pg mL-1 Myo with a detectable range of 1.0 pg mL-1 to 50 ng mL-1. Moreover, this PEC platform demonstrates high specificity and sensitivity for Myo detection in real biological matrices. This strategy may furnish new insights for applications of novel 2D/2D heterostructures in PEC bioanalysis.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 281-293, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215024

RESUMO

The inflammatory microenvironment in the joints is one of the critical issues during osteoarthritis (OA) and also the main factor that may aggravate symptoms. Under inflammatory microenvironment, M1 macrophages are activated and produce large numbers of proinflammatory mediators, leading to the production of degradative enzymes, the disturbance of chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage catabolic processes, and finally the deterioration of OA. In the present study, we reveal that the overexpression of osteopontin (OPN), a cytokine, and a matrix protein involved in arthritis and chondrocyte apoptosis in OA, could exacerbate the inflammatory microenvironment in OA via promoting the production of proinflammation cytokines and the levels of degradative enzymes in M1 macrophages, therefore, enhancing the cytotoxicity of M1 macrophage on chondrocytes. XIST expression significantly increases in OA tissue specimens. XIST serves as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-376c-5p to compete with OPN for miR-376c-5p binding, thus counteracting miR-376c-5p-mediated OPN suppression. XIST knockdown could improve the inflammatory microenvironment in OA via acting on M1 macrophages, subsequently affecting the apoptosis of cocultured chondrocytes. miR-376c-5p inhibition exerts an opposing effect on M1 macrophages and cocultured chondrocytes, as well as significantly reverses the effect of XIST knockdown. As a further confirmation, XIST and OPN mRNA expression significantly increased in OA tissues and was positively correlated in tissue samples. In summary, we provide a novel mechanism of macrophages and the inflammatory microenvironment affecting chondrocyte apoptosis. XIST and OPN might be potential targets for OA treatment, which needs further in vivo experimental confirmation.

7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 626, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, lncRNAs (long-non-coding RNAs) have been proved to be closely related to the occurrence and development of many serious diseases that are seriously harmful to human health. However, most of the lncRNA-disease associations have not been found yet due to high costs and time complexity of traditional bio-experiments. Hence, it is quite urgent and necessary to establish efficient and reasonable computational models to predict potential associations between lncRNAs and diseases. RESULTS: In this manuscript, a novel prediction model called TCSRWRLD is proposed to predict potential lncRNA-disease associations based on improved random walk with restart. In TCSRWRLD, a heterogeneous lncRNA-disease network is constructed first by combining the integrated similarity of lncRNAs and the integrated similarity of diseases. And then, for each lncRNA/disease node in the newly constructed heterogeneous lncRNA-disease network, it will establish a node set called TCS (Target Convergence Set) consisting of top 100 disease/lncRNA nodes with minimum average network distances to these disease/lncRNA nodes having known associations with itself. Finally, an improved random walk with restart is implemented on the heterogeneous lncRNA-disease network to infer potential lncRNA-disease associations. The major contribution of this manuscript lies in the introduction of the concept of TCS, based on which, the velocity of convergence of TCSRWRLD can be quicken effectively, since the walker can stop its random walk while the walking probability vectors obtained by it at the nodes in TCS instead of all nodes in the whole network have reached stable state. And Simulation results show that TCSRWRLD can achieve a reliable AUC of 0.8712 in the Leave-One-Out Cross Validation (LOOCV), which outperforms previous state-of-the-art results apparently. Moreover, case studies of lung cancer and leukemia demonstrate the satisfactory prediction performance of TCSRWRLD as well. CONCLUSIONS: Both comparative results and case studies have demonstrated that TCSRWRLD can achieve excellent performances in prediction of potential lncRNA-disease associations, which imply as well that TCSRWRLD may be a good addition to the research of bioinformatics in the future.

10.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7697-7713, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695795

RESUMO

Phototherapy, including photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), has been considered as a noninvasive option for cancer therapy. However, insufficient penetration depth, tumor hypoxia, and a single treatment method severely limit the effectiveness of treatment. Methods: In this study, a multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform has been fabricated based on Au/Ag-MnO2 hollow nanospheres (AAM HNSs). The Au/Ag alloy HNSs were first synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction and then the MnO2 nanoparticles were deposited on the Au/Ag alloy HNSs by the reaction between Ag and permanganate (KMnO4), finally obtained the AAM HNSs. Then, SH-PEG was modified on the surface of AAM HNSs by the interaction of sulfhydryl and Au/Ag alloy, which improved the dispersibility and biocompatibility of the HNS. Next, the PDT photosensitizer Ce6 was loaded into AAM HNSs, benefiting from the hollow interior of the structure, and the AAM-Ce6 HNSs were obtained. Results: The AAM HNSs exhibit broad absorption at the near infrared (NIR) biological window and remarkable photothermal conversion ability in the NIR-II window. The MnO2 nanoparticles can catalyze endogenous H2O2 to generate O2 and enhance the therapeutic effect of PDT on tumor tissue. Simultaneously, MnO2 nanoparticles intelligently respond to the tumor microenvironment and degrade to release massive Mn2+ ions, which introduce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties. When AAM-Ce6 HNSs are loaded with Ce6, the AAM-Ce6 HNSs can be used for triple-modal imaging (fluorescence/photoacoustic/magnetic resonance imaging, FL/PAI/MRI) guided combination tumor phototherapy (PTT/PDT). Conclusion: This multifunctional nanoplatform shows synergistic therapeutic efficacy better than any single therapy by achieving multimodal imaging guided cancer combination phototherapy, which are promising for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112371, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683034

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bushen Tiansui Formula (BSTSF) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula used clinically to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) for many years. Previously, we have partially elucidated the mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of BSTSF on AD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to further investigate the therapeutic effects of BSTSF on AD using an integrated strategy of network pharmacology and serum metabolomics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat models of AD were established using Aß 1-42 injection, and morris water maze test was used to evaluate the efficacy of BSTSF on AD. Next, network pharmacology analysis was applied to identify the active compounds and target genes, which might be responsible for the effect of BSTSF. Then, a metabolomics strategy has been developed to find the possible significant serum metabolites and metabolic pathway induced by BSTSF. Additionally, two parts of the results were integrated to confirm each other. RESULTS: The results of the network pharmacology analysis showed 37 compounds and 64 potential target genes related to the treatment of AD with BSTSF. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that the potential mechanism was mainly associated with the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway. Based on metabolomics, 78 differential endogenous metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers related to the BSTSF for treating AD. These metabolites were mainly involved in the relevant pathways of linoleic acid metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism. These findings were partly consistent with the findings of the network pharmacology analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results solidly supported and enhanced out current understanding of the therapeutic effects of BSTSF on AD. Meanwhile, our work revealed that the proposed network pharmacology-integrated metabolomics strategy was a powerful means for identifying active components and mechanisms contributing to the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8920-8927, 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Several factors found in foods are beneficial to human health and they may contribute to radiation protection. Taking food factors could be an easy way to reduce the effects of radiation after nuclear accidents, as well as secondary radiation risks after cancer radiotherapy or space missions. Here, diallyl disulfide (DADS), a component of garlic oil, was studied for its ability to mitigate radiation damage. MATERIAL AND METHODS We investigated the effects of DADS on micronucleus (MN) formation and apoptosis in HepG2 cells by use of 4-Gy X-ray irradiation. We also assessed the effects of DADS on radiation damage in vivo by evaluating MN formation in bone marrow cells in mice (BALB/c, 8-week-old females) after oral intake of DADS prior to irradiation with 4 Gy. Several tissue effects were also investigated. RESULTS The presence of DADS inhibited MN formation, whereas DADS had no influence on the radiation-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression in HepG2 cells. An increase in apoptosis in HepG2 cells was induced after irradiation, and this effect was stronger in the presence of DADS than in its absence. In mice, when DADS was administered daily for 3 days prior to irradiation, MN formation in irradiated mice was decreased. The decrease in MN formation in mice was greater with 0.5% DADS compared to 1% DADS. Moreover, an increase in spleen weight observed 3 weeks after irradiation was suppressed in mice administered DADS. CONCLUSIONS DADS is a potential radiation-protective agent that effectively mitigates DNA damage, and its effects in the spleen observed after irradiation may be related to inflammation and carcinogenesis.

13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 346, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis and cartilage injury treatment is an unmet clinical need. Therefore, development of new approaches to treat these diseases is critically needed. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that murine muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) can efficiently repair articular cartilage in an osteochondral and osteoarthritis model. However, the cartilage repair capacity of human muscle-derived stem cells has not been studied which prompt this study. METHOD: In this study, we tested the in vitro chondrogenesis ability of six populations of human muscle-derived stem cells (hMDSCs), before and after lenti-BMP2/GFP transduction using pellet culture and evaluated chondrogenic differentiation of via histology and Raman spectroscopy. We further compared the in vivo articular cartilage repair of hMDSCs stimulated with BMP2 delivered through coacervate sustain release technology and lenti-viral gene therapy-mediated gene delivery in a monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) model. We used microCT and histology to evaluate the cartilage repair. RESULTS: We observed that all hMDSCs were able to undergo chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. As expected, lenti-BMP2/GFP transduction further enhanced the chondrogenic differentiation capacities of hMDSCs, as confirmed by Alcian blue and Col2A1staining as well as Raman spectroscopy analysis. We observed through micro-CT scanning, Col2A1 staining, and histological analyses that delivery of BMP2 with coacervate could achieve a similar articular cartilage repair to that mediated by hMDSC-LBMP2/GFP. We also found that the addition of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) protein further improved the regenerative potential of hMDSCs/BMP2 delivered through the coacervate sustain release technology. Donor cells did not primarily contribute to the repaired articular cartilage since most of the repair cells are host derived as indicated by GFP staining. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the delivery of hMDSCs and BMP2 with the coacervate technology can achieve a similar cartilage repair relative to lenti-BMP2/GFP-mediated gene therapy. The use of coacervate technology to deliver BMP2/sFLT1 with hMDSCs for cartilage repair holds promise for possible clinical translation into an effective treatment modality for osteoarthritis and traumatic cartilage injury.

14.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020602, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777659

RESUMO

Background: Road accidents are a major global public safety and health problem. Presently, many countries such as China urgently need to find better strategies to improve their road safety. This paper has two key objectives, which are: (i) to propose potential solutions to improve China's road safety, and (ii) to provide China and other countries with helpful evidence for their future road safety. Methods: This study attempts to use an evidence-based safety approach to propose some potential strategies for China's road safety. Results: First, the current status of China's road safety was analyzed. Second, major road safety problems in China were identified and discussed. Finally, this paper illustrates China's road safety strategies based on available evidence. Conclusions: Presently and in the future, China's road safety is facing a series of problems, such as increasing road safety management pressure, the weak road safety management foundation, and the lack of government supervision. To improve road safety, China should adopt a comprehensive strategy, which includes road safety risk prevention and control, road safety legislation, road safety supervision, road safety research and its application, road safety propaganda and education, and road safety culture, etc.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 287-296, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669895

RESUMO

Disulfide bonds are fundamental in establishing Ig structure and maintaining Ig biological function. Here, we analysed disulfide bonds and free cysteine in three grass carp IgM isoforms (monomeric, dimeric/trimeric, and tetrameric IgM) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The results revealed that Cys574 residue status at the C-terminal tail differed substantially in monomeric IgM in comparison with polymeric IgM, Cys574 was found as free thiol in monomeric IgM, while it formed disulfide linkages in dimeric/trimeric and tetrameric IgM. Five intra-chain disulfide bonds in the CH1~CH4 and CL1 domains, as well as one H-H and one H-L inter-chain disulfide linkages, were also observed and shown identical connectivity in monomeric, dimeric/trimeric, and tetrameric IgM. These findings represent the first experimental assignments of disulfide linkages of grass carp IgM and reveal that grass carp IgM isoform formation is due to alternative disulfide bonds connecting the Cys574 residue at the C-terminal tail.

16.
J Med Chem ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725288

RESUMO

To develop novel and efficient heat shock protein 90-cell division cycle 37 (Hsp90-Cdc37) interaction disruptors, several lipophilic fragments were introduced into celastrol (CEL) to synthesize 48 new CEL derivatives. Among all the target compounds, 41 was screened with superior antiproliferative activity on related cancer cells (IC50: 0.41-0.94 µM) and 41 could decrease the level of the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex in A549 cells. The capability to disrupt the Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction was stronger than that of CEL. Furthermore, pull-down assay, UV assay, and molecular docking analysis all showed that 41 might disrupt the interaction of the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex by preferentially binding to Cdc37 in cancer cells. Further studies showed that 41 could significantly regulate the levels of Hsp90-Cdc37 clients, thereby inducing the apoptosis of cancer cells. Together, 41 is a novel Hsp90-Cdc37 disruptor by binding to Cdc37 (hydrogen bond and/or covalent bond). Our results may provide reference for the discovery of effective Hsp90-Cdc37 disruptors.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782042

RESUMO

Novel biochar was prepared by ball milling using bamboo as raw material. The aim of this study was to find a good alternative way to improve the potentials of biochar for ammonium adsorption from aqueous solution. The sorption performance of ball-milled bamboo biochar (BMBB) was compared with that of bamboo biochar (BB) using batch adsorption experiments. Different adsorption kinetics models proved that the pseudo-second order was the best kinetic model for explanation of the adsorption kinetics characteristics, indicative of the energetically heterogeneous solid surface of the biochar. The Langmuir model could fit the isothermal adsorption data of BMBB well. The maximum adsorption capacity of BMBB (22.9 mg g-1) was much higher than that of BB (7.0 mg g-1). This study offers a relatively cost-effective and efficient methodology for the improvement in the adsorption capacity of biochar for ammonium nitrogen.

18.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(1): 893-909, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731383

RESUMO

This paper performs qualitative analysis on a reaction-diffusion SIRS epidemic system with ratio-dependent incidence rate in spatially heterogeneous environment. The threshold dynamics in the term of the basic reproduction number R0 is established. And the asymptotic profile of endemic equilibrium is determined if the diffusion rate of the susceptible individuals is small. The results show that restricting the movement of susceptible individuals can effectively control the number of infectious individuals.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701811

RESUMO

The ultimate challenge of tissue engineering research is the translation of experimental knowledge into clinical application. In the pre-clinical testing phase of any new therapy, animal models remain the gold standard. Therefore, the methodological choice of a suitable model is critical to meet the requirements for a safe clinical application of the developed treatment. For instance, we have shown in rats that the application of calcium phosphate cement (CPC)/propylene glycol alginate (PGA) with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 resulted in the regeneration of periodontal defects. However, it is debated whether using small models form a predictive method for translation to larger species. At the same time, the 3R framework is encouraged as the guiding principles of the ethical use of animal testing. Therefore, based on the successful rat study, the objective of this study was to further investigate the periodontal regenerative efficacy of the CPC/BMP and PGA/FGF system in a periodontal defect model with a low number of non-human primates (NHPs). Three Macaca fascicularis - overstocked from breeding for other purposes - were used (re-use of animals and appropriateness of the experimental animal species according to 3R framework). Three-wall periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible. In total, 10 defects were created and distributed over two groups: 1) control group: PGA+CPC (n=5); 2) experimental group: PGA/FGF+CPC/BMP (n=5). After 3 months, tissue regeneration was evaluated by histomorphometry and radiographic measurements. Data showed that epithelial downgrowth, cementum and ligament regeneration were significantly enhanced in the experimental group compared with the control group (n=5; p=0.013, p=0.028, p=0.018, respectively). However, the amount of newly formed bone did not differ (p=0.146). Overall, as a translational proof-of-principle study, the hybrid periodontal regenerative method of CPC/BMP+PGA/FGF promoted periodontal regeneration in NHPs. This study warrants the application of CPC/BMP/PGA/FGF in clinical trials.

20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702777

RESUMO

Adaptations to different diets represent a hallmark of animal diversity. The diets of birds are highly variable, making them an excellent model system for studying adaptive evolution driven by dietary changes. To test whether molecular adaptations to diet have occurred during the evolution of birds, we examined a dietary enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which tends to target mitochondria in carnivorous mammals, peroxisomes in herbivorous mammals, and both mitochondria and peroxisomes in omnivorous mammals. A total of 31 bird species were examined in this study, which included representatives of most major avian lineages. Of these, 29 have an intact mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) of AGT. This finding is in stark contrast to mammals, which showed a number of independent losses of the MTS. Our cell-based functional assays revealed that the efficiency of AGT mitochondrial targeting was greatly reduced in unrelated lineages of granivorous birds, yet it tended to be high in insectivorous and carnivorous lineages. Furthermore, we found that proportions of animal tissue in avian diets were positively correlated with mitochondrial targeting efficiencies that were experimentally determined, but not with those that were computationally predicted. Adaptive evolution of AGT mitochondrial targeting in birds was further supported by the detection of positive selection on MTS regions. Our study contributes to the understanding of how diet drives molecular adaptations in animals, and suggests that caution must be taken when computationally predicting protein subcellular targeting.

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