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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124571, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472351

RESUMO

Rhodococcus exhibits strong adaptability to environmental stressors and plays a crucial role in environmental bioremediation. However, seasonal changes in ambient temperature, especially rapid temperature drops exert an adverse effect on in situ bioremediation. In this paper, we studied the cell morphology and fatty acid composition of an aniline-degrading strain Rhodococcus sp. CNS16 at temperatures of 30 °C, 20 °C, and 10 °C. At suboptimal temperatures, cell morphology of CNS16 changed from short rod-shaped to long rod or irregular shaped, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids was upregulated. Transcriptomic technologies were then utilized to gain detailed insights into the adaptive mechanisms of CNS16 subjected to suboptimal temperatures. The results showed that the number of gene responses was significantly higher at 10 °C than that at 20 °C. The inhibition of peptidoglycan synthase expression and up-regulation of Filamentous Temperature Sensitive as well as unsaturated fatty acid synthesis genes at suboptimal temperatures might be closely related to corresponding changes in cell morphology and fatty acids composition. Strain CNS16 showed loss of catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, and utilized thioredoxin-dependent thiol peroxidase to resist oxidative stress. The up-regulation of carotenoid and Vitamin B2 synthesis at 10 °C might also be involved in the resistance to oxidative stress. Amino acid metabolism, coenzyme and vitamin metabolism, ABC transport, and energy metabolism are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis and regulation of cellular metabolism; therefore, synergistically resisting environmental stress. This study provides a mechanistic basis for the regulation of aniline degradation in Rhodococcus sp. CNS16 at low temperatures.

2.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-14, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672062

RESUMO

Objective: Poor sleep quality is common in nursing staff. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the pooled prevalence of poor sleep quality in nursing staff.Methods: A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases was performed. Studies that reported sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were synthesized using a random-effects model.Results: Fifty-three studies were analyzed. The pooled prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.0% (95% CI: 55.8-66.1%). The pooled total PSQI score was 7.13 ± 0.18 (95% CI: 6.78-7.50). The pooled component scores were 1.47 ± 0.20 (95% CI of mean score: 1.08-1.85) in sleep latency, 0.91 ± 0.15 (95% CI of mean score: 0.61-1.21) in sleep duration, 1.59 ± 0.13 (95% CI of mean score: 1.35-1.84) in overall sleep disturbances, 0.33 ± 0.18 (95% CI of mean score: 0-0.67) in sleeping medication, 1.21 ± 1.20 (95% CI of mean score: 0.83-1.60) in daytime dysfunction, 1.39 ± 0.14 (95% CI of mean score: 1.11-1.67) in subjective sleep quality, and 0.66 ± 0.11 (95% CI of mean score: 0.44-0.87) in habitual sleep efficiency. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses found that PSQI cutoff values, mean age, body mass index (BMI), sample size, study quality, and work experience moderated the prevalence of poor sleep quality.Conclusions: Poor sleep quality appears to be common in nursing staff. Considering its negative impact on health, effective measures should be taken to improve poor sleep quality in this population. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to examine the contributing factors of nurses' poor sleep quality.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683484

RESUMO

Exaggerated Ca2+ signaling might be one of primary causes of neural dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). And the intracellular Ca2+ overload has been closely associated with amyloid-ß (Aß)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and memory impairments in AD. Here we showed for the first time the neuroprotective effects of Xestospongin C (XeC), a reversible IP3 receptor antagonist, on the cognitive behaviors and pathology of APP/PS1 AD mice. Male APP/PS1-AD mice (n = 20) were injected intracerebroventricularly with XeC (3µmol) via Alzet osmotic pumps for four weeks, followed by cognition tests, Aß plaque examination, and ER stress-related protein measurement. The results showed that XeC pretreatment significantly improved the cognitive behavior of APP/PS1-AD mice, raising the spontaneous alteration accuracy in Y maze, decreasing the escape latency and increasing the target quadrant swimming time in Morris water maze; XeC pretreatment also reduced the number of Aß plaques and the overexpression of ER stress proteins 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), caspase-12, and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. In addition, in vitro experiments showed that XeC effectively ameliorated Aß1 - 42-induced early neuronal apoptosis and intracellular Ca2+ overload in the primary hippocampal neurons. Taken together, IP3R-mediated Ca2+ disorder plays a key role in the cognitive deficits and pathological damages in AD mice. By targeting the IP3 R, XeC might be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy in AD.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121461, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685320

RESUMO

Sulfur-containing materials are very attractive for the efficient decontamination of some heavy metals. However, the effective and irreversible removal of Cd2+, coupled with a high uptake efficiency, remains a great challenge due to the relatively low bond dissociation energy of CdS. Herein, we propose a new strategy to overcome this challenge, by the incorporation of Cd2+ into a stable ZnxCd1-xS solid solution, rather than into CdS. This can be realised through the adsorption of Cd2+ by ZnS nanoparticles, which have exhibited a Cd2+ uptake capacity of approximate 400 mg g-1. Through this adsorption mechanism, the Cd2+ concentration in a contaminated solution could effectively be reduced from 50 ppb to <3 ppb, a WHO limit acceptable for drinking water. In addition, ZnS continued to exhibit this noteworthy uptake capacity even in the presence of Cu2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+. ZnS displayed high chemical stability. Particles aged in air for 3 months still retained a> 80% uptake capacity for Cd2+, compared with only 9% uptake capacity for similarly-aged FeS particles. This work reveals a new mechanism for Cd2+ removal with ZnS and establishes a valuable starting point for further studies into the formation of solid solutions for hazardous heavy metal removal applications.

5.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686504

RESUMO

A concise total synthesis of (±)-conolidine, a potent nonopioid analgesic, in 19% overall yield is described here. A gold(I)-catalyzed Conia-ene reaction (Toste cyclization) and a Pictet-Spengler reaction served as key transformations for assembling the 1-azabicyclo[4.2.2]decane core and defining the geometry of the exocyclic double bond. The activation energies of formation of the vinyl-gold intermediates were calculated and revealed a silyl enol ether with an unprotected indole moiety as a suitable precursor for the Toste cyclization. This six-step synthesis did not involve any nonstrategic redox manipulations.

6.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680376

RESUMO

Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by attacks of moderate or severe headache accompanying functionally and structurally maladaptive changes in brain. As the headache days/month is often measured by patient self-report and tends to be overestimated than actually experienced, the possibility of using neuroimaging data to predict migraine attack frequency is of great interest. To identify neuroimaging features that could objectively evaluate patients' headache days, a total of 179 migraineurs were recruited from two data center with one dataset used as the training/test cohort and the other used as the validating cohort. The guidelines for controlled trials of prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine in adults were used to identify the frequency of attacks and migraineurs were divided into low (MOl) and high (MOh) subgroups. Whole-brain functional connectivity was used to build multivariate logistic regression models with model iteration optimization to identify MOl and MOh. The best model accurately discriminated MOh from MOl with AUC of 0.91 (95%CI [0.86, 0.95]) in the training/test cohort and 0.79 in the validating cohort. The discriminative features were mainly located within the limbic lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. Permutation tests analysis demonstrated that the classification performance of these features was significantly better than chance. Furthermore, the indicator of functional connectivity had a higher odds ratio than behavioral variables with implementing a holistic regression analysis. The current findings suggested that the migraine attack frequency could be distinguished by using machine-learning algorithms, and highlighted the role of brain functional connectivity in revealing underlying migraine-related neurobiology.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675340

RESUMO

Topological data analysis (TDA) is a powerful method for reducing data dimensionality, mining underlying data relationships, and intuitively representing the data structure. The Mapper algorithm is one such tool that projects high-dimensional data to 1-dimensional space by using a filter function that is subsequently used to reconstruct the data topology relationships. However, domain context information and prior knowledge have not been considered in current TDA modeling frameworks. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a semisupervised topological analysis (STA) framework that incorporates discrete or continuously labeled data points and selects the most relevant filter functions accordingly. We validate the proposed STA framework with simulation data and then apply it to samples from Genotype-Tissue Expression data and ovarian cancer transcriptome datasets. The graphs generated by STA for these 2 datasets, based on gene expression profiles, are consistent with prior knowledge, thereby supporting the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 110934, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682931

RESUMO

The novel commensal strain of Bacteroides fragilis HCK-B3 isolated from a healthy Chinese donor was discovered beneficial effects of attenuating lipopolysaccharides-induced inflammation. In order to contribute to the development of natural next-generation probiotic strains, the safety assessment was carried out with in vitro investigations of its morphology, potential virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance, and an in vivo acute toxicity study based on both healthy and immunosuppressed mice by cyclophosphamide injection. Consequently, the potential virulence genes in the genome of B. fragilis HCK-B3 have yet been identified as toxicity-associated. The absence of plasmids prevents the possibility of transferring antibiotic resistance features to other intestinal commensals. No intracorporal pathogenic properties were observed according to the body weight, hematological and liver parameters, cytokine secretions and tissue integrity. In addition, B. fragilis HCK-B3 performed alleviations on part of the side effects caused by the cyclophosphamide treatment. Thus, the novel strain of B. fragilis HCK-B3 was confirmed to be non-toxigenic and did not display adverse effects in both healthy and immune-deficient mice at a routinely applicable dose.

9.
Nanotheranostics ; 3(4): 311-330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687320

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is one of the most common primary tumor types of central nervous system (CNS) with high malignance and lethality. Although many treatment options are currently available, the therapy of brain cancers remains challenging because of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) which prevents most of the chemotherapeutics into the CNS. In this work, a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-based carrier was fabricated and modified with angiopep-2 (Ang2) peptide that has been demonstrated to bind to low density lipoprotein receptor-relative protein-1 (LRP1) on the endothelial cells of BBB and could therefore induce BBB penetration of the carrier. To improve tumor-targeting effect towards the glioma sites, the dendrimer was simultaneously functionalized with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting peptide (EP-1) which was screened from a "one-bead one-compound" (OBOC) combinatorial library. EP-1 peptide was demonstrated to have high affinity and specificity to EGFR at both the molecular and cellular levels. The dual-targeting dendrimer exhibited outstanding BBB penetrability and glioma targeting efficiency both in vitro and in vivo, which strikingly enhanced the anti-gliomas effect of the drugs and prolonged the survival of gliomas-bearing mice. These results show the potential of the dual-targeting dendrimer-based carrier in the therapy of gliomas through enhancing BBB penetrability and tumor targeting.

10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(11): 1107-1110, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis for a pedigree affected with Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: Clinical data of the patients was collected. With genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples, potential mutation was detected by targeted exome sequencing. Candidate variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS: Targeted exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing revealed a missense c.649T to C(p.Trp217Arg) variant in the exon 7 of FBN1 gene, which was unreported previously. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the variant can cause amino acid replacement and affect the structure and function of fibrillin-1. CONCLUSION: A novel missense variant of the FBN1 gene was identified, which probably underlies the autosomal dominant MFS in this pedigree.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703336

RESUMO

Background: Extraction of periodontally compromised or strategically non-important teeth is often an integral part of non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT). This study evaluated the association between the status of adjacent teeth and the outcome of NSPT on molars. Methods: Charting data of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis receiving NSPT in 2012-2014 were included. The association between initial clinical parameters and significant clinical improvement, including the reductions of probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL), in molar teeth with severe periodontitis after NSPT was assessed by a generalized linear model and logistic regression. Results: ≥7 mm PPD and <2 mm gingival recession (REC) at the tooth level, and ≥7 mm PPD, ≥7 mm CAL and <2 mm REC at the site level, were associated with significant clinical improvement. Absence or extraction of an adjacent tooth achieved an additional 0.22-0.23 mm and 0.60-0.83 mm clinical improvement. Among the interproximal sites, ≥7 mm PPD, <2 mm REC, ≥7 mm CAL,

12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 408, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incarceration of the gravid uterus is a rare obstetric disorder that contributes to pregnancy-related complications. To understand its clinical characteristics and managements, we have reviewed the etiology, risk factors, clinical characteristics and current treatments of an incarcerated gravid uterus based on 162 cases reported in the English language literature, including our patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old primigravida, with a history of lymphatic tuberculosis, infertility due to blocked fallopian tubes and received in vitro fertilization. The patient presented with urine retention and lower abdominal pain in the early second trimester. Uterine incarceration was diagnosed based on pelvic examination and abdominal ultrasound. A Foley catheter was placed and manual reposition was successful. No episode of retention was experienced after the further enlargement of the uterus and its ascent. A healthy infant was delivered vaginally on 38th week of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Uterine incarceration due to pelvic adhesions is rare and, because of it non-specific clinical presentations, is often misdiagnosed. Abdominal ultrasound is instrumental for the diagnosis because it can directly image the disturbed uterine and pelvic anatomy. There are limited treatment options for uterine incarceration, but definitive diagnosis allows procedures to treat and to reduce severe complications of uterine incarceration.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109582, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706100

RESUMO

Increasing evidence revealed that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in tumor progression. In the present study, we explored the roles and underlying mechanisms of hsa_circ_0075341 in cervical cancer development. Our data showed that the expression of hsa_circ_0075341 was significantly upregulated and associated with larger tumor size, advanced FIGO stage, and lymph-node metastasis in cervical cancer patients. Hsa_circ_0075341 inhibition reduced cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. In mechanism, hsa_circ_0075341 negatively regulated miR-149-5p in cervical cancer progression. In addition, AURKA was confirmed as a direct target of miR-149-5p in cervical cancer and positively regulated by hsa_circ_0075341. Collectively, our data suggested that hsa_circ_0075341 promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion through regulating the miR-149-5p/AURKA axis, which provided a novel therapeutic target for cervical cancer treatment.

14.
Appl Opt ; 58(28): 7789-7794, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674462

RESUMO

Conventional Czerny-Turner spectrometers exhibit keystone distortion due to astigmatism, which affects their performance when a linear array photomultiplier tube (LaPMT) is used as the detector. We propose a novel optical design of a crossed Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a 32-channel LaPMT detector. We use convergent illumination of the grating to modify the astigmatism of the off-axis spherical mirrors, and the image spot radius at the central wavelength in the sagittal plane is matched with the width of the LaPMT. A first-order equation is derived for the elimination of the broadband keystone distortion. After optimization, the image size over the entire bandwidth matches well with the LaPMT size, which is consistent with the theory, and the spectral resolution is ∼4 nm per channel.

15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701131

RESUMO

Comprehensive genomic analyses of cancers have revealed substantial intrapatient molecular heterogeneities that may explain some instances of drug resistance and treatment failures. Examination of the clonal composition of an individual tumor and its evolution through disease progression and treatment may enable identification of precise therapeutic targets for drug design. Multi-region and single-cell sequencing are powerful tools that can be used to capture intratumor heterogeneity. Here, we present a database we've named CancerTracer (http://cailab.labshare.cn/cancertracer): a manually curated database designed to track and characterize the evolutionary trajectories of tumor growth in individual patients. We collected over 6000 tumor samples from 1548 patients corresponding to 45 different types of cancer. Patient-specific tumor phylogenetic trees were constructed based on somatic mutations or copy number alterations identified in multiple biopsies. Using the structured heterogeneity data, researchers can identify common driver events shared by all tumor regions, and the heterogeneous somatic events present in different regions of a tumor of interest. The database can also be used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between primary and metastatic tumors. It is our hope that CancerTracer will significantly improve our understanding of the evolutionary histories of tumors, and may facilitate the identification of predictive biomarkers for personalized cancer therapies.

16.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578769

RESUMO

MicroRNA-132 (miR-132) has been shown to participate in many diseases. This study aimed to understand the correlation between the level of miR-132 and the severity of dementia post-ischemic stroke. An online tool (www.mirdb.org) was used to find the miR-132 binding site in acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) 3'-untranslated region (UTR), followed by a luciferase reporter assay to validate ACHE as a miR-132 target. A similar relationship between miR-132 and ACHE was also established in cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from human subjects. A negative correlation was established between ACHE and miR-132 by measuring the relative luciferase activity. Meanwhile, Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction were also conducted to compare the levels of ACHE messenger RNA and protein between two groups (dementia positive, n = 26 and dementia negative, n = 26) or among cells treated with miR-132 mimics, ACHE small interfering RNA, and miR-132 inhibitors. As shown in the results, miR-132 can reduce the expression of ACHE. Further experiments were also carried out to study the effect of miR-132 and ACHE on cell viability and apoptosis, and the results demonstrated that miR-132 enhanced cell viability while suppressing apoptosis. In addition, ACHE reduced cell viability while promoting apoptosis. miR-132 targeted ACHE and suppressed its expression. Additionally, miR-132 and ACHE have been shown to affect the cell viability and apoptosis in the central nervous system.

17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594232

RESUMO

Ubiquitin Specific Protease-13 (USP13) is a de-ubiquinating enzyme that regulates protein ubiquitination and clearance. The role of USP13 is largely unknown in neurodegeneration. In this study we aim to demonstrate whether tau accumulation and/or clearance depends on ubiquitination/de-ubiquitination via USP-13. We used transgenic animal models of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) or P301L tau mutations and genetically knocked-down USP13 expression via shRNA to determine USP13 effects on tau ubiquitination and levels. We found a two-fold increase of USP13 levels in postmortem Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. USP13 knockdown significantly increased the activity of the 20S proteasome and reduced the levels of hyper-phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in primary cortical neurons. USP13 knockdown also reduced the levels of amyloid and increased p-tau ubiquitination and clearance in transgenic animal models that overexpress murine tau as a result of the expression of familial APP mutations (TgAPP) and the human mutant P301L tau (rTg4510), respectively. Clearance of p-tau appears to be mediated by autophagy in these animal models. Taken together, these data suggest that USP13 knockdown reduces p-tau accumulation via regulation of ubiquitination/de-ubiquitination and mediates its clearance via autophagy and/or the proteasome. These results suggest that USP13 inhibition may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce accumulation of plaques and toxic p-tau in AD and human tauopathies.

18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 72: 103270, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586870

RESUMO

Cleft palate(CP) is a widely studied congenital malformation. However, its etiology and pathogenesis still remain unclear. Proteins are fundamental molecules that participate in every biological process within cells. In this study, we established CP mouse models induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and retinoic acid (RA), using proteomics technology isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to investigate the key proteins in the formation of CP. Pregnant mice were given a gavage of TCDD 28µg/kg or retinoic acid 80mg/kg of body weight or equivalent corn oil at gestational day 10.5(GD10.5) and sacrificed at GD 17.5. Foetal mice were recorded and collected for further detection. Western blot was performed to verify the iTRAQ results. Eventually, we obtained 18 common differentially expressed proteins in TCDD group and RA group compared with normal control, 17 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated. 14-3-3sigma and Annexin A1 were up-regulated in experimental groups at GD17.5, which was consistent with Western blot. We speculated that the common differentially expressed proteins might be one of the molecular mechanisms in the formation of cleft palate.

19.
Se Pu ; 37(10): 1129-1133, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642294

RESUMO

An effective method was established for the determination and classification of flammable liquids by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). The volatile components, equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time of gravure ink were investigated. The volatile components of flammable liquids were identified by comparison with the standard mass spectrum databases, and quantified by the external standard method. The recoveries were in the range of 92.8%-103.1% with the relative standard deviations between 0.88% and 2.88%. The flash points of the samples were calculated by a prediction model and compared with the experimentally measured values. The results showed that the maximum deviation between the predicted and measured flash points was 3.2℃. This method provides a novel, efficient and convenient way for the classification of flammable liquids.

20.
Environ Pollut ; : 113353, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662268

RESUMO

Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are receiving increasing concern due to their toxicity and ubiquity in the environment. To avoid restrictions imposed when using a high-volume active sampler, this study uses tree leaves to act as passive samplers to investigate the spatial distribution characteristics and sources of airborne EPFRs. Tree leaf samples were collected from 120 sites in five areas around China (each approximately 4 km × 4 km). EPFR concentrations in particles (<2 µm) on the surface of 110 leaf samples were detected, ranging from 7.5 × 1016 to 4.5 × 1019 spins/g. For the 10 N.D. samples, they were all collected from areas inaccessible by vehicles. The g-values of EPFRs on 68% leaf samples were larger than 2.004, suggesting the electron localized on the oxygen atom, and they were consistent with the road dust sample (g-value: 2.0042). Significant positive correlation was found between concentrations of elemental carbon (tracer of vehicle emissions) and EPFRs. Spatial distribution mapping showed that EPFR levels in various land uses differed noticeably. Although previous work has linked atmospheric EPFRs to waste incineration, the evidence in this study suggests that vehicle emissions, especially from heavy-duty vehicles, are the main sources. While waste incinerators with low emissions or effective dust-control devices might not be an important EPFR contributor. According to our estimation, over 90% of the EPFRs deposited on tree leaves might be attributed to automotive exhaust emissions, as a synergistic effect of primary exhausts and degradation of aromatic compounds in road dust. With adding the trapping agent into the particle samples (<2 µm), signals of hydroxyl radicals were observed. This indicates that EPFRs collected from this phytosampling method can lead to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) once they are inhaled by human beings. Thus, this study helps highlight EPFR "hotspots" for potential health risk identification.

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