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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150463

RESUMO

Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands (SAMPL) challenges provide routes to compare chemical quantities determined using computational chemistry approaches to experimental measurements that are shared after the competition. For this effort, several computational methods have been used to calculate the binding energies of Octa Acid (OA) and exo-Octa Acid (exoOA) host-guest systems for SAMPL7. The initial poses for molecular dynamics (MD) were generated by molecular docking. Binding free energy calculations were performed using molecular mechanics combined with Poisson-Boltzmann or generalized Born surface area solvation (MMPBSA/MMGBSA) approaches. The factors that affect the utility of the MMPBSA/MMGBSA approaches including solvation, partial charge, and solute entropy models were also analyzed. In addition to MD calculations, quantum mechanics (QM) calculations were performed using several different density functional theory (DFT) approaches. From SAMPL6 results, B3PW91-D3 was found to overestimate binding energies though it was effective for geometry optimizations, so it was considered for the DFT geometry optimizations in the current study, with single-point energy calculations carried out with B2PLYP-D3 with double-, triple-, and quadruple-ζ level basis sets. Accounting for dispersion effects, and solvation models was deemed essential for the predictions. MMGBSA and MMPBSA correlated better to experiment when used in conjunction with an empirical/linear correction.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164010

RESUMO

To evaluate how halogen and actinide atoms affect the electronic structures and bonding nature, we have theoretically investigated a series of the actinide halides An(TRENTIPS)X (An = Th-Pu; X = F-I); several of them have been synthesized by Liddle's group. The An-X bond distances decrease from An = Th to Pu for the same halides, and the harmonic vibrational frequencies for the An-X bonds are more susceptible to being affected by the halogen atoms. The analyses of bonding nature reveal that the An-X bonds have a certain covalency with a polarized character, and the σ-bonding component in the total orbital contribution is greatly larger than the corresponding π-bonding ones based on the analysis of the NOCVs (the natural orbitals for chemical valence). Furthermore, the electronic structures of the thorium complexes are obviously different from those of the uranium and transuranic analogues due to more valence electrons in Th 6d orbitals. In addition, thermodynamic results suggest that the U(TRENTIPS)Br complex is the most stable and U(TRENTIPS)Cl has the highest reactivity based on the halide exchange reaction of U(TRENTIPS)X complexes using Me3SiX. The reduction ability of the tetravalent An(TRENTIPS)X is sensitive to halogen atoms according to the calculated electron affinity of the An(TRENTIPS)X and the reactions An(TRENTIPS)X + K → An(TRENTIPS) + KX. This work presents the effect of the halogen and the actinide atoms on the structures, bonding nature and redox ability of a series of the tetravalent actinide halides with TREN ligand and facilitates our in-depth understanding of f-block elements, which could provide theoretical guidance for experimental work on actinide halides, especially for the synthetic chemistry of transuranic halides.

3.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144678

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and has one of the poorest prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IPF progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we determined that IL-24, an IL-20 subfamily cytokine member, was increased both in the serum of IPF patients and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice following bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. As a result, IL-24 deficiency protected mice from BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Specifically, loss of IL-24 significantly attenuated transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) production and reduced M2 macrophage infiltration in the lung of BLM-induced mice. Mechanistically, IL-24 alone did not show a perceptible impact on the induction of M2 macrophages, but it synergized with IL-4 to promote M2 program in macrophages. IL-24 suppressed IL-4-induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3, through which it enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 6/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (STAT6/PPARγ) signaling, thereby promoting IL-4-induced production of M2 macrophages. Collectively, our data support that IL-24 synergizes with IL-4 to promote macrophage M2 program contributing to the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

4.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159537

RESUMO

SUMOylation has long been recognized to regulate multiple biological processes in pancreatic beta cells, but its impact on proinsulin disulfide maturation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains elusive. Herein, we conducted comparative proteomic analyses of SUMOylated proteins in primary mouse/human islets following proinflammatory cytokine stimulation. Cytokine challenge rendered beta cells to undergo a SUMOylation turnover manifested by the changes of SUMOylation substrates and SUMOylation levels for multiple substrates. Our data support that SUMOylation may play a crucial role to regulate proinsulin misfolding and ER stress at least by targeting Protein Disulfide Isomerase a3 (Pdia3). SUMOylation regulates Pdia3 enzymatic activity, subcellular localization, and protein binding ability. Furthermore, SUMOylation of Pdia3 exacerbated proinsulin misfolding and ER stress, and repressed Stat3 activation. In contrast, disruption of Pdia3 SUMOylation markedly rescued the outcomes. Collectively, our study expands the understanding how SUMOylation regulates ER stress in beta cells, which shed light on developing potential strategies against beta cell dysfunction.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8829328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149813

RESUMO

Brain injury induced by cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) is the leading cause of death among patients who have recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Inflammatory response, apoptosis, and oxidative stress are proven pathological mechanisms implicated in neuronal damage. Methane-rich saline (MRS) has been proven that exerts a beneficial protectiveness impact in several models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The goal of this paper is to ascertain the role of MRS in CA/CPR-induced brain injury and its potential mechanisms. The tracheal intubation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was clamped for 6 min to establish an asphyxiating cardiac arrest model. After that, chest compressions were applied; then, MRS or saline was administered immediately post-ROSC, the rats were sacrificed, and brain tissue was collected at the end of 6 hours. We observed that MRS treatment attenuated neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 region by inhibiting microglial activation, leading to a decrease in the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS. The results also illustrated that MRS treatment diminished apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region , reduced the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins Bax and cleaved caspase9, and increased Bcl-2 expression, as well as inhibited the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway-related proteins GRP78, ATF4, and CHOP. Further findings showed that MRS treatment significantly attenuated hippocampal ROS and MDA levels and increased GSH and SOD antioxidant factor levels, which indicated that MRS treatment could inhibit oxidative stress. Our results suggest that MRS exerts a protective effect against CA/CPR brain injury, by inhibiting oxidative stress, microglial activation-induced inflammatory responses, and ER stress-mediated apoptosis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176930

RESUMO

For solvent-free catalytic oxidations, low efficiency resulted from poor mass transfer and insufficient utilization of active centers remains a tough problem. Herein, we demonstrate a novel hybrid core-shell catalyst (TS@PMO) with an amphiphilic shell and a Ti-surface-enriched mesoporous TiO2-SiO2 (TS) core to address this challenge. Such TS@PMO realizes its amphiphilicity via an ex situ formed periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) shell. Simultaneously, by a unique etching effect induced by organic precursor growth on [SiO4] tetrahedra in TS core, active Ti sites are facilely enriched in near-surface layer of core and extra mesoporous cavities are introduced for substrate reservation. When applied for solvent-free epoxidation of methyl oleate (MO) with H2O2, TS@PMO exhibits remarkably boosted catalytic activity (X = 90.2%) and epoxide selectivity (S = 70.2%), overwhelming the unmodified titanosilicate (X = 63.7%, S = 49.2%) and Ti-containing organosilica (X = 39.8%, S = 25.0%). Such result benefits from an evidently enhanced interphase mass transfer and sufficiently accessible active Ti sites in TS@PMO. On the one hand, amphiphilic PMO shell can efficiently collect hydrophobic substrate and H2O2, while abundant mesopores in the shell offer open-path for them to access active sites in the core; on the other hand, an increased framework Ti (IV) density and their surface-enrichment in TS core greatly improve the utilization of active Ti sites. This study effectively makes up for the deficiencies of slow mass transfer and insufficient utilization of conventional titanosilicates in biphasic reactions, which paves a new avenue to exploit other hybrid catalysts for high-efficiency solvent-free catalysis.

7.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 108, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI), which is induced by numerous pathogenic factors, especially sepsis, can generate alveolar damage, pulmonary edema and vascular hyper-permeability ultimately leading to severe hypoxemia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is an important member of the FGF family associated with endothelial cell migration and proliferation, and injury repairment. Here, we conducted this study aiming to evaluate the therapeutic effect of FGF2 in sepsis-induced ALI. METHODS: Recombinant FGF2 was abdominally injected into septic mice induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and then the inflammatory factors of lung tissue, vascular permeability and lung injury-related indicators based on protein levels and gene expression were detected. In vitro, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) and mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were challenged by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with or without FGF2 administration in different groups, and then changes in inflammation indicators and cell permeability ability were tested. RESULTS: The results revealed that FGF2 treatment reduced inflammation response, attenuated pulmonary capillary leakage, alleviated lung injury and improved survival in septic mice. The endothelial injury and macrophages inflammation induced by LPS were inhibited by FGF2 administration via AKT/P38/NF-κB signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated a therapeutic role of FGF2 in ALI through ameliorating capillary leakage and inflammation.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt A): 124342, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157439

RESUMO

This study used an intermittent self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR) to treat food waste. The organic matter and detailed composition evolution were analyzed under continuous operation. The gas production rate was 2.43 ± 0.18 L-Gas/d/L-Re, and the biogas conversion was 0.94 L-Gas/g-TS. The effluent concentration of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 22.5 ± 2.44 g/L, and the removal rate of soluble COD was always over 97%. In this study, the removal rates of carbohydrate, protein, and lipids in the SA-ABR treatment were 95%, 60%, and 85%, respectively, and the concentrations were 0.11 g/L, 0.32 g/L, and 0.33 g/L, respectively. The conversion of soluble organic matter was much higher than that of insoluble substrates. The concentration of soluble pollutants was significantly lower than that of pollutants in suspended matter. The treatment of organic matter in the first half of the SA-ABR was 85-100% that of the entire reactor.

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt B): 124375, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186802

RESUMO

The combustion behaviours of three components, namely hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, and four types of biomass, namely rice straw, bamboo, peanut shell, and chestnut shell, were examined in a drop tube furnace set at 1273 K, in O2/N2 atmospheres containing 21-100% O2. Radiant energy analysis technology was employed to infer the temperatures of the samples. The results show that the ignition mechanisms of cellulose and hemicellulose change at 30% and 70% O2, respectively, and the lignin particle ignites homogeneously at 20-30% O2, heterogeneously at 50% O2, and hetero-homogeneously at 70-100% O2, respectively. The changes in the ignition mechanisms of biomass particles with lignin content > 10% and < 10% under a certain oxygen concentration depend considerably on the lignin and cellulose contents in the biomass particle, respectively. The expansion of biomass particles with lignin content > 10% and < 10% during combustion process are caused by lignin and hemicellulose, respectively.

11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112652, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007613

RESUMO

Wearable electronics have been extensively studied owing to their capability of undertaking continuous multi-task for daily needs. Meanwhile, lightweight, flexible, and wearable power sources that enable high-power and sustainable energy conversion from ambient resources (e.g. bodily fluids) have attracted attention. We propose a wearable and flexible textile-based biofuel cell using moisture management fabric (MMF) widely used in sportswear as a transport layer for sustainable and high-power energy harvesting. The reduction of PB-modified cathode is driven by the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GOD-modified anode, and this enables a single-compartment structure where MMF acts as biofuel transport media. MMF made of polyester can naturally induce a continuous, high-speed flow which facilitates molecule transport for efficient chemical reactions without an additional pump. The resulting highly efficient power generation in MMF is explored and verified by comparing it with those of cotton and paper. Additionally, multi-stack biofuel cell in both parallel and series was successfully realized, and the open circuit voltage and maximum power reached 1.08 V and 80.2 µW, respectively. Integrated into a bandage and sportswear, a six-stack biofuel cell was able to generate sufficient electrical power from human sweat and turn on a sports watch directly. Owing to low-cost and scalable fabrication process, the proposed biofuel cell has great potential to be systematically integrated into clothes, and generate sufficient and sustainable electrical power for wearable electronics using biofuel (e.g. glucose, lactase) from various bodily fluids, like sweat and urine.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4694, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020471

RESUMO

Tough hydrogels that are capable of efficient mechanical energy dissipation and withstanding large strains have potential applications in diverse areas. However, most reported fabrication strategies are performed in multiple steps with long-time UV irradiation or heating at high temperatures, limiting their biological and industrial applications. Hydrogels formed with a single pair of mechanisms are unstable in harsh conditions. Here we report a one-step, biocompatible, straightforward and general strategy to prepare tough soft hydrogels in a few tens of seconds under mild conditions. With a multimechanism design, the network structures remarkably improve the mechanical properties of hydrogels and maintain their high toughness in various environments. The broad compatibility of the proposed method with a spectrum of printing technologies makes it suitable for potential applications requiring high-resolution patterns/structures. This strategy opens horizons to inspire the design and application of high-performance hydrogels in fields of material chemistry, tissue engineering, and flexible electronics.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22350, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography is the first choice for clinical diagnosis and differentiation of thyroid cancer Currently. However, due to the complexity and overlapping nature of the thyroid nodule sonograms, it remains difficult to accurately identify nodules with atypical ultrasound characteristics. Previous studies showed that superb microvascular imaging (SMI) can detect tumor neovascularization to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. However, the results of these studies have been contradictory with low sample sizes. This meta-analysis tested the hypothesis that SMI is accurate in distinguishing benign and malignant thyroid nodules. METHODS: We will search PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese biomedical databases from their inceptions to the August 20, 2020, without language restrictions. Two authors will independently carry out searching literature records, scanning titles and abstracts, full texts, collecting data, and assessing risk of bias. Review Manager 5.2 and Stata14.0 software ((Stata Corp, College Station, TX) will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This systematic review will determine the accuracy of SMI in distinguishing thyroid nodules. CONCLUSION: Its findings will provide helpful evidence for the accuracy of SMI in in distinguishing thyroid nodules.Systematic review registration: INPLASY202080084.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046843

RESUMO

Electrets are dielectric materials that have a quasi-permanent dipole polarization. A single-molecule electret is a long-sought-after nanoscale component because it can lead to miniaturized non-volatile memory storage devices. The signature of a single-molecule electret is the switching between two electric dipole states by an external electric field. The existence of these electrets has remained controversial because of the poor electric dipole stability in single molecules. Here we report the observation of a gate-controlled switching between two electronic states in Gd@C82. The encapsulated Gd atom forms a charged centre that sets up two single-electron transport channels. A gate voltage of ±11 V (corresponding to a coercive field of ~50 mV Å-1) switches the system between the two transport channels with a ferroelectricity-like hysteresis loop. Using density functional theory, we assign the two states to two different permanent electrical dipole orientations generated from the Gd atom being trapped at two different sites inside the C82 cage. The two dipole states are separated by a transition energy barrier of 11 meV. The conductance switching is then attributed to the electric-field-driven reorientation of the individual dipole, as the coercive field provides the necessary energy to overcome the transition barrier.

15.
J Investig Med ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004469

RESUMO

To investigate the predictive ability of serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) with coronary artery lesions (CALs). Patients with KD hospitalized in Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Northwest China, from November 2015 to January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed, and clinical trial indicators and peripheral blood specimens were collected before intravenous immunoglobulin therapy treatment. The independent risk factors were determined using multivariate regression analysis. The net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were used to quantitatively evaluate the ability of MMP-9 to improve the efficiency of predicting KD with CALs. The white cell, neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were higher in patients with higher MMP-9, and the monocyte percentage was higher in patients with lower MMP-9. Logistic regression analysis revealed that long-term fever; elevated CRP, ESR, platelets (PLT), and MMP-9; and low albumin (ALB) levels were independent predictors of KD with CALs. A predictive model of KD with CALs using fever duration, CRP, ESR, PLT, and ALB showed significantly improved predictive ability when MMP-9 was added to the model (the area under the curve increased by 0.02; no change in sensitivity; specificity increased from 81.48% to 87.04%; NRI value: 13.46%; IDI value: 5.00%, p<0.05). Adding MMP-9 to traditional risk factors may improve prediction of CALs, the overall predictive ability of model 2 was increased by 5%.

16.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002242

RESUMO

Unfavorable clinical outcomes after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction, such as early osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint, were considered to be associate with tunnel malpositioning. Length change studies have found that small changes in the femoral position can cause great changes in elongation trends. Further studying the MPFL kinematics may help us to understand the consequences of tunnel malpositioning and optimize the reconstruction techniques. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied with a combined computed tomography and biplane fluoroscopic imaging technique during a lunge motion. Five femoral and three patellar attachments were used to simulate different MPFL bundles. Kinematics of MPFL was defined as elongation and orientation changes (i.e., deviation angle and elevation angle). The mean deviation angle was 28.7° (95% confidence interval, 28.0°-29.4°) at full extension and remained nearly unchanged up to 60° of flexion, and increased to 56.5° (54.1°-58.9°) at 110°. The elevation angle decreased linearly from 12.6° (9.3°-15.9°) at full extension to -86.2° (-92.7-79.7°) at 110° of flexion. The MPFL was most stretched anteriorly and laterally relative to femur from full extension to 30° of flexion and remained near isometric beyond 30°. The current study found that proximal and anterior femoral attachments caused excessive lateral stretching of the MPFL at deeper flexion angles. Such abnormal MPFL kinematics may subsequently cause overconstraint and increased cartilage pressures of the medial patellofemoral joint.

17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 276, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by the airway and lung inflammation, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among smokers over 40 years of age and individuals exposed to biomass smoke. Although the detailed mechanisms of this disease remain elusive, there is feasible evidence that protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) may play a role in its pathoetiology. We thus conducted studies to dissect the effect of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) on the change of SUMOylated substrates in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEs). METHODS: Samples were collected in HBEs with or without 24 h of CSE insult and then subjected to Western-blot and LC-MS/MS analysis. Subsequently, bioinformatic tools were used to analyze the data. The effect of SUMOylation on cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: It was noted that CSE stimulated HBEs to undergo a SUMOylation turnover as evidenced by the changes of SUMOylated substrates and SUMOylation levels for a particular substrate. The SUMOylated proteins are relevant to the regulation of biological processes, molecular function and cellular components. Particularly, CSE stimulated a significant increase of SUMOylated CYP1A1, a critical enzyme involved in the induction of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a protein SUMOylation profile for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying COPD and support that smoking induces oxidative stress in HBEs, which may predispose to the development of COPD in clinical settings.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082815

RESUMO

Background: Colla Cornus Cervi (CCC) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the bioavailability of CCC is seriously limited owing to its large molecular weight and complex ingredients. In the present study, antler polypeptide was separated from CCC, and the effects of antler polypeptide on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were investigated. Methods: Antler polypeptide was separated from Colla Cornus Cervi by ultrafiltration into different samples according to the molecular weight. The total peptide content of these samples was determined by the biuret method. The content of antler polypeptide in different samples was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of antler polypeptide at different concentrations on the proliferation, cell cycle, alkaline phosphatase activity, and BMP7 expression of BMSCs were investigated. Results: Antler polypeptide was separated by ultrafiltration into different samples: A (molecular weight <800 Da), B (molecular weight 800-1500 Da), and C (molecular weight >1500 Da). The total peptide contents of A, B, and C were 0.602 mg/mL, 8.976 mg/mL, and 38.88 mg/mL. Antler polypeptide B eluted at 14.279∼15.351 min showed that the content of antler polypeptide was significantly higher than that of A and C with a peak area of 933.80927. The BMSCs proliferation rate (84.66%) of polypeptide B was the highest at the concentration of 1.578 × 10-2 g/mL. Antler polypeptide B significantly promoted the proliferation of BMSCs with a proliferation index of 38.68%, which was significantly higher than that of the other groups. Antler polypeptide B significantly enhanced the activity of alkaline phosphatase in BMSCs compared to that of the blank group (P < 0.001). Antler polypeptide B increased the BMP7 protein expression in BMSCs. Conclusions: Results suggested that antler polypeptide may promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Our study lays an experimental foundation for the further development and application of antler polypeptide in medicine.

19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4514-4524, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124383

RESUMO

To investigate the occurrence, distribution, and potential risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the South costal area of China, a total of 20 PPCPs in water and aquatic organisms (fish, crab, and shellfish), obtained from 7 coastal rivers of the Chaoshan area, were determined using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that up to 16 to 18 kinds of PPCPs could be detected in the rivers and aquatic organisms of the Chaoshan area, and the concentrations of PPCPs in the rivers and organisms ranged from 0.30-2223 ng ·L-1 to 0.143-80.3 ng ·g-1, respectively, with a high detection rate for many pollutants. Significant differences were observed in the samples of water and organisms. The total concentration of PPCPs in the rivers of the Chaoshan area was in the order of Huanggang River > Lianjiang River > Huangjiang River > Longjiang River > Luohe River > Rongjiang River > Hanjiang River, with the dominance of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). The total concentrations of PPCPs in the aquatic organisms from the Huanggang River, Hanjiang River, Lianjiang River, and Luohe River were higher than the concentrations of PPCPs in the aquatic organisms from the Longjiang River and Rongjiang River, with a dominance of trimethoprim (TMP), SMX, and CAF. The total concentration of PPCPs in fish was significantly higher than that in crab and shellfish. The results of bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that a variety of PPCPs were accumulated in the organisms from the Chaoshan rivers; among them, the BCF value in fish was higher, which was more likely to bioaccumulate than crabs and shellfish. The ecological risks in terms of risk quotient (RQ) for 12 typical PPCPs were assessed in the Chaoshan area. It was discovered that the risk for fleas and algae was significantly higher than that for fish. The RQ values of SMX, erythromycin (ERY), and sulfadiazine (SDZ) were all greater than 1, which posed potential ecological risks for algae in the Huanggang River and Lianjiang Rivers and for fleas in the Huangjiang River.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Rios , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(44): 49281-49296, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100013

RESUMO

The creative integration of sp-hybridized carbon atoms into artificial carbon graphdiyne has led to graphdiyne with superior properties in terms of uniformly distributed pores, ambipolar carrier transport, natural bandgap, and broadband absorption. Consequently, graphdiyne, regarded as a promising carbon material, has garnered particular attention in light-matter interactions. Light-matter interactions play an important role in optical information technology and meet the increasing demand for various energy sources. Herein, the status and challenges in nonlinear photonic and optoelectronic applications of graphdiyne, which are still in the infancy stage, are summarized. Furthermore, the bottleneck and perspective of graphdiyne in these aspects are discussed. It is therefore anticipated that this review could promote the development of graphdiyne in photonic and optoelectronic fields.

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