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1.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105226, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634454

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, and it is also a widely prevalent foodborne parasitic disease. At present, albendazole and benzimidazole are the most commonly used therapeutic drugs for the clinical treatment of trichinellosis, but they have many side effects. Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that has biological activity, such as antibacterial, antitumour and antiparasitic activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the anti-Trichinella effect of sanguinarine in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that sanguinarine had a lethal effect on muscle larvae, adults and new-borne larvae in vitro. The damage to adults treated with sanguinarine was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Sanguinarine could significantly reduce the burden of worms in mice during the pre-adult, migrating larva and encysted larva stages. The ratio of intestinal villus to crypt (V/C) in mice treated with sanguinarine was significantly higher than that in non-treated control mice. Compared with the non-treated control group, the sanguinarine-treated group exhibited a significantly increased number of small intestine goblet cells. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the serum of mice treated with sanguinarine was significantly higher than that of the control group mice in the pre-adult and encysted larva stages. This study suggests that sanguinarine is a potential drug against trichinellosis.

2.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 132: 109413, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731953

RESUMO

t-Butyl 6-cyano-(3R,5R)-dihydroxyhexanoate ((3R,5R)-2) is an important building-block of atorvastatin. In our previous work, a variant KlAKR-Y295W-W296 L (designated as M1) of Kluyveromyces lactis aldo-keto reductase (wild type (WT) KlAKR, M0) was developed, which possessed strict diastereoselectivity but moderate activity towards t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((5R)-1). To further improve its catalytic performance, semi-rational engineering of M1 was performed in present work, and the "best" varaint KlAKR-Y295W-W296L-I125V-S30P-Q212R-I63W (M8) was developed. M8's KmB towards (5R)-1 was 2.02 mM, and the catalytic efficiency (kcat/KmB) value was 36.31 s-1 mM-1, which was 1.9-fold higher than that of the parent M1. Compared with M1, the half-life t1/2, TS5050 and TP5050 of M8 were improved. Under the optimized conditions, (5R)-1 at load of up to 80 g L-1 was completely reduced in 1.5 h by M8 along with Exiguobacterium sibiricum glucose dehydrogenase (EsGDH) for cofactor regeneration, producing (3R,5R)-2 in dep > 99.5% and space-time yields (STY) of 660.0 g L-1d-1.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121023, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476717

RESUMO

Pesticide residues pose a great threat to human health, and it is an urgent matter to realize fast and accurate detection of pesticide. SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering), as a nondestructive detection technology, performs a prominent role in fast detection field due to the strong surface plasmon resonance from short range effect between analyte and nanoparticle. Therefore, in order to solve the incompatibility between organochlorine pesticides molecules and noble metal nanoparticles, this paper proposed a concept of "bridge" substances acting as an interconnect function role to achieve a binding model (object-binder-metal (OBM)) and developed a droplet concentration method to enhance Raman signals. Both combination mode of pesticide molecules to bridge molecules and energy transfer of SERS experiment may relate to the compound ring according to the changes of peaks based on surface plasmon resonance. The selectivity and stability of different bridge substances interacting with pesticides molecules were illumined via binding energy of these two substances obtained by DFT calculations. A droplet can capture nanoparticles and analytes, which is conducive to SERS performance. Chloride ions in the solution contribute to rearrangement of nanoparticles and can validly promote surface activation of Ag nanoparticles to improve energy transfer efficiency of plasma resonance, resulting in superior SERS effect.

4.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1821-1837, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432516

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) has a marked influence on adipose tissue development. Adipose tissue formation is initiated with proliferation of preadipocytes and migration before undergoing further differentiation into mature adipocytes. Previous studies showed that collagen I (col I) provides a good substratum for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to grow and migrate. However, it remains unclear whether and how col I regulates adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes. This study reports that lipid accumulation, representing in vitro adipogenesis of the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or the mouse primary adipocyte precursor cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the inguinal region is inhibited by the culture on col I, owing to downregulation of adipogenic factors. Previous study shows that col I enhances 3T3-L1 cell migration via stimulating the nuclear translocation of yes-associated protein (YAP). In this study, we report that downregulation of YAP is associated with in vitro adipogenesis of preadipocytes as well as with in vivo adipose tissue of high-fat diet fed mice. Increased expression of YAP in the cells cultured on col I-coated dishes is correlated with repression of adipogenic differentiation processes. The inactivation of YAP using YAP inhibitor, verteporfin, or YAP small-interfering RNA enhanced adipogenic differentiation and reversed the inhibitory effect of col I. Activation of YAP either by the transfection of YAP plasmid or the silence of large tumor suppressor 1 (LATS1), an inhibitory kinase of YAP, inhibited adipogenic differentiation. The results indicate that col I inhibits adipogenic differentiation via YAP activation in vitro.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109877, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704320

RESUMO

Salinity represents a serious environmental threat to crop production and by extension, to world food supply, social and economic prosperity of the developing world. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant signal molecule involved in regulating various plant responses to stress. In the present study, we characterized the regulatory role of exogenous SA for their ability to ameliorate deleterious effects of salt stress (0, 100, 150, 200 mM NaCl) in choysum plants through coordinated induction of antioxidants, ascorbate glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, and the glyoxalase enzymes. An increase in salt stress dramatically declined root and shoot growth, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC), subsequently increased electrolyte leakage (EL) and osmolytes accumulation in choysum plants. Salt stress disrupted the antioxidant and glyoxalase defense systems which persuaded oxidative damages and carbonyl toxicity, indicated by increased H2O2 generation, lipid peroxidation, and methylglyoxal (MG) content. However, application of SA had an additive effect on the growth of salt-affected choysum plants, which enhanced root length, plant biomass, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and RWC. Moreover, SA application effectively eliminated the oxidative and carbonyl stress by improving AsA and GSH pool, upregulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes associated with AsA-GSH cycle and glyoxalase system. Overall, SA application completely counteracted the salinity-induced deleterious effects of 100 and 150 mM NaCl and partially mediated that of 200 mM NaCl stress. Therefore, we concluded that SA application induced tolerance to salinity stress in choysum plants due to the synchronized increase in activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, enhanced efficiency of AsA-GSH cycle and the MG detoxification systems.

6.
Gene ; 722: 144101, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479714

RESUMO

The catadromous species, eels, invariably exposed to variable Ca2+ concentrations circumstance i.e., lagoon or ocean. They need to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis by exchanging Ca2+ under different culture conditions. To understand the effects of environmental Ca2+ to fish, three types of genes coding for voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels (cacnb1, 2, 3) were cloned by screening an A. marmorata cDNA library. Tissue distribution analysis of Western blot showed that Cacnb1, 2, 3 had a significantly high expression in gill; while mRNA results showed the expressions of cacnb1 and cacnb3 were predominated in skin tissue but only cacnb2 was expressed in intestine. Serum osmolality and Ca2+ concentrations of A.marmorata were increased in a high calcium environment while reduced in a low calcium environment within 7 days; however, they were not significantly different among Ca2+ treatments after the eels were acclimated for 7 days. We also examined the influence of ambient Ca2+ levels on cacnbs expression of eels. With the increasing of exposure time, mRNA and protein expressions of cacnb1 were up-regulated in high level of Ca2+ (10 mM) and down-regulated in deficient Ca2+ (0 mM) compared to the control Ca2+ (2 mM). However, the opposite results were observed in cacnb2 and cacnb3. Notably, the cacnb2 expression was not significant different among Ca2+ treatments on day 7. Our study provided the insightful evidence that cacnbs play important roles in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis of fish.


Assuntos
Anguilla/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Cálcio/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Anguilla/sangue , Anguilla/genética , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Brânquias/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Biophys Chem ; 256: 106282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756664

RESUMO

Structural investigations, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, are performed on tea catechins, including 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA), L-theanine (Thea), caffeine (CAF), theobromine (TB), theophylline (TP), catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin (GC), epigallocatechin (EGC), catechin gallate (CG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), gallocatechin gallate (GCG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). With an identified lowest energy conformer of investigated molecules, FTIR and FT-Raman spectra have been assigned according to DFT calculations in the way of B3LYP/6-31 + G (d, p). Normal spectra of these catechin powders are also measured by Raman spectrometers. There is a kind of everlasting correlation between experimental results and theoretical data. And our research has also obtained a clear evidence for reliable assignments of vibrational bands, bringing great feasibility to the rapid tea catechin detection.

8.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(3): 1660-1669, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492328

RESUMO

Cu-BTC was synthesised by hydrothermal method in this study to adsorb and remove the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in water. The EDTA-chitosan/Cu-BTC was prepared by the surface modification of Cu-BTC with EDTA-modified chitosan. The initial concentration effects of adsorbed chromium solution, adsorbent dosage, adsorption time, adsorption temperature and pH of chromium solution on adsorption capacity were estimated using the single-factor optimisation experiment. Results show that the adsorption capacity of the modified composite was higher than that of Cu-BTC. Cu-BTC and EDTA-chitosan/Cu-BTC exhibited significant adsorption of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions in water and basically independent of temperature. Their adsorption processes conformed with the pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model obtained the adsorption isotherm, which indicated that the adsorption process was single molecule adsorption. Isotherm fitting obtained the maximum adsorption amounts of Cr(VI) for Cu-BTC and EDTA-chitosan/Cu-BTC at 27.32 and 46.51 mg·g-1, respectively. Factor and principal component analyses show that the main factors affecting the adsorption of Cr(VI) in the EDTA-chitosan/Cu-BTC composites are pH, initial concentration and adsorption time. Therefore, EDTA-chitosan-modified Cu-BTC was a more feasible metal-organic framework material than Cu-BTC because of better adsorption performance, which can be used for adsorption removal of Cr(VI) in water.

9.
J Proteomics ; : 103598, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785380

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) infection induces porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and multisystemic inflammatory lesions in piglets and sows. To better understand the host responses to PCV3 infection, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling combined with LC-MS/MS analysis was used for quantitative determination of differentially regulated cellular proteins in the lungs of specific-pathogen-free piglets after 4 weeks of PCV3 infection. Totally, 3429 proteins were detected in three independent mass spectrometry analyses, of which 242 differential cellular proteins were significantly regulated, consisting of 100 upregulated proteins and 142 downregulated proteins in PCV3-infected group relative to control group. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these higher or lower abundant proteins involved primarily metabolic processes, innate immune response, MHC-I and MHC-II components, and phagosome pathways. Ten genes encoding differentially regulated proteins were selected for investigation via real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of six representative proteins, OAS1, Mx1, ISG15, IFIT3, SOD2, and HSP60, were further confirmed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. This study attempted for the first time to investigate the protein profile of PCV3-infected piglets using iTRAQ technology; our findings provide valuable information to better understand the mechanisms underlying the host responses to PCV3 infection in piglets. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identified differentially abundant proteins related to a variety of potential signaling pathways in the lungs of PCV3-infected piglets. These findings provide valuable information to better understand the mechanisms of host responses to PCV3 infection.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790597

RESUMO

The demand for air filtration materials in recent years has been substantially increasing on a worldwide scale because people are paying extensive attention to particulate matter (PM) pollution. In this work, we report a type of needle-punched triboelectric air filter (N-TAF) consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fibers modified by silica nanoparticles and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) fibers. Compared to conventional electrostatic precipitators, the N-TAF can be charged online by a unique nonwoven processing technology without additional energy consumption and toxic ozone emission. Owing to the triboelectrification effect, a large number of charges were generated during the process of carding and needle-punching, resulting in an increased filtration performance. Benefiting from the addition of silica nanoparticles, the PTFE fibers are endowed with many pores and grooves and substantial surface roughness, which contributes to the enhancement of triboelectrification. As a result, the N-TAF with 2 wt% silica nanoparticles (N-TAF-2) exhibited a high removal efficiency of 89.4% for PM, which is 45% higher than unmodified N-TAF (61.8%), and a low pressure drop of 18.6 Pa. Meanwhile, the decay of the removal efficiency for N-TAF-2 retained at a low level (6.4%) for 60 days. More importantly, N-TAF-2 could realize a high efficiency of 99.7% and a low pressure drop of 55.4 Pa at a high surface density. In addition, the washed N-TAF has an excellent charge regeneration performance via air blowing or manual rubbing, thus recovering the removal efficiency easily and rapidly. Ultimately, the powerful dust holding capacity (227 g m-2) for N-TAF-2 indicates that the filter has a long service life, which makes it a promising air purification material. The filter reported in this work has the potential to be practically applied to air purification fields because it has excellent filtration performance and is easy to be produced on a large industrial scale.

11.
J BUON ; 24(5): 1824-1829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786843

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colon cancer ranks as the fourth common type of cancer and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Late diagnosis and the rarity of potent and safer chemotherapeutic drugs and efficient therapeutic targets create severe obstacle in the treatment of colon cancer. This study was undertaken to examine the anticancer effects of Evodiamine against human colon cancer cells. METHODS: The proliferation rate of the SW480 colon cancer cells was monitored by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) and acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for detection of autophagy. Cell migration and invasion was detected by wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. Protein expression was determined by western blotting. RESULTS: Evodiamine suppressed the proliferation of the SW480 colon cancer cells and exhibited an IC50 of 10 µM. The cytotoxic effects of Evodiamine were found to be comparatively lower against the normal CDD-18Co colon cells as evidenced from the IC50 of 100 µM. AO/EB staining showed that Evodiamine caused apoptosis of the SW480 cells and the percentage of the apoptotic SW480 cells increased with increase in the Evodiamine concentration as indicated by annexin V/PI staining. Evodiamine-induced apoptosis was also accompanied by upregulation of caspase-3 and Bax and suppression of Bcl-2. TEM analysis showed that Evodiamine also activated autophagy in the SW480 cells by enhancing the expression of LC3 II and Beclin 1. The wound assay showed that Evodiamine suppressed the migration of the SW480 cells. Evodiamine also reduced the invasion potential of the SW480 cells as suggested by the transwell assay. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggest that Evodiamine is a potent anticancer agent and may prove beneficial in the development of systemic therapy of colon cancer.

12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787973

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke is a major preventable risk factor of ischemic stroke. Cigarette smoke induces a significant increase in circulating leukocytes. However, it remains unclear to what extent and by what mechanisms smoke priming influences stroke severity. Here we report that exposure to cigarette smoke exacerbated ischemic brain injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The augmentation of neurodeficits and brain infarction was accompanied by increased production of pro-inflammatory factors and brain infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes. Prior to brain ischemia, exposure to cigarette smoke induced mobilization of peripheral neutrophils, and monocytes. Furthermore, the detrimental effects of smoke priming on ischemic brain injury were abolished either by pharmacological inhibition of the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes or by blockade of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an effector protein of neutrophils and monocytes. Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke-induced mobilization of peripheral neutrophils and monocytes augments ischemic brain injury.

13.
Front Neural Circuits ; 13: 73, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798420

RESUMO

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) reportedly regulates sleep and wakefulness through communication with the lateral hypothalamus (LH). It has also been suggested that adequate anesthesia produced by administration of chloral hydrate, ketamine, or halothane significantly reduces the GABAergic neuronal firing rate within the VTA. However, the exact effects on GABAergic neurons in the VTA and the mechanisms through which these neurons modulate anesthesia through associated neural circuits is still unclear. Here, we used optogenetic and chemogenetic methods to specifically activate or inhibit GABAergic neuronal perikarya in the VTA or their projections to the LH in Vgat-Cre mice. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analyses and burst suppression ratio (BSR) calculations were conducted following administration of 0.8 or 1.0% isoflurane, respectively; and loss of righting reflex (LORR), recovery of righting reflex (RORR), and anesthesia sensitivity were assessed under 1.4% isoflurane anesthesia. The results showed that activation of GABAergic neurons in the VTA increased delta wave power from 40.0 to 46.4% (P = 0.006) and decreased gamma wave power from 15.2 to 11.5% (P = 0.017) during anesthesia maintenance. BSR was increased from 51.8 to 68.3% (P = 0.017). Induction time (LORR) was reduced from 333 to 290 s (P = 0.019), whereas arousal time (RORR) was prolonged from 498 to 661 s (P = 0.007). Conversely, inhibition of VTA GABAergic neurons led to opposite effects. In contrast, optical activation of VTA-LH GABAergic projection neurons increased power of slow delta waves from 44.2 to 48.8% (P = 0.014) and decreased that of gamma oscillations from 10.2 to 8.0%. BSR was increased from 39.9 to 60.2% (P = 0.0002). LORR was reduced from 330 to 232 s (P = 0.002), and RORR increased from 396 to 565 s (P = 0.007). Optical inhibition of the projection neurons caused opposite effects in terms of both the EEG spectrum and the BSR, except that inhibition of this projection did not accelerate arousal time. These results indicate that VTA GABAergic neurons could facilitate the anesthetic effects of isoflurane during induction and maintenance while postponing anesthetic recovery, at least partially, through modulation of their projections to the LH.

14.
Food Funct ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799535

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complicated process, requiring the proliferation, migration and differentiation of myoblasts whose processes are highly regulated by the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the muscle tissues in vivo. However, the effects of respective ECM components on the regulation of myoblast behaviors are unknown. In this study, we report on the effect of collagen I, a major ECM component in muscle tissue and a popular food supplement, on mouse C2C12 myoblast proliferation, migration and differentiation as well as the underlying mechanisms. Collagen I (col 1) enhances the migration and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells, but has no effect on cell proliferation. Col I significantly promotes the production and release of interleukin-6 via nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65. The release of IL-6 plays a critical role in the col I-enhanced migration and differentiation of C2C12 cells. Furthermore, col I increases phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that is involved in the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Collectively, col I enhances the migration and differentiation of C2C12 cells through IL-6 release induced by FAK/NF-κB p65 activation.

15.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 240, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI) antibacterial activity is absolutely vital with the rapid growth of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). But now, there is no available automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing card for CAZ/AVI, so Kirby-Bauer has become an economical and practical method for detecting CAZ/AVI antibacterial activity against Enterobacteriaceae. RESULT: In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of CAZ/AVI against 386 Enterobacteriaceae (188 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 122 Escherichia coli, 76 Enterobacter cloacae) isolated from clinical patients was performed by broth microdilution. Of the 386 strains, 54 extended spectrum ß lactamases negative (ESBL(-)), 104 extended spectrum ß lactamases positive (ESBL(+)), 228 CRE. 287 isolates were susceptible to CAZ/AVI and 99 isolates were resistant to CAZ/AVI. At the same time, to obtain optimal content avibactam (AVI) disk containing ceftazidime (30 µg), inhibition zone diameter of four kinds of ceftazidime (30 µg) disk containing different AVI content (0 µg, 10 µg, 25 µg, 50 µg) were tested by Kirby-Bauer method. The microdilution broth method interpretation was used as the standard to estimate susceptible or resistance and then coherence analysis was carried out between Kirby-Bauer and broth microdilution. The result shows the inhibition zone diameter of 30 µg/50 µg disk, susceptible isolates: 20.5 mm-31.5 mm, resistance isolates: 8.25 mm-21.5 mm. The inhibition zone diameter of 30 µg/25 µg disk, susceptible isolates: 19.7 mm-31.3 mm, resistance isolates: 6.5 mm-19.2 mm. The inhibition zone diameter of 30 µg/10 µg disk, susceptible isolates: 19.5 mm-31 mm, resistance isolates: 6.5 mm-11 mm. The inhibition zone diameter of ceftazidime (30 µg), susceptible isolates: 6.5 mm-27.5 mm, resistance isolates 6.5 mm. CONCLUSION: Our results show that 30 µg/50 µg, 30 µg/25 µg, 30 µg/10 µg CAZ/AVI disk have significant statistical differences to determinate CAZ/AVI antibacterial activity, but for 30 µg/50 µg disk, there has a cross section between susceptible isolates (minimum 20.5 mm) and resistance isolates (maximum 21.5 mm). For 30 µg/25 µg disk, it is hard to distinguish the difference between susceptible isolates (minimum 19.7 mm) and resistance isolates (maximum 19.2 mm), so 30 µg/10 µg CAZ/AVI disk is more conducive to determinate antibacterial activity.

16.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125112, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669993

RESUMO

This investigation was made to examine the role of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3), 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA), and 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in improving stress tolerance and phytoremediation of the cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) by mustard (Brassica juncea L.). The optimum concentrations of IAA, GA3, 6-BA, and EBL were determined based on plant biomass production, metal uptake, translocation, and removal efficiency. The biomass and total chlorophyll content decreased under Cd and U stress. Nevertheless, the application of IAA, GA3, and 6-BA significantly (p < 0.05) increased the growth and total chlorophyll content of mustard. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 content of mustard were enhanced under Cd and U stress, but they were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in plant growth regulators (PGRs) treatments (except for EBL). PGRs treatments increased activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, thus reducing the oxidative stress. Furthermore, the shoot uptake of Cd and U of IAA and EBL treatments was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of other treatments. IAA and EBL also have more significant effects on the translocation and remediation of Cd and U compared to GA3 and 6-BA. The removal efficiency of Cd and U reached the maximum in the 500 mg L-1 IAA treatment, which was 330.77% and 118.61% greater than that in the control (CK), respectively. These results suggested that PGRs could improve the stress tolerance and efficiency of phytoremediation using B. juncea in Cd- and U- contaminated soils.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16697, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723171

RESUMO

Although largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides has shown its extremely economic, ecological, and aquacultural significances throughout the North American and Asian continents, systematic evaluation of genetic variation and structure of wild and cultured populations of the species is yet to be documented. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure of M. salmoides from 20 wild populations and five cultured stocks across the United States and China using eight microsatellite loci, which are standard genetic markers for population genetic analysis. Our major findings are as follows: (1) the result of Fst showed largemouth bass had high genetic differentiation, and the gene flow indicated the genetic exchange among wild populations is difficult; (2) AMOVA showed that 14.05% of the variation was among populations, and 85.95% of the variation was within populations; (3) The majority of largemouth bass populations had a significant heterozygosity excess, which is likely to indicate a previous population bottleneck; (4) Allelic richness was lower among cultured populations than among wild populations; (5) Effective population size in hatcheries could promote high levels of genetic variation among individuals and minimize loss of genetic diversity; China's largemouth bass originated from northern largemouth bass of USA. The information provides valuable basis for development of appropriate conservation policies for fisheries and aquaculture genetic breeding programs in largemouth bass.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746127

RESUMO

Cancer cells have been reported to exhibit high resistance against immune system recognition through various cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Considerable challenges have been encountered in monotherapy with chemotherapeutics to attain the desired antitumor efficacy. In this study, a nanodelivery system was designed to incorporate doxorubicin (DOX) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) small interfering RNA (siRNA), that is, siPD-L1. DOX and siPD-L1 were formed from a stimuli-responsive polymer with a poly-L-lysine-lipoic acid reduction-sensitive core and a tumor extracellular pH-stimulated shedding polyethylene glycol layer. The codelivery system was stable under physiological pH conditions and demonstrated enhanced cellular uptake at the tumor site. Moreover, the combined treatment of DOX and siPD-L1 exhibited improved antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo compared with either modality alone. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy presented in this work through the codelivery of a chemotherapeutic agent and a gene-silencing agent (siRNA) may provide a new strategy for cancer treatment.

19.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore an early, rapid and precise diagnosis of Stickler syndrome type I (STL1) and to enrich the spectrum of COL2A1 mutations in the Chinese population, which is poorly studied at present. METHODS: In the current study, we analysed 115 patients with high myopia by next-generation sequencing and identified five STL1 patients from four unrelated Chinese families. The clinical features of all patients were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: Four variants of COL2A1 were identified, including two novel variants (c.1435delG and c.184delG) and two previously reported variants (c.1221+1G>A and c.1030C>T). Three variants caused premature termination codons which were common in STL1. In addition, we proposed a new diagnostic tactic to improve early diagnostics of STL1 in patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, our findings expanded the spectrum of COL2A1 mutations with two novel variants and provided a new diagnostic tactic for reference, which was of great significance. Precise diagnosis on the basis of clinical manifestations and genetic testing will become the gold standard to diagnose inherited ocular disorders or syndromes in the future.

20.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739509

RESUMO

Physical exercise promotes cardiorespiratory fitness, and is considered the mainstream of non-pharmacological therapies along with lifestyle modification for various chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular diseases. Physical exercise may positively affect various cardiovascular risk factors including body weight, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid and glucose metabolism, heart function, endothelial function, and body fat composition. With the ever-rising prevalence of obesity and other types of metabolic diseases, as well as sedentary lifestyle, regular exercise of moderate intensity has been indicated to benefit cardiovascular health and reduce overall disease mortality. Exercise offers a wide cadre of favorable responses in the cardiovascular system such as improved dynamics of the cardiovascular system, reduced prevalence of coronary heart diseases and cardiomyopathies, enhanced cardiac reserve capacity, and autonomic regulation. Ample clinical and experimental evidence has indicated an emerging role for autophagy, a conservative catabolism process to degrade and recycle cellular organelles and nutrients, in exercise training-offered cardiovascular benefits. Regular physical exercise as a unique form of physiological stress is capable of triggering adaptation while autophagy in particular selective autophagy seems to be permissive to such cardiovascular adaptation. Here in this mini-review, we will summarize the role for autophagy in particular mitochondrial selective autophagy namely mitophagy in the benefit versus risk of physical exercise on cardiovascular function.

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