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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110773, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022535

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested that the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) through diet is very important and that the intake of polyphenol-rich foods can improve cardiovascular health. In this study, adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The chlorogenic acid (CGA) group (n = 18) was administered 100 mg/kg/day CGA by gavage, and the control (CON) group (n = 18) was given the equivalent volume of water for 4 weeks. A model of MI was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, which was monitored by an electrocardiogram (ECG). Blood samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and biochemical experiments 24 h after the operation. In addition, histopathological analysis was performed to assess the size and severity of the infarct area. The administration of CGA before MI minimized weight gain and was associated with decreased postoperative mortality. CGA moderated the coronary artery ligation-induced changes observed by ECG and decreased the plasma levels of the myocardial markers. In the histopathological analysis, CGA notably reduced infarct size and decreased myocardial injury and fibrosis. Furthermore, CGA significantly reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory factors, and this reduction was accompanied by an upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities. This study indicated that CGA improved the survival rate after MI and demonstrated that CGA had a protective effect on MI by reducing the inflammatory response and exerting antioxidant activity.

2.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 305, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is a principal element in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, so anti-inflammation may be a promising therapeutic strategy. Forsythoside B (FTS•B), a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from Forsythiae fructus, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, no studies have reported whether the anti-inflammatory properties of FTS•B have a neuroprotective effect in AD. In the present study, these effects of FTS•B were investigated using amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mice, BV-2 cells, and HT22 cells. METHODS: APP/PS1 mice were administered FTS•B intragastrically for 36 days. Behavioral tests were then carried out to examine cognitive functions, including the Morris water maze, Y maze, and open field experiment. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the deposition of amyloid-beta (Aß), the phosphorylation of tau protein, and the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 in the hippocampus. Proteins that showed marked changes in levels related to neuroinflammation were identified using proteomics and verified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. BV-2 and HT22 cells were also used to confirm the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of FTS•B. RESULTS: In APP/PS1 mice, FTS•B counteracted cognitive decline, ameliorated the deposition of Aß and the phosphorylation of tau protein, and attenuated the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the cortex and hippocampus. FTS•B affected vital signaling, particularly by decreasing the activation of JNK-interacting protein 3/C-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and suppressing WD-repeat and FYVE-domain-containing protein 1/toll-like receptor 3 (WDFY1/TLR3), further suppressing the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. In BV-2 and HT22 cells, FTS•B prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and reduced the microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: FTS•B effectively counteracted cognitive decline by regulating neuroinflammation via NF-κB signaling in APP/PS1 mice, providing preliminary experimental evidence that FTS•B is a promising therapeutic agent in AD treatment.

3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 309, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Verbascoside (VB), an active phenylethanoid glycoside that was first isolated from Verbascum sinuatum (the wavyleaf mullein), possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the beneficial effects of VB in amyloid ß (Aß)1-42-damaged human glioma (U251) cells and in APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1) mice. METHODS: U251 cells were co-incubated with 10 µM of Aß1-42 and treated with VB. The protective effects of VB were investigated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry, fluorescence staining, and transmission electron microscopy. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were treated for 6 weeks with VB. Learning and memory were evaluated using a Morris water maze test. Immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, thioflavin-S staining, and proteomics analysis were performed to study the potential neuroprotective mechanism. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blot were performed to analyze altered protein levels of brain lysates in APP/PS1 mice and/or Aß1-42-damaged U251 cells. RESULTS: In Aß1-42-damaged U251 cells, VB significantly improved cell viability, inhibited apoptosis, reduced calcium accumulation and the intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species, and improved the morphology of mitochondria and ER. In APP/PS1 mice, 6-week administration of VB significantly improved memory and cognition. VB inhibited apoptosis, reduced the deposition of Aß, reduced the formation of neurofibrillary tangles formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and downregulated the expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Proteomics analysis of mouse hippocampus suggested that the neuroprotective effect of VB may be related to the reduction of ER stress. This was indicated by the fact that VB inhibited the three branches of the unfolded protein response, thereby attenuating ER stress and preventing apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed that VB possesses significant neuroprotective effects, which are related to the reduction of ER stress. These findings support the status of VB as a potentially effective treatment for AD and warrant further research.

4.
ACS Sens ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085469

RESUMO

Colorimetric sensing technologies have been widely used for both quantitative detection of specific analyte and recognition of a large set of analytes in gas phase, ranging from environmental chemicals to biomarkers in breath. However, the accuracy and reliability of the colorimetric gas sensors are threatened by the humidity interference in different application scenarios. Though substantial progress has been made toward new colorimetric sensors development, unless the humidity interference is well addressed, the colorimetric sensors cannot be deployed for real-world applications. Although there are comprehensive and insightful review articles about the colorimetric gas sensors, they have focused more on the progress in new sensing materials, new sensing systems, and new applications. There is a need for reviewing the works that have been done to solve the humidity issue, a challenge that the colorimetric gas sensors commonly face. In this review paper, we analyzed the mechanisms of the humidity interference and discussed the approaches that have been reported to mitigate the humidity interference in colorimetric sensing of environmental gases and breath biomarkers. Finally, the future perspectives of colorimetric sensing technologies are also discussed.

5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 358-367, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016432

RESUMO

In this work, the use of a coupled process, alkyl glycoside (APG) enhanced soil desorption followed by the zero-valent iron-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-air (ZEA) Fenton-like system, was investigated for the remediation of a simulated hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-contaminated diatomite soil and a real HCB-contaminated soil. Three surfactants with different concentrations were studied to obtain the suitable soil desorption agent. Compared with APG0810 and Triton x-100, APG0814 showed a better solubilization effect due to its lower critical micelle concentration. With addition of 3000 mg L-1 APG0814, 35% of HCB was removed from contaminated diatomite soil, and a small amount of residual APG in diatomite soil was found to be beneficial for the soil dispersion. After treatment with the ZEA system, the removal efficiency of HCB in the diatomite soil desorption solution reached 76% in 2 h; we observed that a small amount of APG retained in the desorption solution accelerated the HCB removal. A real HCB-contaminated soil was used to verify the remediation effects. This study demonstrates that our approach is a feasible alternative for remediating soil contaminated with hydrophobic organic compounds.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ácido Edético , Glicosídeos , Hexaclorobenzeno , Ferro , Solo
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1570862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015155

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer remains a lethal type of cancer with poor prognosis. Molecular classification enables in-depth, precise prognostic assessment. This study is aimed at identifying a robust and simple mRNA signature to predict the overall survival (OS) of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 45 paired pancreatic tumor samples and adjacent healthy tissues were selected. For risk determination, a LASSO Cox regression model with DEGs was used to generate the OS-associated risk score formula for the training cohort containing 177 PC patients. Another five independent datasets were used as the testing cohort to determine the predictive efficiency for further validation. In total, 441 DEGs were selected after considering the enrichment of classical pathways, such as EMT, cell cycle, cell adhesion, and PI3K-AKT. A five-gene signature for risk discrimination was established with high efficacy using LASSO Cox regression in the training group. External validation showed that patients identified by the gene expression signature to be in the high-risk group had poorer prognosis compared with the low-risk patients. Further investigation identified the differential epigenetic modification patterns of the five genes, which indicated their roles in tumor progression and their effect on therapy. In conclusion, we constructed a robust five-gene expression signature that could predict the OS of PC patients, offering a new insight for risk discrimination in daily clinical practice.

7.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063446

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to create a tumor recurrent-based prediction model to predict recurrence and survival in patients with low-grade glioma. METHODS: This study enrolled 291 patients (188 in the training group and 103 in the validation group) with clinicopathological information and transcriptome sequencing data. LASSO-COX algorithm was applied to shrink predictive factor size and build a predictive recurrent signature. GO, KEGG, and GSVA analyses were performed for function annotations of the recurrent signature. The calibration curves and C-Index were assessed to evaluate the nomogram's performance. RESULTS: This study found that DNA repair functions of tumor cells were significantly enriched in recurrent low-grade gliomas. A predictive recurrent signature, built by the LASSO-COX algorithm, was significantly associated with overall survival and progression-free survival in low-grade gliomas. Moreover, function annotations analysis of the predictive recurrent signature exhibited that the signature was associated with DNA repair functions. The nomogram, combining the predictive recurrent signature and clinical prognostic predictors, showed powerful prognostic ability in the training and validation groups. CONCLUSION: An individualized prediction model was created to predict 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival and recurrent rate of patients with low-grade glioma, which may serve as a potential tool to guide postoperative individualized care.

8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19804, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular. China has accelerated its legislation on e-cigarettes in recent years by issuing two policies to regulate their use: the first on August 26, 2018, and the second on November 1, 2019. Social media provide an efficient platform to access information on the public opinion of e-cigarettes. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into how policies have influenced the reaction of the Chinese public to e-cigarettes, this study aims to understand what the Chinese public say about e-cigarettes and how the focus of discussion might have changed in the context of policy implementation. METHODS: This study uses a combination of text mining and correspondence analysis to content analyze 1160 e-cigarette-related questions and their corresponding answers from Zhihu, China's largest question-and-answer platform and one of the country's most trustworthy social media sources. From January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019, Python was used to text mine the most frequently used words and phrases in public e-cigarette discussions on Zhihu. The correspondence analysis was used to examine the similarities and differences between high-frequency words and phrases across 3 periods (ie, January 1, 2017, to August 27, 2018; August 28, 2018, to October 31, 2019; and November 1, 2019, to January 1, 2020). RESULTS: The results of the study showed that the consistent themes across time were comparisons with traditional cigarettes, health concerns, and how to choose e-cigarette products. The issuance of government policies on e-cigarettes led to a change in the focus of public discussion. The discussion of e-cigarettes in period 1 mainly focused on the use and experience of e-cigarettes. In period 2, the public's attention was not only on the substances related to e-cigarettes but also on the smoking cessation functions of e-cigarettes. In period 3, the public shifted their attention to the e-cigarette industry and government policy on the banning of e-cigarette sales to minors. CONCLUSIONS: Social media are an informative source, which can help policy makers and public health professionals understand the public's concerns over and understanding of e-cigarettes. When there was little regulation, public discussion was greatly influenced by industry claims about e-cigarettes; however, once e-cigarette policies were issued, these policies, to a large extent, set the agenda for public discussion. In addition, media reporting of these policies might have greatly influenced the way e-cigarette policies were discussed. Therefore, monitoring e-cigarette discussions on social media and responding to them in a timely manner will both help improve the public's e-cigarette literacy and facilitate the implementation of e-cigarette-related policies.

9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(2): 188443, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035642

RESUMO

Fibroblasts have gained increasing attention in tissue desmoplasia, especially in tumors. Activated fibroblasts from various sources modulate matrix composition and stiffness associated with organ fibrosis as well as tumor progression. More importantly, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) interacts with both cancer cells and other stromal cells, providing a tumor-promoting microenvironment for tumor invasion and metastasis. However, CAF biology is not fully understood due to its heterogeneity. Here, we describe the main transforming cues that contribute to CAF activation and unveil the expanding CAF heterogeneity associated with tumor progression in multiple aspects. Finally, we summarize the prospective promising and challenging stroma-targeted anti-tumor strategies.

10.
Life Sci ; 263: 118570, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058917

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic smoking and high fat diet on the post-MI metabolic features and inflammation resolution. MAIN METHODS: Eight weeks old C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control(C), smoking(S), high-fat diet(H), and smoking plus high-fat diet(SH) groups for 16 weeks. MI was induced by permanent coronary ligation. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography at 5 days post-MI. The infarcted heart tissue was collected for the metabolic profile using metabolomics and quantification of pro-resolving mediators with immunoblotting. KEY FINDINGS: Percentage of fractional shortening (FS%) and ejection fraction (EF%) were further reduced in SH than that in either S or H group (P < 0.05). Myocardial metabolomics analysis indicated that 3, 6, and 11 disturbed metabolic pathways were considered as the most relevant pathway (Impact > 0.1) in S, H, and SH groups, respectively. The common most relevant pathway among three groups was arachidonic acid metabolism. The levels of arachidonic acid and TXB2 were significantly higher, while the 5-LOX and HO-1 expression was significantly lower in SH group than that in either S or H group (P < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Smoking superimposed on high-fat diet could aggravate post-MI cardiac dysfunction and cause significant disturbance of metabolic pathways associated with inflammation, energy metabolism, as well as excessive oxidative stress. Smoking combined with high-fat diet could also magnify the post-MI inflammation and impair the resolution of inflammation in MI mice.

11.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075118

RESUMO

We describe, for a single platinum complex bearing a dipeptide moiety, a solvent-driven interconversion from twisted to straight micrometric assembled structures with different chirality. The photophysical and morphological properties of the aggregates have been investigated as well as the role of the media and concentration. A real-time visualization of the solvent-driven interconversion processes has been achieved by confocal microscopy. Finally, atomistic and coarse-grained simulations, providing results consistent with the experimental observations, allow to obtain a molecular-level insight into the interesting solvent-responsive behavior of this system.

12.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(5): 394-397, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) toward Chinese psychiatric nurses and its association with quality of life (QOL). METHODS: A total of 2124 psychiatric nurses were consecutively recruited from 10 psychiatric hospitals distributed across 10 provinces of China; of them, 1,449 were included for analyses. Participants' socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of workplace SH in the past year, and QOL were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 21.5% (n = 311) of participants reported SH, with 8.4% (n = 121) reporting once, 7.1% (n = 103) reporting twice and 6.0% (n = 87) reporting three times or more. Psychiatric nurses who experienced SH had lower QOL in physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that nurses with shorter clinical experience were more likely to experience SH. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace SH toward psychiatric nurses is common in mental health treatment settings in China. Considering its deleterious impact on nurses' well-being and care quality, effective staff training on the management of SH and a zero tolerance policy against SH should be developed for this population.

13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 116-119, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017944

RESUMO

Many prior studies on EEG-based emotion recognition did not consider the spatial-temporal relationships among brain regions and across time. In this paper, we propose a Regionally-Operated Domain Adversarial Network (RODAN), to learn spatial-temporal relationships that correlate between brain regions and time. Moreover, we incorporate the attention mechanism to enable cross-domain learning to capture both spatial-temporal relationships among the EEG electrodes and an adversarial mechanism to reduce the domain shift in EEG signals. To evaluate the performance of RODAN, we conduct subject-dependent, subject-independent, and subject-biased experiments on both DEAP and SEED-IV data sets, which yield encouraging results. In addition, we also discuss the biased sampling issue often observed in EEG-based emotion recognition and present an unbiased benchmark for both DEAP and SEED-IV.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Encéfalo , Eletrodos , Aprendizagem
14.
Appl Opt ; 59(24): 7442-7447, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902512

RESUMO

The interaction mechanism between external laser and Si avalanche photodiodes (Si-APDs) in practical circuits and the law of temperature increase are vital for the laser protection of Si-APDs. This study establishes the heating model of Si-APDs in an external circuit irradiated by a millisecond-pulse laser. The law of surface temperature increase in Si-APDs is determined via simulation and experiment. Results show that both laser energy density and external capacitance significantly affect the temperature increase. The theoretical simulation and experimental results are consistent, thereby validating the theoretical model.

15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal treatment for EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains challenging due to intratumor heterogeneity. We aimed to explore a refined stratification mode based on the integrated analysis of ctDNA tracking. METHODS: ctDNA was prospectively collected at baseline and every eight weeks in advanced treatment-naïve EGFR-mutant LUAD patients under gefitinib treatment enrolled in a phase II trial, and analyzed using next-generation sequencing of a 168-gene panel. RESULTS: Three subgroups categorized by baseline co-mutations: EGFR-sensitizing mutations (59, 32.8%), EGFR-sensitizing mutations with tumor suppressor mutations (97, 53.9%) and EGFR-sensitizing mutations with other driver mutations (24, 13.3%), exhibited distinct progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) [PFS 13.2 (11.3-15.2) vs. 9.3 (7.6-10.5) vs. 4.0 (2.4-9.3) months; OS 32.0 (29.2-41.5) vs. 21.7 [(19.3-27.0) vs. 15.5 (10.5-33.7) months], providing evidence for initial stratification. 63.7% of the patients achieved week-8 ctDNA-clearance, with significant difference among three subgroups (74.5% vs. 64.0% vs. 29.4%, P=0.004, fisher's exact test). Patients without week-8 ctDNA-clearance had worse PFS [clearance vs. non-clearance 11.2 (9.9-13.2) vs. 7.4 (5.6-9.6) months, P=0.016, cox regression], especially in the second subgroup [5.8 (5.6-11.5) months], suggesting the necessity of adaptive stratification during treatment. During follow-up, 56.0% and 20.8% of the patients eventually harbored p.T790M and non-p.T790M mutations, with significant difference in non-p.T790M mutations among three subgroups (7.5% vs. 15.7% vs. 80.0%, P<0.001, fisher's exact test), giving clues to post-line treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with baseline co-mutations and ctDNA non-clearance at first visit might require combined therapy due to limited survival benefit of EGFR-TKI monotherapy. We proposed a refined stratification mode for the whole-course management of EGFR-mutant LUAD.

16.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918357

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-35 belongs to the IL-12 cytokine family and is a heterodimer of the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) subunits. Functionally, IL-35 can promote the proliferation and activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppress the function of T helper 17 (Th17) cells and other inflammatory cells to inhibit immune responses. In recent years, an abnormal IL-35 expression causing a Th17/Treg imbalance has been associated with the development and progression of several connective tissue diseases (CTDs), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), dermatomyositis (DM)/polymyositis (PM), and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Here, we review the role of IL-35 in regulating the balance of Th17/Treg responses in different types of CTDs and provide new insights into the role of IL-35 in these diseases.

17.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936207

RESUMO

Graphene-based nanomaterials, including graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), play key roles in the nanozyme field. GO and rGO carrying various oxygen-containing functional groups, including epoxy, hydroxyl, ether, endoperoxide, carbonyl, carboxyl, and ester, have been reported to display peroxidase mimicking activities. However, the active center and the underlying mechanism responsible for its peroxidase mimicking activities still remain unclear. Herein, taking the oxidation of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 as the model reaction, we investigate the possible catalytic mechanisms using DFT calculations. The results indicate that the carbonyl groups are the active centers. The activation of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond is the key step in the catalytic cycle. The results will help realize the rational design of carbon-based nanozymes.

18.
Small ; : e2002885, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945097

RESUMO

High demand for green ecosystems has urged the human community to reconsider and revamp the traditional way of synthesis of several compounds. Ammonia (NH3 ) is one such compound whose applications have been extended from fertilizers to explosives and is still being synthesized using the high energy inhaling Haber-Bosch process. Carbon free electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) is considered as a potential replacement for the Haber-Bosch method. However, it has few limitations such as low N2 adsorption, selectivity (competitive HER reactions), low yield rate etc. Since it is at the early stage, tremendous efforts have been devoted in understanding the reaction mechanism and screening of the electrocatalysts and electrolytes. In this review, the electrocatalysts are classified based on the periodic table with heat maps of Faraday efficiency and yield rate of NH3 in NRR and their electrocatalytic properties toward NRR are discussed. Also, the activity of each element is discussed and short tables and concise graphs are provided to enable the researchers to understand recent progress on each element. At the end, a perspective is provided on countering the current challenges in NRR. This review may act as handbook for basic NRR understandings, recent progress in NRR, and the design and development of advanced electrocatalysts and systems.

19.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(4): 3418-3428, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945507

RESUMO

Chronic non­specific inflammatory cell infiltration of the colon is generally considered to be the cause of ulcerative colitis (UC). Gloeostereum incarnatum (GI), a fungus rich in amino acids and fatty acids, exhibits a variety of biological functions. In the present study, GI was identified to contain 15 fatty acids, 17 amino acids and 11 metallic elements. The protective effect of GI against UC was investigated in C57BL/6 mice with UC induced by free drinking 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). After a 21­day oral administration, GI prevented weight loss, enhancement of the disease activity index and colonic pathological alterations in mice with UC. GI reduced the levels of pro­inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)­1ß, IL­2, IL­6 and IL­12, tumor necrosis factor α and ­ß, interferon α and ­Î³, and pro­oxidative factors including reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. In addition, it enhanced the levels of immunological factors including immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM and IgG, and antioxidative factors including superoxide dismutase and catalase in the serum and/or colon tissues. GI enhanced the expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2­related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream proteins and suppressed the phosphorylation of NF­κB signaling in colon tissues. Together, GI was shown to alleviate the physiological and pathological state of DSS­induced UC in mice via its antioxidant and anti­inflammatory functions, which may be associated with its modulation of the activation of Nrf2/NF­κB signaling.

20.
J Cell Sci ; 133(19)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878940

RESUMO

Besides regulating glucose levels, insulin has been reported to participate actively in many other functions, including modulating inflammatory reactions. In this study we investigated how topical insulin application would affect the diabetic wound healing process. We found that the excessive expression of insulin-degrading enzyme led to insufficient insulin levels in diabetic skin during wound healing, which ultimately reduced the recovery rate of diabetic wounds. We confirmed that topical insulin application could reverse the impaired inflammation reaction in the diabetic wound environment and promote healing of diabetic wounds. Our study revealed that insulin promoted apoptosis of neutrophils and subsequently triggered polarization of macrophages. Both in vivo and in vitro studies verified that insulin re-established phagocytosis function and promoted the process of phagocytosis-induced apoptosis in neutrophils. Furthermore, we found that insulin treatment also promoted efferocytosis of the apoptosed neutrophils by macrophages, and thus induced macrophages to change their polarization state from M1 to M2. In conclusion, our studies proved that the exogenous application of insulin could improve diabetic wound healing via the restoration of the inflammatory response.

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