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1.
Clin Nutr ; 40(12): 5662-5673, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiologic studies are inconsistent regarding the association of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and/or fish intake with risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) incidence and progression. The objective was to determine these associations by conducting a meta-analysis of available studies. METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched for studies that quantified dietary omega-3 PUFA and/or fish intake from inception to December 2020 without language restriction. Three investigators independently assessed for inclusion and extracted data. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects model. Potential dose-response associations were explored with the use of generalized least-squares trend estimation. RESULTS: 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Higher dietary intakes of omega-3 PUFA was significantly associated with 14% (relative risk [RR]: 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77, 0.96) and 29% (RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.91) lower risk of early and late AMD, respectively. The dose-response analysis showed a 6% and 22% decrease in the risk of early and late AMD for each additional 1  g/d omega-3 PUFA intake. For individual omega-3 PUFA, the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was inversely associated with lower AMD risk, whereas no association was found for the alpha-linolenic acid. Consistent inverse associations were also found between fish intake and AMD. The pooled RRs comparing extreme categories of fish intake were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.90) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.85) for early and late AMD risk, respectively. Every 15 g/d of fish consumption was associated with 13% and 14% lower early and late AMD. In addition, fish intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of AMD progression (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of dietary omega-3 PUFA or fish was associated with a reduced risk of developing of AMD, which further supports that consumption of omega-3 PUFA-rich foods may be a new avenue nutritional approach to preventing AMD.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053412, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV, diabetes and hypertension have a high disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare is organised in separate clinics, which may be inefficient. In a cohort study, we evaluated integrated management of these conditions from a single chronic care clinic. OBJECTIVES: To determined the feasibility and acceptability of integrated management of chronic conditions in terms of retention in care and clinical indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study comprising patients attending 10 health facilities offering primary care in Dar es Salaam and Kampala. INTERVENTION: Clinics within health facilities were set up to provide integrated care. Patients with either HIV, diabetes or hypertension had the same waiting areas, the same pharmacy, were seen by the same clinical staff, had similar provision of adherence counselling and tracking if they failed to attend appointments. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Retention in care, plasma viral load. FINDINGS: Between 5 August 2018 and 21 May 2019, 2640 patients were screened of whom 2273 (86%) were enrolled into integrated care (832 with HIV infection, 313 with diabetes, 546 with hypertension and 582 with multiple conditions). They were followed up to 30 January 2020. Overall, 1615 (71.1%)/2273 were female and 1689 (74.5%)/2266 had been in care for 6 months or more. The proportions of people retained in care were 686/832 (82.5%, 95% CI: 79.9% to 85.1%) among those with HIV infection, 266/313 (85.0%, 95% CI: 81.1% to 89.0%) among those with diabetes, 430/546 (78.8%, 95% CI: 75.4% to 82.3%) among those with hypertension and 529/582 (90.9%, 95% CI: 88.6 to 93.3) among those with multimorbidity. Among those with HIV infection, the proportion with plasma viral load <100 copies/mL was 423(88.5%)/478. CONCLUSION: Integrated management of chronic diseases is a feasible strategy for the control of HIV, diabetes and hypertension in Africa and needs evaluation in a comparative study.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 677, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that maternal stress could increase the risk of some adverse pregnancy outcomes, but evidence on congenital heart disease (CHD) is limited. We aimed to explore the association between maternal exposure to life events during pregnancy and CHD in offspring. METHODS: The data was based on an unmatched case-control study about CHD conducted in Shaanxi province of China from 2014 to 2016. We included 2280 subjects, 699 in the case group and 1581 in the control group. The cases were infants or fetuses diagnosed with CHD, and the controls were infants without any birth defects. The life events were assessed by the Life Events Scale for Pregnant Women, and were divided into positive and negative events for synchronous analysis. A directed acyclic graph was drawn to screen the confounders. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the effects of life events on CHD. RESULTS: After controlling for the potential confounders, the pregnant women experiencing the positive events during pregnancy had lower risk of CHD in offspring than those without positive events (OR = 0.38, 95%CI: 0.30 ~ 0.48). The risk of CHD in offspring could increase by 62% among the pregnant women experiencing the negative events compared to those without (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.29 ~ 2.03). Both effects showed a certain dose-response association. Besides, the positive events could weaken the risk impact of negative events on CHD. CONCLUSION: It may suggest that maternal exposure to negative life events could increase the risk of CHD in offspring, while experiencing positive events could play a potential protective role.

4.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(4): 115537, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619569

RESUMO

We aim to study kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels in subjects with COVID-19 for up to 11 months and the potential influential factors. The study was a prospective longitudinal study. The analyses were based on 77 serum/plasma samples with a mean of 4 samples per participant (range 1 - 18) in 20 participants with at least one positive Polymerase Chain Reaction testing result from 19 March 2020 up to 10 February 2021. Among the subjects (median age 34.5 years, 65% male), IgG level declined with the follow-up time (per month; geometric mean ratio [GMR] 0.73; 95% CI, 0.72 - 0.74). In a small sample of subjects from the general population with COVID-19, IgG levels declined non-linearly from month 2 to 11 with individual heterogeneity in quantity and changing speed and may be associated with gender, race and the loss of smell and taste.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cinética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 6639-6645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675626

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the impact of the 2020 China Diabetes Society's (CDS) guideline on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and eligibility for antidiabetic treatment in China. Material and Methods: Baseline data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011-2012) were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and compare the recommendations for antidiabetic medication and intensification of therapy between the 2017 and 2020 CDS guidelines. Results: According to the 2017 CDS guideline, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 12.56% among Chinese adults who were ≥45 years of age. However, according to the 2020 CDS guideline, 0.65% (0.35%, 1.20%), or 3.54 (2.50, 4.57) million Chinese adults who were ≥45 years would additionally be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Among Chinese adults not taking antidiabetic medications, 1.06% (0.87%, 1.28%), or 5.37 (4.36, 6.38) million Chinese adults with diabetes mellitus were recommended to start antidiabetic medication according to the 2017 CDS guideline, while 1.27% (1.01%, 1.58%), or 6.44 (5.29, 7.60) million Chinese adults with diabetes would be recommended to initiate antidiabetic medication according to the 2020 CDS guideline. Among Chinese adults taking antidiabetic medication, 51.59% (44.19%, 58.93%), or 18.35 (15.58, 21.12) million Chinese adults with diabetes received antidiabetic treatment but had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level higher than that mentioned in the 2017 and 2020 CDS guidelines. Conclusion: The addition of HbA1c in the 2020 CDS guideline will result in a modest increase in the number of Chinese adults who are diagnosed with diabetes and diabetes patients recommended for antidiabetic medication; however, the 2020 CDS guideline does not affect the number of diabetes patients eligible for intensification of treatment.

7.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 127, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are major global public health problems. We estimated the global, regional, and national prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a population with PTB. METHODS: We searched for observational studies of DM in people with PTB using the PubMed and Embase electronic bibliographic databases, focusing on articles published in the English language from database inception until March 31, 2021. We included original research that reported the prevalence of DM in PTB or those that had sufficient data to compute these estimates. Studies were excluded if they did not provide primary data or were case studies or reviews. Two authors independently extracted the articles and collected detailed information using a predefined questionnaire. A country-specific random-effects meta-analysis was used for countries with two or more available studies, and a fractional response regression model was employed to predict the prevalence of DM in PTB for countries with one or no study. The study was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, using the registration number CRD42018101989. RESULTS: We identified 22,658 studies, and 153, across 51 countries, were retained for data extraction. The global prevalence of DM among patients with PTB was estimated to be 13.73% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.51-14.95). The prevalence rates were 19.32% (95% CI 13.18-25.46) in the region of the Americas, 17.31% (95% CI 12.48-22.14) in the European region, 14.62% (95% CI 12.05-17.18) in Southeast Asia, 13.59% (95% CI 7.24-19.95) in the western Pacific region, 9.61% (95% CI 4.55-14.68) in the eastern Mediterranean region, and 9.30% (95% CI 2.83-15.76) in the African region. The country with the highest estimated prevalence was the Marshall Islands (50.12%; 95% CI 4.28-95.76). CONCLUSION: Comorbid PTB and DM remain prevalent worldwide.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047979, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV programmes in sub-Saharan Africa are well funded but programmes for diabetes and hypertension are weak with only a small proportion of patients in regular care. Healthcare provision is organised from stand-alone clinics. In this cluster randomised trial, we are evaluating a concept of integrated care for people with HIV infection, diabetes or hypertension from a single point of care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 32 primary care health facilities in Dar es Salaam and Kampala regions were randomised to either integrated or standard vertical care. In the integrated care arm, services are organised from a single clinic where patients with either HIV infection, diabetes or hypertension are managed by the same clinical and counselling teams. They use the same pharmacy and laboratory and have the same style of patient records. Standard care involves separate pathways, that is, separate clinics, waiting and counselling areas, a separate pharmacy and separate medical records. The trial has two primary endpoints: retention in care of people with hypertension or diabetes and plasma viral load suppression. Recruitment is expected to take 6 months and follow-up is for 12 months. With 100 participants enrolled in each facility with diabetes or hypertension, the trial will provide 90% power to detect an absolute difference in retention of 15% between the study arms (at the 5% two-sided significance level). If 100 participants with HIV infection are also enrolled in each facility, we will have 90% power to show non-inferiority in virological suppression to a delta=10% margin (ie, that the upper limit of the one-sided 95% CI of the difference between the two arms will not exceed 10%). To allow for lost to follow-up, the trial will enrol over 220 persons per facility. This is the only trial of its kind evaluating the concept of a single integrated clinic for chronic conditions in Africa. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol has been approved by ethics committee of The AIDS Support Organisation, National Institute of Medical Research and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Dissemination of findings will be done through journal publications and meetings involving study participants, healthcare providers and other stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN43896688.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecções por HIV , Hipertensão , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tanzânia , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
Clin Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril-valsartan has been recommended as one of the first-line therapies in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. However, whether ARNI could benefit patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by improving left ventricular (LV) remodeling remains unknown. The primary objective of the PERI-STEMI trial is to assess whether sacubitril-valsartan is more effective in preventing adverse LV remodeling for patients with STEMI than enalapril. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that sacubitril/valsartan is superior to enalapril in preventing adverse LV remodeling evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at the 6-month follow-up. METHODS: PERI-STEMI is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multi-center, randomized, open-label, superiority trial with blinded evaluation of outcomes. A total of 376 first-time STEMI patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 12 h after symptom onset will be randomized to sacubitril-valsartan or enalapril treatment. All the patients will receive a baseline cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examination at 4-7 days post-PPCI. The primary endpoint is the change of indexed LV mass at the 6-month follow-up CMR. RESULTS: Enrollment of the first patient is planned in November 2021. Recruitment is anticipated to last for 12-18 months and patients will be followed for 5 years after randomization. The study is expected to complete in June 2027. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the PERI-STEMI trial are expected to provide CMR evidence on whether ARNI could benefit patients with STEMI, so as to facilitate the strategy of CMR-based risk stratification and therapy selection for these patients. PERI-STEMI is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04912167).

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(10): ofab397, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646905

RESUMO

Background: An increasing proportion of patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis have received antiretroviral therapy (ART) before presentation. There is some evidence suggesting an increased 2-week mortality in those receiving ART for <14 days compared with those on ART for >14 days. However, presentation and outcomes for cryptococcal meningitis patients who have recently initiated ART, and those with virologic failure and/or nonadherence, are not well described. Methods: Six hundred seventy-eight adults with a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis recruited into a randomized, noninferiority, multicenter phase 3 trial in 4 Sub-Saharan countries were analyzed to compare clinical presentation and 2- and 10-week mortality outcomes between ART-naïve and -experienced patients and between patients receiving ART for varying durations before presentation. Results: Over half (56%; 381/678) the study participants diagnosed with a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were ART-experienced. All-cause mortality was similar at 2 weeks (17% vs 20%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.6-1.2; P = .35) and 10 weeks (38% vs 36%; HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.8-1.32; P = .82) for ART-experienced and ART-naïve patients. Among ART-experienced patients, using different cutoff points for ART duration, there were no significant differences in 2- and 10-week mortality based on duration of ART. Conclusions: In this study, there were no significant differences in mortality at 2 and 10 weeks between ART-naïve and -experienced patients and between ART-experienced patients according to duration on ART.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(42): 4298-4305, 2021 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506618

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and long-term survival outcome in patients with Takayasu's arteritis-associated pulmonary hypertension (TA-PH). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a nationally representative cohort study of TA-PH using data from the National Rare Diseases Registry System of China. Patients with pulmonary artery involvement who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Takayasu's arteritis and pulmonary hypertension were included. The primary outcome was the time from diagnosis of TA-PH to the occurrence of all-cause death. Between January 2007 and January 2019, a total of 140 patients were included, with a mean age of 41.4 years at diagnosis, and a female predominance (81%). Patients with TA-PH had severely haemodynamic and functional impairments at diagnosis. Significant improvements have been found in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and haemodynamic profiles in patients with TA-PH receiving drugs approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates in TA-PH were 94.0%, 83.2%, and 77.2%, respectively. Predictors associated with an increased risk of all-cause death were syncope [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 5.38 (95% confidence interval 1.77-16.34), P = 0.003], NT-proBNP level [adjusted HR 1.04 (1.03-1.06), P < 0.001], and mean right atrial pressure [adjusted HR 1.07 (1.01-1.13), P = 0.015]. CONCLUSION: Patients with TA-PH were predominantly female and had severely compromised haemodynamics. More than 80% of patients in our cohort survived for at least 3 years. Medical treatment was based on investigators' personal opinions, and no clear risk-to-benefit ratio can be derived from the presented data.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Arterite de Takayasu , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arterite de Takayasu/complicações , Arterite de Takayasu/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003756, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a sensitive time for girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH), as biological changes occur concurrently with heightening pressures for sexual activity. In western Kenya, adolescent girls are vulnerable to acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and to becoming pregnant prior to reaching adulthood. This study examines associations between individual, household, and partner-related risk factors and the prevalence of sex, adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and HSV-2. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report baseline findings among 4,138 girls attending secondary school who were enrolled between 2017 and 2018 in the Cups or Cash for Girls (CCG) cluster randomized controlled trial in Siaya County, rural western Kenya. Laboratory confirmed biomarkers and survey data were utilized to assess the effects of girls' individual, household, and partner characteristics on the main outcome measures (adolescent reported sex, prior pregnancy, HIV, and HSV-2) through generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. Complete data were available for 3,998 girls (97%) with median age 17.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 16.3 to 18.0 years); 17.2% were HSV-2 seropositive (n = 686) and 1.7% tested positive for HIV (n = 66). Sexual activity was reported by 27.3% girls (n = 1,090), of whom 12.2% had been pregnant (n = 133). After adjustment, orphanhood (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18 to 6.71, p-value [p] = 0.020), low body mass index (BMI) (aRR 2.07; CI: 1.00 to 4.30, p = 0.051), and age (aRR 1.34, 1.18 to 1.53, p < 0.001) were all associated with HIV infection. Girls reporting light menstrual bleeding (aRR 2.42, 1.22 to 4.79, p = 0.012) for fewer than 3 days (aRR 2.81, 1.16 to 6.82, p = 0.023) were over twice as likely to have HIV. Early menarche (aRR 2.05, 1.33 to 3.17, p = 0.001) was associated with adolescent pregnancy and HSV-2-seropositive girls reported higher rates of pregnancy (aRR 1.62, CI: 1.16 to 2.27, p = 0.005). High BMI was associated with HSV-2 (aRR 1.24, 1.05 to 1.46, p = 0.010) and sexual activity (aRR 1.14, 1.02 to 1.28, p = 0.016). High levels of harassment were detected in the cohort (41.2%); being touched indecently conveyed the strongest association related to reported sexual activity (aRR 2.52, 2.26 to 2.81, p < 0.001). Study limitations include the cross-sectional design of the study, which informs on the SRH burdens found in this population but limits causal interpretation of associations, and the self-reported exposure ascertainment, which may have led to possible underreporting of risk factors, most notably prior sexual activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that adolescent girls attending school in Kenya face frequent harassment for sex and are at high risk of pregnancy and HSV-2, with girls experiencing early menarche particularly vulnerable. Targeted interventions, such as earlier sexual education programs, are warranted to address their vulnerability to SRH harms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03051789.

13.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 218-223, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of accurate prediction tools and early intervention are important for addressing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the prediction models for severe COVID-19 available to date are subject to various biases. This study aimed to construct a nomogram to provide accurate, personalized predictions of the risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: This study was based on a large, multicenter retrospective derivation cohort and a validation cohort. The derivation cohort consisted of 496 patients from Jiangsu Province, China, between January 10, 2020, and March 15, 2020, and the validation cohort contained 105 patients from Huangshi, Hunan Province, China, between January 21, 2020, and February 29, 2020. A nomogram was developed with the selected predictors of severe COVID-19, which were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. We evaluated the discrimination of the nomogram with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the calibration of the nomogram with calibration plots and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. RESULTS: Three predictors, namely, age, lymphocyte count, and pulmonary opacity score, were selected to develop the nomogram. The nomogram exhibited good discrimination (AUC 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.96 in the derivation cohort; AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.93 in the validation cohort) and satisfactory agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram was a reliable tool for assessing the probability of severe COVID-19 and may facilitate clinicians stratifying patients and providing early and optimal therapies.

14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 3507-3516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385825

RESUMO

Gut microbiota are critical to many aspects of human health including immune and metabolic health. Long-term diet influences the community structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how the human gut microbiome responds to short-term intervention with dietary fiber. This study explored the effects of mixed dietary fibers on gut microbiota in young, healthy people. Twelve healthy, young adults participated in a randomized, crossover trial comparing the effects of polyglucan, inulin and resistant malt dextrin on gut microbiota composition and bacterial abundances. During the study, the subjects followed their normal diets without any constraints. Microbial community profiles were determined by absolute quantification 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Mixed model analysis did not reveal an effect of dietary intervention on microbial community structure. At the genus level, dietary fiber intervention for 4 days significantly promoted the growth of Alloprevotella, Parabacteroides and Parasutterella and inhibited the growth of Adlercreutzia, Anaerovorax, Enterococcus, Intestinibacter and Ruminococcus2 compared with the baseline. Addition of whey albumen powder for 4 days promoted the growth of Corynebacterium, Collinsella, Olsenella and Lactococcus but interfered with the growth of Megasphaera. Our results should be corroborated by randomized clinical trials with large sample size.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293043

RESUMO

The geographical variation of maternal dietary patterns related to birth outcomes is important for improving the health of mothers and children; however, it is currently unknown. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate geographical variations of maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy, and evaluate the spatial varying association of maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy with abnormal birth weight. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi province in Northwest China in 2013 to evaluate the relationship between abnormal birth weight and dietary pattern using the Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR). Three dietary patterns during pregnancy were extracted through factor analysis, explaining approximately 45.8% of the variability of food intake. Approximately 81.6% of mothers with higher scores on the equilibrium pattern was more unlikely to have small for gestational age (SGA) infants, with the lower OR observed in Central and South Shaanxi. The snacks pattern was positively associated with low birth weight (LBW) for 23.2% of participants, with the highest OR in Central Shaanxi. Among about 80.0% of participants with higher scores on the snacks pattern living in South and Central Shaanxi, there was a higher risk for SGA. The OR values tend to descend from South to North Shaanxi. The OR values of the negative association between prudent pattern and LBW decreased from South to North Shaanxi among approximately 59.3% of participants. The prudent pattern was also negatively associated with the increasing risk of fetal macrosomia among 19.2% of participants living mainly in South Shaanxi. The association of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy with abnormal birth weight varied geographically across Shaanxi province. The findings emphasize the importance of geographical distribution to improve the dietary patterns among disadvantaged pregnant women.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e047609, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233989

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Millions of children in low resource settings are at high risk of poor development due to factors such as under nutrition, inadequate stimulation and maternal depression. Evidence-based interventions to address these risk factors exist, but often as a separate and overlapping package. The current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a common elements-based intervention to improve mother-infant interaction at 12 months post-partum. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A two-arm, single-blinded, individual randomised controlled trial is being carried out in the community settings of the rural subdistrict of Gujar Khan in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 250 pregnant women in third trimester with distress (Self-Reporting Questionnaire, cut-off score >9) have been randomised on 1:1 allocation ratio into intervention (n=125) and treatment-as-usual arms (n=125). The participants in the intervention arm will receive 15 individual sessions of intervention on a monthly basis by non-specialist facilitators. The intervention involves components of early stimulation, learning through play, responsive feeding, guided discovery using pictures, behavioural activation and problem solving. The primary outcome is caregiver-infant interaction at 12 months postpartum. The secondary outcomes include maternal psychological well-being, quality of life, social support and empowerment. Infant secondary outcomes include growth, nutrition and development. The data will be collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months postpartum. A qualitative process evaluation will be conducted to inform the feasibility of intervention delivery. ETHICS: Ethics approval for the present study was obtained from the Human Development Research Foundation Institutional Review Board, Islamabad Pakistan. DISSEMINATION: If proven effective, the study will contribute to scale-up care for maternal and child mental health in low resource settings, globally. The findings of the present study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences and community forums. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04252807.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho , Paquistão , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191219

RESUMO

This study investigated associations between chest computed tomography (CT) pulmonary opacity score on admission and clinical features and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The retrospective multi-center cohort study included 496 COVID-19 patients in Jiangsu province, China diagnosed as of March 15, 2020. Patients were divided into four groups based on the quartile of pulmonary opacity score: ≤ 5%, 6-20%, 21-40% and 41% +. CT pulmonary opacity score was independently associated with age, single onset, fever, cough, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, lymphocyte count, platelet count, albumin level, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and fibrinogen level on admission. Patients with score ≥ 41% had a dramatic increased risk of severe or critical illness [odds ratio (OR), 15.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.82-63.53), intensive care unit (ICU)] admission (OR, 6.26, 95% CI 2.15-18.23), respiratory failure (OR, 19.49, 95% CI 4.55-83.40), and a prolonged hospital stay (coefficient, 2.59, 95% CI 0.46-4.72) compared to those with score ≤ 5%. CT pulmonary opacity score on admission, especially when ≥ 41%, was closely related to some clinical characteristics and was an independent predictor of disease severity, ICU admission, respiratory failure and long hospital stay in patients with COVID-19.

18.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001029, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192196

RESUMO

We assessed the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on deliveries and neonatal admissions according to gestation in Lagos, Nigeria. During lockdown (April-June 2020), there was a marked fall of about 50% in in-hospital deliveries and admissions to the neonatal wards for both in and outborn infants compared with prelockdown (January-March 2020) and a comparison period (April-June 2019). However, the proportion of preterm infants was broadly similar in each period. Lockdown markedly reduced hospital deliveries and healthcare-seeking for sick newborns but did not influence the overall proportion of preterm births among in-house deliveries and outborn neonatal admissions.

19.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-7, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165006

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the difference of pelvic size and shape between Tibetan and Chinese Han women. Data on pelvic dimension measures including interspinous diameter (IS), intercrestal diameter (IC), external conjugate (EC) and transverse outlet (TO) were acquired from two population-based studies amongst Tibetan women in Lhasa, and Chinese Han women in Shaanxi province in China. After coarsened exact matching, there was no statistical difference between any characteristics amongst Tibetan and Chinese Han women (p>.05). The generalised estimating equation models showed Tibetan women had significantly lower IS and IC means than Chinese Han women (IS: 24.39 cm vs. 24.77 cm, p<.001; IC: 26.35 cm vs. 26.93 cm, p<.001) but statistically higher in TO mean (9.12 cm vs. 9.03 cm, p<.001). This study showed Tibetan women have smaller pelvis compared to Chinese Han women. This should offer a useful literature on the comparison of pelvis between Tibetan and Chinese Han women although the difference is small.Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? Previous studies in China indicated different populations have different dimensions of pelvis, with the pelvis of Uighur women being bigger than Chinese Han women, and that of Zhuang and Tu women being smaller than Chinese Han women. Little research reports the specific size of Tibetan women's pelvis. Living at high altitude, the Tibetan population have differentiated demographics and show local adaptions, such as unelevated haemoglobin, and significant catch-up growth for infants compared with Chinese Han infants. Therefore, there is a strong rationale for better understanding pelvic characteristics amongst this population.What the results of this study add? This study showed Tibetan women have smaller pelvises compared to Chinese Han women. Tibetan women have a smaller interspinous diameter and intercrestal diameter than Chinese Han women, which leads to relatively narrow hip.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? This study provides useful comparative information on pelvic features between Tibetan and Chinese Han women although the findings of differences were small. In addition, during the formulation of women's health policy, the results of this study can provide data to support the selection of appropriate indicators of obstetrics and gynaecology for different populations of pregnant women during antenatal care and delivery.

20.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 53, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there is a large documented gap between needs of families and children with developmental disorders and available services. We adapted the World Health Organization's mental health Gap-Intervention Guidelines (mhGAP-IG) developmental disorders module into a tablet-based android application to train caregivers of children with developmental disorders. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this technology-assisted, family volunteers delivered, parents' skills training intervention to improve functioning in children with developmental disorders in a rural community of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: In a single-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial, 30 clusters were randomised (1:1 ratio) to intervention (n = 15) or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) arm (n = 15). After screening, 540 children (18 participants per cluster) aged 2-12 years, with developmental disorders and their primary caregivers were recruited into the trial. Primary outcome was child's functioning, measured by Childhood Disability Assessment Schedule for Developmental Disorders (DD-CDAS) at 6-months post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were parents' health related quality of life, caregiver-child joint engagement, socio-emotional well-being of children, family empowerment and stigmatizing experiences. Intention-to-treat analyses were done using mixed-models adjusted for covariates and clusters. RESULTS: At 6-months post-intervention, no statistically significant mean difference was observed on DD-CDAS between intervention and ETAU (mean [SD], 47.65 [26.94] vs. 48.72 [28.37], Adjusted Mean Difference (AMD), - 2.63; 95% CI - 6.50 to 1.24). However, parents in the intervention arm, compared to ETAU reported improved health related quality of life (mean [SD] 65.56 [23.25] vs. 62.17 [22.63], AMD 5.28; 95% CI 0.44 to 10.11). The results were non-significant for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the relatively short intervention period of 6 months, no improvement in child functioning was observed; but, there were significant improvements in caregivers' health related quality of life. Further trials with a longer follow-up are recommended to evaluate the impact of intervention. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02792894. Registered April 4, 2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02792894.

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