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1.
Genomics ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010388

RESUMO

Although the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been increasing worldwide, the etiology remains elusive. Investigating oral microbiota dysbiosis is essential to understanding IBD pathogenesis. Our study evaluated variations in salivary microbiota and identified potential associations with IBD. The saliva microbiota of 22 IBD patients and 8 healthy controls (HCs) was determined using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and analyzed using QIIME2. A distinct saliva microbiota dysbiosis in IBD, characterized by alterations in microbiota biodiversity and composition, was identified. Saccharibacteria (TM7), Absconditabacteria (SR1), Leptotrichia, Prevotella, Bulleidia, and Atopobium, some of which are oral biofilm-forming bacteria, were significantly increased. Moreover, levels of inflammatory cytokines associated with IBD were elevated and positively correlated with TM7 and SR1. Functional variations include down-regulation of genetic information processing, while up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum in IBD. Our data implicate salivary microbiota dysbiosis involving in IBD pathogenesis.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: China has made considerable progress with health system reforms in recent years. Rural China, however, has lagged behind as the diversity of needs of China's 3,000 rural counties were not always well addressed by national top-down reforms. China's Rural Health Reform Project Health XI (HXI) piloted a hybrid process of top down and bottom up implementation of health system reforms which were tailored to rural county level needs and covered a population of more than 21 million. Different studies provide evidence that HXI counties have achieved substantial benefits given the relatively limited investment. The Effectiveness of HXI subsequently raises the question how the hybrid approach may have resulted in effective implementation of interventions. We answer this question to advance understanding of hybrid approaches in general and in the rural Chinese context in particular, where the bottom-up elements might match poorly with the traditional organisational culture and learning style. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted an in-depth qualitative analysis in three 'best practice' counties, performing document-analyses, observations, semi-structured individual and group interviews. In alignment with the research question, this study is of an explorative nature and follows a sequence of deductive and inductive steps. RESULTS: HXI struggled initially as counties had difficulties to take initiative and autonomously select and adapt their own reforms. The initial reforms required multiple improvement iterations before achieving the planned results. The effectiveness of these bottom up reform processes has been aided by tight top down supervision and extensive domestic expert involvement. County level leadership is seen as essential to align the top down and bottom up structures and processes. Where successful, HXI has changed mind-sets and counties developed generic health improvement capabilities. CONCLUSION: Tailoring innovations to fit local needs formed a severe challenge for the three 'best practice' counties studied. A 'change of mindset' to actively take initiative and assume autonomy was needed to advance. Top down supervision and extensive support of experts was required to overcome the barriers. The studied counties finally achieved sustainable improvements and developed double loop learning capabilities beyond HXI objectives. Taken together, the above findings suggest that the continuum of healthcare reform implementation approaches in which hybrid approaches reside-from bottom up to top down-has two dimensions: a content dimension and a procedural dimension. Enabled by top down procedures, counties were able to bottom up tailor the content of best practice innovations to fit local needs.

3.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statistical data on the burden and relevant risk factors of lung cancer are valuable for policy-making. This study aimed to compare the mortality of lung cancer attributable to smoking stratified by sex and age among adults in China and the United States (US). METHODS: We extracted age-standardized mortality rates of lung cancer during 1990-2017 using the comparative risk assessment framework of the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study. We performed an age-period-cohort analysis to estimate time trend of lung cancer mortality attributable to smoking. RESULTS: During 1990-2017, the age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was increasing in China but decreasing in the US for both sexes. The mortality attributable to smoking in China showed a generally increasing trend, while a continuous decrease was observed in the US. The age-period-cohort analysis showed a similar trend of age effect among adults between China and the US: the mortality substantially increased from the 30-34 to 80-84 age group and subsequently decreased in the 90-94 age group. However, the period effect rapidly increased in Chinese adults during 1990-2017, while it tended to be stable in the US although it was still slightly increasing in women. The cohort effect generally peaked in the earlier cohort born in 1902-1906 in the two countries. CONCLUSIONS: During 1990-2017, the lung cancer mortality attributable to smoking and the period effect are generally increasing in Chinese adults; the mortality attributable to smoking is decreasing in the US adults, but the period effect tends to be stable. The rapid aging and prevalence of smoking may intensify the increasing mortality of lung cancer in China.

4.
Science ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004674

RESUMO

Injury induces retinal Müller glia of certain cold-blooded vertebrates, but not mammals, to regenerate neurons. To identify gene regulatory networks that reprogram Müller glia into progenitor cells, we profiled changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility in Müller glia from zebrafish, chick and mice in response to different stimuli. We identified evolutionarily conserved and species-specific gene networks controlling glial quiescence, reactivity and neurogenesis. In zebrafish and chick, transition from the quiescence to reactivity is essential for retinal regeneration, while in mice a dedicated network suppresses neurogenic competence and restores quiescence. Disruption of nuclear factor I (NFI) transcription factors, which maintain and restore quiescence, induces Müller glia to proliferate and generate neurons in adult mice following injury. These findings may aid in designing therapies to restore retinal neurons lost to degenerative diseases.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052647

RESUMO

We report a dual-interfacial engineering approach that uses a sub-20 nm polycrystalline MOF-74 shell as a transition phase to engineer the MOF-polymer interface. The application of a shell MOF layer divides the original single interface problem into two interfaces: MOF-MOF and MOF-polymer, which can be individually addressed. The greater external surface area created by the uneven MOF-74 shell containing high-density open metal sites allows the MOF to interact with 300% polymer at the interface compared to traditional MOF, thereby ensuring good interfacial compatibility. When applied on UiO-66-NH2, its respective mixed-matrix membranes exhibit a simultaneous increase of CO2/CH4 separation selectivity and CO2 permeability with increasing MOF loading, implying a defect-free interface. When applied on MOF-801, the mixed-matrix membranes exhibit an ethylene/ethane separation selectivity up to 5.91, a drastic 76% increase compared to that of the neat polymer owing to a "gas focusing" mechanism promoted by the preferred pore orientation in the MOF-74 layer. This represents one of the most selective ethylene/ethane separation membranes reported to date.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; : 105234, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053446

RESUMO

Although it is feared that diabetes-induced cognitive impairment (DCI) will become a major clinical problem worldwide in the future, its detailed pathological mechanism is not well known. Because patients with diabetes have various complications of vascular disease, vascular disorders in the brain are considered to be one of the main mechanisms of DCI. Mounting evidence suggests that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family plays a crucial role in the development of DCI. In this review, we summarized the changes and functions of VEGF during the development of DCI, and speculated that it was characterized by spatiotemporal variations in DCI progression. Considering the complexity of DCI pathogenesis and the diversity of VEGF function, we focused on the interrelationship of DCI and VEGF spatiotemporal variations during DCI development. During the progression of DCI, hyperglycemia, abnormal brain insulin signals, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and consequently hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation are the main pathophysiological changes; hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) play major roles in DCI-related VEGF spatiotemporal regulation. Furthermore, spatiotemporal variations in VEGF-mediated pathological cerebral neovascularization, repair and regeneration of dural lymphatic vessels, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and slight neuroprotection are increasing emphasized as potential targets in the treatment of DCI.

7.
J Perinat Med ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068387

RESUMO

Objectives To assess perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 infections during pregnancy and the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods An analysis was performed using Stata 15.0, and Q-test was used to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results The most common symptoms were found to be fever (64.78%), cough (59.81%) and shortness of breath or dyspnea (23.86%). Of this 88.73% patients demonstrated typical COVID-19 signs on chest CT or X-ray. Intubation was carried out in 35.87% of patients, and 4.95% of mothers were admitted to the intensive care unit, where the rate of maternal death was <0.01% and that of premature delivery was 25.32%. The rate of the birth weight being <2,500 g was 30.65% and that of Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission was 24.41%. Positive nasopharynx swabs or sputum from newborns was <0.01%. Conclusions Pregnant patients with COVID-19 most commonly presented with fever, cough, shortness of breath and dyspnea, most of which possessed imaging manifestations. The risk of intubation and admission to intensive care unit were high. The risk of premature delivery was higher, leading to a high risk of NICU admission and low neonatal birthweight. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to child was found to be unlikely.

8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt B): 107086, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068868

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of puerarin and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of puerarin in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. MAIN METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to puerarin (100 mg/kg) with or without the SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) and then subjected to MI/R operation. Myocardial infarct size, serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity, apoptotic cell death, and cardiac structure and function were examined to evaluate MI/R injury. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to determine the inflammatory response and inflammasome activation, as well as activation of SIRT1/NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: Puerarin significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum CK-MB activity, and apoptotic cell death, and improved cardiac structural damage and dysfunction. Moreover, puerarin notably decreased the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß, indicating that puerarin attenuated MI/R-induced inflammation. Furthermore, puerarin markedly decreased the protein levels of Ac-NF-κB, NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, cleaved IL-1ß, and cleaved IL-18 and increased the protein level of SIRT1. More importantly, the SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide prevented these puerarin-induced cardioprotective effects and regulation of the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway, as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. CONCLUSION: Puerarin protected against MI/R injury by inhibiting inflammatory responses probably via the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway, and inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome was also involved in puerarin-induced cardioprotective effects. These results suggest that puerarin may be a novel candidate for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1565, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is a cross-sectional study to explore the age and gender specific association between obesity and depression in Chinese rural adults. METHODS: A total of 29,900 eligible participants from the Henan Rural Cohort Study were included. Standard anthropometric measurements were undertaken to obtain data on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was utilized to discover depressive symptoms. Logistic regression was performed to explore the association between obesity (independent variable) and depressive symptoms (dependent variable). RESULTS: There were 1777 subjects with depressive symptoms, accounting for 5.94%. After multivariable adjustment, compared with normal weight group, the odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for depressive symptoms in underweight, overweight and general obese groups were 1.41 (1.08-1.84), 0.87 (0.78-0.97) and 0.86 (0.74-0.99), respectively. Similarly, the OR (95% CI) of abdominal obesity group was 0.84 (0.76-0.93). Besides, there was linear decreasing trend of WC with depressive symptoms, but not BMI. Moreover, the inverse association between obesity and depressive symptoms was stronger in men and the elderly than that in women and the young. CONCLUSION: Underweight was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, which indicated that health care should pay attention to underweight as well as obesity, especially for women and the young. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Henan Rural Cohort Study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699 ). Date of registration: 2015-07-06.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16423, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009432

RESUMO

The potential risks of Bt rice on non-target arthropods (NTAs) should be evaluated and defined before commercial production. Recently, effects of Bt rice on NTAs under abiotic and biotic stress conditions attracted much attention. Here we reported the effects of Bt rice T1C-19 (Cry1C rice) on the non-target herbivore, Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper, BPH) with or without RDV (rice dwarf virus) infection conditions. BPH showed no feeding and oviposition preference between Bt rice T1C-19 and its non-Bt parental rice Minghui 63 (MH63), as well as between RDV-infected and RDV-free rice plants. Meanwhile, rice type, RDV infection status, and their interaction had little impacts on the survival, development and fecundity of BPH. By comparison with non-Bt control, Bt rice T1C-19 with or without RDV infection had no significant effects on the life-table parameters of BPH including rm, R0, T, DT and λ. Thus, it could be concluded that Bt rice T1C-19 doesn't affect the ecological fitness of BPH either under RDV stress or not.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(10)2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036186

RESUMO

As an important carrier for intestinal secretion and water absorption, aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is closely related to diarrhea. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of AQP3 gene expression regulation in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)-induced diarrhea confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Evaluation of intestinal pathology showed that diarrhea caused by PEDV infection destroyed the intestinal barrier of piglets. qPCR analysis showed that AQP3 expression in the small intestine of PEDV-infected piglets was extremely significantly decreased. qPCR and Bisulfite sequencing PCR revealed an increase in the methylation levels of both CpG islands in the AQP3 promoter region in the jejunum of PEDV-infected piglets. The methylation of mC-20 and mC-10 sites within the two CpG islands showed a significant negative correlation with AQP3 expression. Chromatin Co-Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR showed that the Sp1 transcription factor was bound to the AQP3 promoter region containing these two CpG sites. AQP3 expression was also extremely significantly reduced in Sp1-inhibited IPEC-J2 cells, indicating that abnormal methylation at the mC-20 site of CpG1 and the mC-10 site of CpG2 reduces its expression in PEDV-infected piglet jejunum by inhibiting the binding of Sp1 to the AQP3 promoter. These findings provide a theoretical basis for further functional studies of porcine AQP3.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043424

RESUMO

Investigating the regional correlation and factors affecting agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can help establish a regional mechanism for the synergistic reduction of emissions and produce chain-like reductions. Different from the traditional geographical relationship analysis framework, linear analysis ideas, we use social network analysis to discern the regional correlations in agricultural GHG emissions from a relational network viewpoint, clarify the network functions of each node, and explain agricultural GHG correlation from a spatial, economic, and technological viewpoint by nonparametric regression. The results indicate that (1) the emission network is stable and there is a relationship of control between regions, (2) Central China is the most important region in agricultural GHG networks; however, the importance of the northwest and southwest has increased; the northeast has remained relatively independent, (3) influencers are mainly concentrated in the middle of the Yangtze River and the northwest, while dependentors are concentrated in municipalities such as Beijing and Tianjin, and the coastal regions in the southeast, and (4) the interprovincial agricultural GHG correlation can be enhanced by shortening the spatial distance, strengthening economic ties, and increasing the diffusion of technology. Implementing a "leader-follower" strategy according to the role of each region and enhancing the intermediator's "conduit" role will ultimately lead to the formation of an interprovincial interactive and cooperative emission reduction mechanism.

13.
Ann Bot ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Theory predicts that outcrossing should be more prevalent among perennials than annuals, a pattern confirmed by comparative evidence from diverse angiosperm families. However, intraspecific comparisons between annual and perennial populations are few because such variation is uncommon among flowering plants. Here, we test the hypothesis that perennial populations outcross more than annual populations by investigating Incarvillea sinensis, a wide-ranging insect-pollinated herb native to China. The occurrence of both allopatric and sympatric populations allow us to examine the stability of mating system differences between life histories under varying ecological conditions. METHODS: We estimated outcrossing rates and biparental inbreeding in 16 allopatric and five sympatric populations in which both life histories co-existed using 20 microsatellite loci. In each population we measured height, branch number, corolla size, tube length and herkogamy for ~30 individuals. In a sympatric population, we recorded daily flower number, pollinator visitation and the fruit and seed set of annual and perennial plants. KEY RESULTS: As predicted, outcrossing rates (t) were considerably higher in perennial (mean = 0.76) than annual (mean = 0.09) populations. This difference in mating system was also maintained at sympatric sites where plants grew intermixed. In both allopatric and sympatric populations the degree of herkogamy was consistently larger in outcrossing than selfing plants. Perennials were more branched, with more and larger flowers than in annuals. In a sympatric population, annuals had a significantly higher fruit and seed set than perennials. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically-based differences in herkogamy between annuals and perennials appear to play a key role in governing outcrossing rates in populations, regardless of variation in local ecological conditions. The maintenance of mating system and life-history trait differentiation between perennial and annual populations of I. sinensis probably results from correlated evolution in response to local environmental conditions.

14.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 10892-10907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042260

RESUMO

Background: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small glycerophospholipid that acts as a potent extracellular signal in various biological processes and diseases. Our previous work demonstrated that the expression of the LPA receptors LPA1 and LPA3 is elevated in the early postnatal heart. However, the role of this stage-specific expression of LPA1 and LPA3 in the heart is unknown. Methods and Results: By using LPA3 and LPA1 knockout mice, and neonatal SD rats treated with Ki16425 (LPA1/LPA3 inhibitor), we found that the number of proliferating cardiomyocytes, detected by coimmunostaining pH3, Ki67 or BrdU with cardiac troponin T, was significantly decreased in the LPA3 knockout mice and the Ki16425-treated rats but not in the LPA1 knockout mice during the first week of postnatal life. Using a myocardial infarction (MI) model, we found that cardiac function and the number of proliferating cardiomyocytes were decreased in the neonatal LPA3 KO mice and increased in the AAV9-mediated cardiac-specific LPA3 overexpression mice. By using lineage tracing and AAV9-LPA3, we further found that LPA3 overexpression in adult mice enhances cardiac function and heart regeneration as assessed by pH3-, Ki67-, and Aurora B-positive cardiomyocytes and clonal cardiomyocytes after MI. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and additional mechanistic studies showed that LPA induces cardiomyocyte proliferation through the PI3K/AKT, BMP-Smad1/5, Hippo/YAP and MAPK/ERK pathways in vitro, whereas only ERK was confirmed to be activated by LPA-LPA3 signaling in vivo. Conclusion: Our study reports that LPA3-mediated LPA signaling is a crucial factor for cardiomyocyte proliferation in the early postnatal heart. Cardiac-specific LPA3 overexpression improved cardiac function and promoted cardiac regeneration after myocardial injury induced by MI. This finding suggested that activation of LPA3 potentially through AAV-mediated gene therapy might be a therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome after MI.

15.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 11339-11358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042286

RESUMO

Background: TSTA3 gene encodes an enzyme responsible for synthesis of GDP-L-fucose as the only donor in fucosylation. This study was designed to explore clinical value, function and underlying mechanism of TSTA3 in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: Whole genomic sequencing data from 663 ESCC patients and RNA sequencing data from 155 ESCC patients were used to analyze the copy number variation and mRNA expression of TSTA3 respectively. Immunohistochemistry based or not based on the tissue microarrays was used to detect its protein expression. Transwell assay and in vivo metastasis assay were used to study the effect of TSTA3 on invasion and metastasis of ESCC. Immunofluorescence was used to analyze fucosylation level. N-glycoproteomics and proteomics analysis, Lens Culinaris Agglutinin (LCA) and Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, glycosyltransferase activity kit and rescue assay were used to explore the mechanism of TSTA3. Results: TSTA3 was frequently amplified and overexpressed in ESCC. TSTA3 amplification and protein overexpression were significantly associated with malignant progression and poor prognosis of ESCC patients. TSTA3 knockdown significantly suppressed ESCC cells invasion and tumor dissemination by decreasing fucosylation level. Conversely, exogenous overexpression of TSTA3 led to increased invasion and tumor metastasis in vitro and in vivo by increasing fucosylation level. Moreover, core fucosylated LAMP2 and terminal fucosylated ERBB2 might be mediators of TSTA3-induced pro-invasion in ESCC and had a synergistic effect on the process. Peracetylated 2-F-Fuc, a fucosyltransferase activity inhibitor, reduced TSTA3 expression and fucosylation modification of LAMP2 and ERBB2, thereby inhibiting ESCC cell invasion. Conclusion: Our results indicate that TSTA3 may be a driver of ESCC metastasis through regulating fucosylation of LAMP2 and ERBB2. Fucosylation inhibitor may have prospect to suppress ESCC metastasis by blocking aberrant fucosylation.

16.
Genome Biol Evol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045048

RESUMO

Dendrobium huoshanense is used to treat various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Recent studies have identified active components. However, the lack of genomic data limits research on the biosynthesis and application of these therapeutic ingredients. To address this issue, we generated the first chromosome-level genome assembly and annotation of D. huoshanense. We integrated PacBio sequencing data, Illumina paired-end sequencing data, and Hi-C sequencing data to assemble a 1.285 Gb genome, with contig and scaffold N50 lengths of 598 kb and 71.79Mb, respectively. We annotated 21,070 protein-coding genes and 0.96 Gb transposable elements, constituting 74.92% of the whole assembly. In addition, we identified 252 genes responsible for polysaccharide biosynthesis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional annotation. Our data provide a basis for further functional studies, particularly those focused on genes related to glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and have implications for both conservation and medicine.

17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047885

RESUMO

Exosomes have recently emerged as a pivotal mediator of many physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of exosomes in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of exosomes in PVR. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFß-2) was used to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, as an in vitro model of PVR. Exosomes from normal and EMTed RPE cells were extracted and identified. We incubated extracted exosomes with recipient RPE cells, and co-cultured EMTed RPE cells and recipient RPE cells in the presence of the exosome inhibitor GW4869. Both experiments suggested that there are further EMT-promoting effects of exosomes from EMTed RPE cells. MicroRNA sequencing was also performed to identify the miRNA profiles in exosomes from both groups. We identified 34 differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs (P <. 05). Importantly, miR-543 was found in exosomes from EMTed RPE cells, and miR-543-enriched exosomes significantly induced the EMT of recipient RPE cells. Our study demonstrates that exosomal miRNA is differentially expressed in RPE cells during EMT and that these exosomal miRNAs may play pivotal roles in EMT induction. Our results highlight the importance of exosomes as cellular communicators within the microenvironment of PVR.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001067

RESUMO

A cobalt(i) complex is shown to be capable of both electrocatalytic reduction and hydrogenation of CO2 to formate. Several proposed intermediates are characterized and thus form the basis for a proposed mechanism that allows for the dual reactivity: reduction of CO2 via H2 addition, and H+/e- equivalents. The work makes use of a novel tris(phosphino) ligand. When a pendent amine is attached to the ligand, no change in catalytic reactivity is observed.

19.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001388

RESUMO

Nosocomial infections are common in pediatric patients and can be fatal in infants and immunocompromised patients. In September 2018, a high positive rate of human adenovirus HAdV was occurred among hospitalized children in the Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Paediatrics in Beijing. To investigate whether this outbreak of HAdV was related to nosocomial infections or the result of community infections, we collected respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory infections in a respiratory ward during June to December 2018, and screened for respiratory viruses. Among 1,840 cases included, 95 (5.2%, 95/1840) were positive for HAdV and 81 were genotyped based on phylogenetic analysis, including seven as HAdV-1 (8.6%), 30 HAdV-3 (37.0%), two HAdV-6 (2.5%), and 42 HAdV-7 (51.9%). More HAdV-positive samples were collected in August (4.7%, 12/255), September (15.0%, 41/274) and October (6.9%, 17/247), with a peak in September 2018. By combining the results of HAdV phylogenetic analysis with clinical data of patients, there were 77 cases (4.2%, 77/1840; 81.1%, 77/95) excluded from nosocomial infections, eight cases representing possible infections transmitted by visitors or attending parents, three cases without sequences that might have been due to infection transmitted by roommates positive for HAdV, one case of a roommate without an HAdV sequence, and six cases that shared highly homologous sequences with those of their roommates, for which nosocomial infections might be considered. In conclusion, genotyping of HAdVs based on phylogenetic analysis combined with clinical information provides a powerful method to distinguish nosocomial infections from community acquired infection, especially when tracing the origins of nosocomial infections.

20.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14359, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002270

RESUMO

Keloid often recur after treatment, and recent studies in keloid management favor the combination therapy of laser-assisted drug delivery over monotherapy. Unfortunately, the previous researches lack long-term follow-up. In this prospective study, 41 individuals with refractory keloids underwent eight treatment sessions at 4 weeks intervals consisting of ultrapulse fractional carbon dioxide laser (UFCL), followed by postoperative application topical triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/ml). Four follow-up moments were chosen, with follow-up of 24 months. The effects of combination therapy on scar pliability, thickness, relief, vascularization, surface area, pain, and itchiness were examined by means of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). 38 patients completed the full 24 months of follow-up after the whole treatment. The results reveal a fast and abiding improvement of keloid scars after the combination therapy. The mean keloid POSAS scores showed a decreasing trend in subsequent times. All POSAS components improved significantly between baseline and 24 months after start of therapy (P < .05). Long-term follow-up results demonstrate that combination keloid therapy using UFCL and tropical triamcinolone has overall significant improvement and low recurrence rate with a long-term stable results.

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