Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.839
Filtrar
1.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637387

RESUMO

Human-robot-collaboration requires robot to proactively and intelligently recognize the intention of human operator. Despite deep learning approaches have achieved certain results in performing feature learning and long-term temporal dependencies modeling, the motion prediction is still not desirable enough, which unavoidably compromises the accomplishment of tasks. Therefore, a hybrid recurrent neural network architecture is proposed for intention recognition to conduct the assembly tasks cooperatively. Specifically, the improved LSTM (ILSTM) and improved Bi-LSTM (IBi-LSTM) networks are first explored with state activation function and gate activation function to improve the network performance. The employment of the IBi-LSTM unit in the first layers of the hybrid architecture helps to learn the features effectively and fully from complex sequential data, and the LSTM-based cell in the last layer contributes to capturing the forward dependency. This hybrid network architecture can improve the prediction performance of intention recognition effectively. One experimental platform with the UR5 collaborative robot and human motion capture device is set up to test the performance of the proposed method. One filter, that is, the quartile-based amplitude limiting algorithm in sliding window, is designed to deal with the abnormal data of the spatiotemporal data, and thus, to improve the accuracy of network training and testing. The experimental results show that the hybrid network can predict the motion of human operator more precisely in collaborative workspace, compared with some representative deep learning methods.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638118

RESUMO

Ag/SiO2and Au/SiO2samples were prepared by separately implanting 30 keV Ag and Au ions into 0.5-mm-thick SiO2slabs at a fluence of 6 × 1016ion/cm2, and their optical and structural properties were studied in detail by using a fiber spectrometer and a transmission electron microscope, respectively. Our results showed that the two samples featured by their respective nanocomposite surface layers were asymmetrical in structure, and hence, their characteristic signals in the reflectance spectra excited by the lights incident from the rear surfaces were able to exhibit corresponding blueshifts when the overlays on the implanted surfaces were increased in refractive index with respect to air. Our results also showed that each of characteristic signals was strongly dependent on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) behavior of the involved Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs), and it could not appear at a wavelength position smaller than or equal to that of the LSPR absorption peak since the involved Ag or Au NPs were quite small in size. These results meant that the two samples could be regarded as the LSPR sensors with a negative refractive index sensitivity (RIS), although their sensing abilities would lose when the overlays were very large in refractive index. Especially, the two samples were demonstrated to be relatively high in stability because the involved Ag and Au NPs were closely hugged and chemically protected by the matrices of SiO2, and consequently, they could have a chance to become prospective sensing devices in some special fields as long as their RISs and linearities could be improved in the future. The above findings substantially confirmed that the metal ion implantation into transparent dielectric slab was an effective route to the high-stability LSPR sensors.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 49: 116437, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600239

RESUMO

AXL is a member of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL, MER) subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. It is upregulated in a variety of cancers and its overexpression is associated with poor disease prognosis and acquired drug resistance. Utilizing a fragment-based lead discovery approach, a new indazole-based AXL inhibitor was obtained. The indazole fragment hit 11, identified through a high concentration biochemical screen, was expeditiously improved to fragment 24 by screening our in-house expanded library of fragments (ELF) collection. Subsequent fragment optimization guided by docking studies provided potent inhibitor 54 with moderate exposure levels in mice. X-ray crystal structure of analog 50 complexed with the I650M mutated kinase domain of Mer revealed the key binding interactions for the scaffold. The good potency coupled with reasonable kinase selectivity, moderate in vivo exposure levels, and availability of structural information for the series makes it a suitable starting point for further optimization efforts.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 186-192, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626965

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Transparent superhydrophilic coatings are very promising in various scenarios. Appropriate fabrication of colloid coatings with superhydrophilicity both in air and under oil would enlarge their application potential in anti-oil fouling and facilitate anti-fogging of transparent surfaces. EXPERIMENTS: The Barite colloid was obtained from a one-step precipitation method and was transferred onto glasses to prepare transparent coatings with different thicknesses simply by dip-coating. Then, the impact of thickness on wettability and property was studied through the investigation of wettability in various phase, anti-crude oil fouling performance and anti-fogging ability. FINDINGS: Similar surface morphology and roughness of these coatings were achieved and all the coated surfaces showed ultra-hydrophilicity both in air and under oil. Moreover, the hydrophilicity in air and under oil was found to deteriorate with the decrease of coatings' thickness and dual superhydrophilicity could be achieved on thick coatings. More importantly, excellent anti-crude oil fouling property and durable anti-fogging ability were realized on these transparent coatings with dual superhydrophilicity.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms occur in over 40% of neurosurgical patients during the perioperative period. However, no measure has been suggested to have a rapid effect on depressive surgical patients during increasingly shorter stays in the hospital. This study aimed to determine whether ketamine could improve depressive symptoms rapidly and safely during the hospital stay. METHODS: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded trial. Patients with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms undergoing elective supratentorial brain tumor resection were randomized to intravenously receive either (1) 0.5 mg·kg-1 ketamine for 40 minutes or (2) an identical volume of normal saline. The primary outcome was treatment response on postoperative day 3, defined as a ≥50% reduction from the baseline depressive score. The secondary outcomes included the rate of remission and safety outcomes. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale was applied by trained psychiatrists to evaluate depressive symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 84 neurosurgical patients were enrolled in the trial. The response rate was increased by the administration of ketamine (41.5% [17/41] vs 16.3% [7/43]; relative risk [RR]: 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-5.50) relative to the administration of placebo at 3 days. Furthermore, the remission rate at discharge (29.3% [12/41] vs 7.0% [3/43]; RR: 4.20, 95% CI, 1.28-13.80) was also improved by ketamine. No psychotic symptoms or adverse events were reported to be substantially higher in the ketamine group. CONCLUSIONS: The trial indicates that the intraoperative administration of ketamine could alleviate moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms in neurosurgical patients without worsening safety.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 967-977, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598033

RESUMO

The inert sites of Prussian Blue Analogue (PBA) seriously affected its electrocatalytic activity and application, how to activate inert sites in PBA to fulfill effective oxygen evolution reduction (OER) is a major challenge. Herein, Mo substituted Fe sites and S doped in inert PBA were designed and synthesized by hydrothermal method to enhance structural stability and OER activity. PBA-SMo/NF shows the optimum activity with a low overpotential of 252 and 294 mV for harvesting current density 20 and 100 mA cm-2, respectively, and exhibits excellent durability under high current density. Theoretical calculation of H2O adsorption energy and Bader charges reveals that Mo sites in PBA-SMo possess favourable H2O adsorption kinetics. More important, Gibbs free energy diagram and DOS show PBA-SMo have lower energy barriers for OER and better conductivity. This work provides a kind of guidance for the design and optimization of PBA for broad applications.

8.
Ecology ; : e03555, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622943

RESUMO

Plant functional traits often show strong latitudinal trends. To explain these trends, studies have often focused on environmental variables, correlations with other traits that themselves show latitudinal trends, and phylogenetic conservatism. However, few studies have systematically disentangled the relative contributions of these factors. Using a dataset consisting of 9,370 plant species from Southwest China, we investigated factors affecting fruit type (fleshy vs. dry): plant growth form, environmental constraints (summarized by climate region), and phylogenetic conservatism. Growth form and climate region are often cited in the literature as important explanations for the higher proportion of fleshy fruited species in the tropics. Nonetheless, in our analyses using partial R2 , growth form and climate region explained only 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively, of the variance in fruit type in a model including phylogeny, while phylogenetic conservatism explained 79.5%. Furthermore, phylogenetic conservatism was evenly distributed along the phylogeny, implying that fruit type reflects both ancient and recent phylogenetic relationships. Our findings illustrate the value of parsing out the contributions of explanatory variables and phylogeny to the variance in species' traits. Methods using phylogenies that calculate partial R2 give a more informative tool than traditional methods to explore the phylogenetic patterns of functional traits.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 755481, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603341

RESUMO

The beneficial effect of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on host health has been well recognized based on the booming knowledge from gut microbiome research. The role of SCFA in influencing psychological function is highlighted in recent years but has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the SCFA-acylated starches were used to accomplish a sizeable intestine-targeted release of the SCFAs, and the neurobehavioral, immunological, and microbial effects were further investigated. Acetylated-, butylated-, and isobutylated-starch could attenuate the depression-like behaviors and excessive corticosterone production in chronically stressed mice. Butylated- starch significantly reduced the colonic permeability via increasing the tight junction proteins (including ZO-1, Claudin, and Occludin) gene expression and reduced the level of the inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1ß and IL-6). The butylated starch's neurological and immunological benefits may be derived from the gut microbiome modifications, including normalizing the abundance of certain beneficial microbes (Odoribacter and Oscillibacter) and metabolomic pathways (Tryptophan synthesis and Inositol degradation). The present findings further validate the brain-beneficial effect of butyrate and offer novel guidance for developing novel food or dietary supplements for improving mental health.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The amygdala is vital in processing psychological stress and predicting vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders. This study aimed to build the link between functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained before the stress event and the subsequent stress-related depressive symptoms. METHODS: Neuroimaging data obtained before the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from 39 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 61 health controls (HCs) were used in this study. The participants were divided retrospectively into four groups in accordance with the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic: remitted patients, non-remitted patients, depressed HCs (HCd) and non-depressed HCs (HCnd). Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses of the amygdala and its subregions, including centromedial (CM), basolateral and superficial (SF), were performed. RESULTS: Vulnerability to depression was suggested by the decreased rsFC between the left CM amygdala and the bilateral lingual gyrus in the HCd group compared with the HCnd group, and decreased rsFC of the left CM or right SF amygdala with the precuneus and the postcentral gyrus in the HCd group compared with patients with MDD. No evidence supports the rsFC of the amygdala or its subregions as a biomarker for the resilience of patients with MDD to stress under antidepressant treatment. LIMITATIONS: Smaller sample size and no longitudinal neuroimaging data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the rsFC of amygdala subregions may represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to depression following stress.

11.
Cell ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644527

RESUMO

To secure phosphorus (P) from soil, most land plants use a direct phosphate uptake pathway via root hairs and epidermis and an indirect phosphate uptake pathway via mycorrhizal symbiosis. The interaction between these two pathways is unclear. Here, we mapped a network between transcription factors and mycorrhizal symbiosis-related genes using Y1H. Intriguingly, this gene regulatory network is governed by the conserved P-sensing pathway, centered on phosphate starvation response (PHR) transcription factors. PHRs are required for mycorrhizal symbiosis and regulate symbiosis-related genes via the P1BS motif. SPX-domain proteins suppress OsPHR2-mediated induction of symbiosis-related genes and inhibit mycorrhizal infection. In contrast, plants overexpressing OsPHR2 show improved mycorrhizal infection and are partially resistant to P-mediated inhibition of symbiosis. Functional analyses of network nodes revealed co-regulation of hormonal signaling and mycorrhizal symbiosis. This network deciphers extensive regulation of mycorrhizal symbiosis by endogenous and exogenous signals and highlights co-option of the P-sensing pathway for mycorrhizal symbiosis.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127287, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597927

RESUMO

Previous research has been demonstrated that the residual unextracted antibiotics in spiramycin fermentation residue (SFR) could be efficiently removed by thermally activated peroxodisulfate (TAP) pretreatment, indicating the improvement of biodegradability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TAP pretreatment on the succession of bacterial community and fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during SFR composting. Results indicated that TAP pretreatment increased the composting temperature and promoted the decomposition of organic matters. Furthermore, TAP pretreatment could increase bacterial alpha diversity and significantly reduce the relative abundance of ARGs (1.13-1.75 times) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (1.13-1.32 times) after composting. The compost of pretreated SFR by TAP could reduce the enrichment of ARGs and MGEs in the bacterial community, especially the rRNA methylase genes of ermB (4-142-folds). Redundancy analysis showed that Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and horizontal gene transfer mediated by MGEs (intI1) was positively related to the changes in ARGs (accounted for 97.4%). Network analysis showed that Firmicutes was the main bacterial hosts of ARGs and MGEs. These findings demonstrated that TAP pretreatment combined composting was a promising strategy for SFR safe treatment and disposal that could reduce the proliferation and transfer of ARGs.

13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 57-65, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607674

RESUMO

Improving our understanding of air pollutant emissions from the asphalt industry is critical for the development and implementation of pollution control policies. In this study, the spatial distribution of potential maximum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the complete life cycle of asphalt mixtures, as well as the particulate matter (PM), asphalt fume, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), VOCs, and benzoapyrene (BaP) emissions from typical processes (e.g., asphalt and concrete mixing stations, asphalt heating boilers, and asphalt storage tanks) in asphalt mixing plants, were determined in Beijing in 2017. The results indicated that the potential maximum emissions of VOCs in the complete life cycle of asphalt mixtures were 18,001 ton, with a large contribution from the districts of Daxing, Changping, and Tongzhou. The total emissions of PM, asphalt fume, NMHC, VOCs, and BaP from asphalt mixing plants were 3.1, 12.6, 3.1, 23.5, and 1.9 × 10-3 ton, respectively. The emissions of PM from asphalt and concrete mixing stations contributed the most to the total emissions. The asphalt storage tank was the dominant emission source of VOCs, accounting for 96.1% of the total VOCs emissions in asphalt mixing plants, followed by asphalt heating boilers. The districts of Daxing, Changping, and Shunyi were the dominant regions for the emissions of PM, asphalt fume, NMHC, and BaP, while the districts of Shunyi, Tongzhou, and Changping contributed the most emissions of VOCs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6803510, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603560

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most significant public health threat worldwide. Patients with severe COVID-19 usually have pneumonia concomitant with local inflammation and sometimes a cytokine storm. Specific components of the SARS-CoV-2 virus trigger lung inflammation, and recruitment of immune cells to the lungs exacerbates this process, although much remains unknown about the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Our study of lung type II pneumocyte cells (A549) demonstrated that ORF7, an open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, induced the production of CCL2, a chemokine that promotes the chemotaxis of monocytes, and decreased the expression of IL-8, a chemokine that recruits neutrophils. A549 cells also had an increased level of IL-6. The results of our chemotaxis Transwell assay suggested that ORF7 augmented monocyte infiltration and reduced the number of neutrophils. We conclude that the ORF7 of SARS-CoV-2 may have specific effects on the immunological changes in tissues after infection. These results suggest that the functions of other ORFs of SARS-CoV-2 should also be comprehensively examined.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Monócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/fisiologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Células A549 , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(41): 17292-17299, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613737

RESUMO

Crystal phase engineering of noble-metal-based alloy nanomaterials paves a new way to the rational synthesis of high-performance catalysts for various applications. However, the controlled preparation of noble-metal-based alloy nanomaterials with unconventional crystal phases still remains a great challenge due to their thermodynamically unstable nature. Herein, we develop a robust and general seeded method to synthesize PdCu alloy nanomaterials with unconventional hexagonal close-packed (hcp, 2H type) phase and also tunable Cu contents. Moreover, galvanic replacement of Cu by Pt can be further conducted to prepare unconventional trimetallic 2H-PdCuPt nanomaterials. Impressively, 2H-Pd67Cu33 nanoparticles possess a high mass activity of 0.87 A mg-1Pd at 0.9 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) in electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition, which is 2.5 times that of the conventional face-centered cubic (fcc) Pd69Cu31 counterpart, revealing the important role of crystal phase on determining the ORR performance. After the incorporation of Pt, the obtained 2H-Pd71Cu22Pt7 catalyst shows a significantly enhanced mass activity of 1.92 A mg-1Pd+Pt at 0.9 V (vs RHE), which is 19.2 and 8.7 times those of commercial Pt/C and Pd/C, placing it among the best reported Pd-based ORR electrocatalysts under alkaline conditions.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 493-497, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aggression is common and challenging in psychiatric emergency departments (PED). However, the prevalence of aggression and its correlates in PED patients are not well documented. This study compared the prevalence of aggression between patients with acute schizophrenia and manic episodes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients at a psychiatric emergency department were assessed with measurements of aggression, psychotic and manic symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 4,172 patients were included. The prevalence of aggression was 54.8% (95%CI=53.3%-65.2%) in the whole sample, with 48.0% (95%CI=45.8%-50.1%) in patients with an acute schizophrenia episode, and 61.8% (95%CI=59.8%-63.9%) in patients with a manic episode. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that, within the acute schizophrenia episode group, male gender (OR=1.47, P<0.01), involuntary admission (OR=3.61, P<0.01) and more severe manic symptoms (OR=1.30, P<0.01) were significantly associated with aggression. Within the manic episode group, living in Beijing (OR=1.51, P<0.01), unemployment (OR=1.34, P=0.03), involuntary admission (OR=7.93, P<0.01), lower education (OR=0.95, P=0.01) and more severe psychotic symptoms (OR=1.05, P<0.01) were significantly associated with aggression. CONCLUSION: In this study, aggression appeared to be more common among patients with a manic episode than those with an acute schizophrenia episode. Considering the significant risk of aggression on psychiatric emergency care, appropriate and effective management of aggression in this population group need to be developed.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 531, 2021 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657142

RESUMO

Several care models have been developed to improve treatment for depression, all of which provide "enhanced" evidence-based care (EEC). The essential component of these approaches is Measurement-Based Care (MBC). Specifically, Collaborative Care (CC), and Algorithm-guided Treatment (AGT), and Integrated Care (IC) all use varying forms of rigorous MBC assessment, care management, and/or treatment algorithms as key instruments to optimize treatment delivery and outcomes for depression. This meta-analysis systematically examined the effectiveness of EEC versus usual care for depressive disorders based on cluster-randomized studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo, EMBASE, up to January 6th, 2020 were searched for this meta-analysis. The electronic search was supplemented by a manual search. Standardized mean difference (SMD), risk ratio (RR), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and analyzed. A total of 29 studies with 15,255 participants were analyzed. EEC showed better effectiveness with the pooled RR for response of 1.30 (95%CI: 1.13-1.50, I2 = 81.9%, P < 0.001, 18 studies), remission of 1.35 (95%CI: 1.11-1.64, I2 = 85.5%, P < 0.001, 18 studies) and symptom reduction with a pooled SMD of -0.42 (95%CI: -0.61-(-0.23), I2 = 94.3%, P < 0.001, 19 studies). All-cause discontinuations were similar between EEC and usual care with the pooled RR of 1.08 (95%CI: 0.94-1.23, I2 = 68.0%, P = 0.303, 27 studies). This meta-analysis supported EEC as an evidence-based framework to improve the treatment outcome of depressive disorders.Review registration: PROSPERO: CRD42020163668.

19.
IBRO Neurosci Rep ; 11: 144-155, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667972

RESUMO

Long-term cannabis use during adolescence has deleterious effects in brain that are largely ascribed to the activation of cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1Rs) by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana. Systemic administration of ∆9-THC inhibits acetylcholine release in the prelimbic-prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC). In turn, PL-PFC acetylcholine plays a role in executive activities regulated by CB1R-targeting endocannabinoids, which are generated by cholinergic stimulation of muscarinic-1 receptors (M1Rs). However, the long-term effects of chronic administration of increasing doses of ∆9-THC in adolescent males on the distribution and function of M1 and/or CB1 receptors in the PL-PFC remains unresolved. We used C57BL\6J male mice pre-treated with vehicle or escalating daily doses of ∆9-THC to begin filling this gap. Electron microscopic immunolabeling showed M1R-immunogold particles on plasma membranes and in association with cytoplasmic membranes in varying sized dendrites and dendritic spines. These dendritic profiles received synaptic inputs from unlabeled, CB1R- and/or M1R-labeled axon terminals in the PL-PFC of both treatment groups. However, there was a size-dependent decrease in total (plasmalemmal and cytoplasmic) M1R gold particles in small dendrites within the PL-PFC of mice receiving ∆9-THC. Whole cell current-clamp recording in PL-PFC slice preparations further revealed that adolescent pretreatment with ∆9-THC attenuates the hyperpolarization and increases the firing rate produced by local muscarinic stimulation. Repeated administration of ∆9-THC during adolescence also reduced spontaneous alternations in a Y-maze paradigm designed for measures of PFC-dependent memory function in adult mice. Our results provide new information implicating M1Rs in cortical dysfunctions resulting from adolescent abuse of marijuana.

20.
Org Lett ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662135

RESUMO

α-Amino azines are widely found in pharmaceuticals and ligands. Herein, we report a practical method for accessing this class of compounds via photocatalyzed hydroarylation of azine-substituted enamides with the in situ-generated aryl thianthrenium salts as the radical precursor. This reaction features a broad substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, and mild conditions and is suitable for the late-stage installation of α-amino azines in complex structures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...