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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130693, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358960

RESUMO

To explore the effects of phenolic binding on the structure and activity of lotus root polysaccharides (LRPs), five LRP-phenol complexes containing catechin (61.22 mg/g), gallic acid (9.37 mg/g), ferulic acid (29.28 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (83.80 mg/g) or caffeic acid (14.80 mg/g) were prepared via noncovalent intermolecular interaction, respectively. The interaction was confirmed by the differences among LRPs, phenols and their complexes in ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The phenolic binding caused significant changes in the molecular weight (MW) distribution and aggregation behavior of LRPs, particularly their average MW (34.49 kDa) increased by 3.73-8.30 times. Compared to LRPs, the complexes all showed stronger antioxidant activities. Notably, the binding of catechin improved the macrophage-stimulating effect of LRPs, specifically promoting the NO production at normal condition and inhibiting the NO overproduction induced by lipopolysaccharide. The noncovalent interaction with phenolic compounds is a promising method for the structural and functional improvement of LRPs.

2.
Hum Immunol ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509315

RESUMO

Mental stress has been shown to activate sympathetic adrenergic system to produce dopamine and finally promote the progression of cancer. Dopamine can also regulate the immune system through secreting kinds of cytokines. However, what role does dopamine play in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of dopamine in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cellular viability of acute myeloid leukemia U937 cells. Our results showed that dopamine enhanced the viability of U937 cells and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in U937 cells. To further explore the mechanism of dopamine on U937 cells, we examined the expression level of dopamine receptors (DRs). We found that the mRNA expression level of DR5 in U937 cells was significantly higher than other dopamine receptors. Furthermore, we treated U937 cells with DR1/2/3/5 antagonist before dopamine, and it manifestly reversed the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the viability-enhancing effect in U937 cells induced by dopamine. Anti-IL-1ß antibody also could partly reversed the viability-enhancing effect by dopamine. We concluded that dopamine could enhance the viability of U937 cells through DR1/5 receptor pathway and activate NLRP3 inflammasome.

3.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between the changes in albuminuria levels and the clinical prognosis of stroke is unknown. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between changes in albuminuria and the risk of adverse stroke outcomes. METHODS: The patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III) who had the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) detected at baseline and 3-month were recruited. They were classified into 4 groups according to baseline and 3-month ACR and followed up for 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5,311 patients were finally included in the study. There were 3,738 (70.4%), 483 (9.1%), 451 (8.5%), and 639 (12.0%) patients with no albuminuria, baseline albuminuria, 3-month albuminuria, and persistent albuminuria, respectively. After adjustment for confounding variables, persistent albuminuria was independently associated with all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.23; 95% CI, 1.17-4.25; p = 0.02), stroke recurrence (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.02-2.36; p = 0.04), and poor functional outcome (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.66-2.96; p < 0.001). Baseline albuminuria was independently associated with poor functional outcome (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.19-2.28; p = 0.003), while 3-month albuminuria was independently associated with stroke recurrence (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.65; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in albuminuria can predict adverse 1-year outcomes in Chinese ischemic stroke patients. In particular, persistent albuminuria was independently associated with 1-year all-cause death, stroke recurrence, and poor functional outcome.

4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 406, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family members play important roles in development and stress tolerance through regulation of organellar gene expression. However, their molecular functions have yet to be clearly defined. RESULTS: Here an mTERF gene V14 was identified by fine mapping using a conditional albino mutant v14 that displayed albinism only in the first two true leaves, which was confirmed by transgenic complementation tests. Subcellular localization and real-time PCR analyses indicated that V14 encodes a chloroplastic protein ubiquitously expressed in leaves while spiking in the second true leaf. Chloroplastic gene expression profiling in the pale leaves of v14 through real-time PCR and Northern blotting analyses showed abnormal accumulation of the unprocessed transcripts covering the rpoB-rpoC1 and/or rpoC1-rpoC2 intercistronic regions accompanied by reduced abundance of the mature rpoC1 and rpoC2 transcripts, which encode two core subunits of the plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP). Subsequent immunoblotting analyses confirmed the reduced accumulation of RpoC1 and RpoC2. A light-inducible photosynthetic gene psbD was also found down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, such stage-specific aberrant posttranscriptional regulation and psbD expression can be reversed by high temperatures (30 ~ 35 °C), although V14 expression lacks thermo-sensitivity. Meanwhile, three V14 homologous genes were found heat-inducible with similar temporal expression patterns, implicating their possible functional redundancy to V14. CONCLUSIONS: These data revealed a critical role of V14 in chloroplast development, which impacts, in a stage-specific and thermo-sensitive way, the appropriate processing of rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 precursors and the expression of certain photosynthetic proteins. Our findings thus expand the knowledge of the molecular functions of rice mTERFs and suggest the contributions of plant mTERFs to photosynthesis establishment and temperature acclimation.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Temperatura
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1435-1444, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492478

RESUMO

Improving the selectivity of photocatalysis and reducing the generation of toxic by-products are the two key challenges for the development of highly efficient and stable photocatalysts. In this work, it was revealed that Zn-Ti-layered double hydroxide (ZT-LDH) photocatalyst, which generated less intermediates, showed better toluene degradation efficiency (removal ratio, 75.2%) and stability, compared with P25 (removal ratio, 10.9%). During the photocatalytic toluene degradation, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid were the main intermediates existed in the gas phase and on the surface of the catalyst, respectively. By combining experiments with theoretical calculation, it was found that the hydrogen atoms on the hydroxyl groups in the LDH would selectively attract the oxygen atoms in the carbon-oxygen double bond of the two major intermediates, facilitating their adsorption and activation on ZT-LDH. Besides, the surface electronic structure of ZT-LDH was demonstrated to facilitate the ring-opening reaction of the two major intermediates, eventually maintaining high activity and stability. This work could provide new molecular perspectives for understanding the photocatalytic reactions in VOCs degradation and developing efficient and stable photocatalysts.

6.
Vet Microbiol ; 262: 109219, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500344

RESUMO

The emergence of the phenicol-oxazolidinone-tetracycline resistance gene poxtA becomes a significant challenge for public health, since it confers a decreased susceptibility not only to the last resort drug linezolid, but also to florfenicol and doxycycline widely used in veterinary medicine. To determine the dissemination mechanism of poxtA in enterococci isolates from different healthy pigs in the swine farm, a total of 178 florfenicol-resistant enterococci isolates were collected from 400 fresh faecal swabs in a swine farm in China. The poxtA gene was detected in 11 (6.18 %) enterococci isolates, including 8 E. faecium, 2 E. hirae and 1 E. casseliflavus isolates. Whole genome sequencing indicated that the eight poxtA-harbouring E. faecium strains belonged to four different sequence types, including ST156 and three new STs, ST1818, ST1819 and ST1820. Five out of the 11 poxtA-positive enterococci isolates also harboured optrA gene. Moreover, E. casseliflavus strain DY31 co-harboured poxtA, optrA and cfr. Seven different poxtA-harbouring plasmids were obtained through Nanopore combined with Illumina sequencing. The poxtA-harbouring plasmids exhibited high genetic variation, six out of which belonged to rep2 plasmid of Inc18 family. The poxtA gene was flanked by IS1216E in the left and/or right ends.The optrA and cfr genes were located on different plasmids, respectively, but those genes could be co-transferred with poxtA gene into the recipient E. faecalis strain by electrotransformation. Our study highlights that both clonal spread and horizontal transfer mediated by Inc18 plasmid and IS1216E promote the dissemination of poxtA in enterococci isolates from different healthy pigs in the swine farm.

7.
Virology ; 563: 116-125, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509703

RESUMO

The widely used rotavirus (RV) vaccine, Rotateq, contained reassortment strains of human and bovine G1/2/3/4P[5] RVs. The functional and structural features of bovine G1P[5] VP8* were investigated. Bovine G1P[5] VP8* was identified to interact with sialic acids and sialic acid-containing glycans. In addition, P[5] VP8* recognized α-Gal histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Bovine G1P[5] VP8* did not hemagglutinate the tested red blood cells. The crystal structure of P[5] VP8* was determined at 1.7 Å. Structural superimposition revealed that P[5] VP8* was most close to human P[8] VP8*, while much further to VP8*s of porcine P[7] and rhesus P[3]. Sequence alignment showed that amino acids of the putative glycan binding site in P[5] VP8* were different to those in P[3]/P[7] VP8*s, indicating that P[5] VP8* may interact with glycans using different mechanism. This study provided more understanding of P[5] RV infection and the interactions of RV VP8* and glycans.

8.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105306, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521047

RESUMO

Gut microbial ß-glucuronidases have drawn much attention due to their role as a potential therapeutic target to alleviate some drugs or their metabolites-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. In this study, fifteen 5-phenyl-2-furan derivatives containing 1,3-thiazole moiety (1-15) were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects against Escherichia coli ß-glucuronidase (EcGUS). Twelve of them showed satisfactory inhibition against EcGUS with IC50 values ranging from 0.25 µM to 2.13 µM with compound 12 exhibited the best inhibition. Inhibition kinetics studies indicated that compound 12 (Ki = 0.14 ± 0.01 µM) was an uncompetitive inhibitor for EcGUS and molecular docking simulation further predicted the binding model and capability of compound 12 with EcGUS. A preliminary structure-inhibitory activity relationship study revealed that the heterocyclic backbone and bromine substitution of benzene may be essential for inhibition against EcGUS. The compounds have the potential to be applied in drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity and the findings would help researchers to design and develop more effective 5-phenyl-2-furan type EcGUS inhibitors.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 704655, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526986

RESUMO

Breast cancer is now the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Paclitaxel and anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of breast cancer, but its sensitivity remains difficult to predict for clinical use. In our study, a LASSO logistic regression method was applied to develop a genomic classifier for predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. The predictive accuracy of the signature classifier was further evaluated using four other independent test sets. Also, functional enrichment analysis of genes in the signature was performed, and the correlations between the prediction score of the signature classifier and immune characteristics were explored. We found a 25-gene signature classifier through the modeling, which showed a strong ability to predict pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. For T/FAC-based training and test sets, and a T/AC-based test set, the AUC of the signature classifier is 1.0, 0.9071, 0.9683, 0.9151, and 0.7350, respectively, indicating that it has good predictive ability for both T/FAC and T/AC schemes. The multivariate model showed that 25-gene signature was far superior to other clinical parameters as independent predictor. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that genes in the signature are mainly enriched in immune-related biological processes. The prediction score of the classifier was significantly positively correlated with the immune score. There were also significant differences in immune cell types between pCR and residual disease (RD) samples. Conclusively, we developed a 25-gene signature classifier that can effectively predict pCR to paclitaxel and anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Our study also suggests that the immune ecosystem is actively involved in modulating clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and is beneficial to patient outcomes.

10.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(9): 673-682, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530957

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the predictive performance of anthropometric indices for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese adolescents with different nutritional status. Methods: We recruited 9,513 adolescents aged 10-18 years from seven provinces in China during September 2014. Anthropometric indices and blood pressure were measured at recruitment, and blood samples were collected for determining fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to assess the predictive performance of anthropometric indices, including body mass index (BMI) percentile, waist circumference percentile, waist-height ratio, and waist-hip ratio. Results: Overall, the four anthropometric indices showed good accuracy for predicting MetS with areas under ROC curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.86 to 0.94; similar AUCs ranging from 0.73 to 0.99 were observed for participants with normal weight. The performance of all four indices was poor in overweight and obese participants, with AUCs ranging from 0.66 to 0.77 and from 0.60 to 0.67, respectively. Waist circumference showed relatively better performance in all the subgroup analyses. Conclusions: We suggest using anthropometric indices with the cutoff values presented here for predicting MetS in the overall and normal-weight adolescent population, but not in the overweight and obese adolescent population where more specific screening tests are required.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18521, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531469

RESUMO

Plant kinases containing the LysM domain play important roles in pathogen recognition and self-defense reactions. And it could recognize microbe-associated molecules including chitin and other polypeptides. The white tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi is a migratory parasitic nematode that infects plant shoots. It is distributed over almost all rice-producing areas and causes up to 50% economic losses. The rice OsRLK3 gene was a defense-related LysM kinase gene of rice. This study showed that the rice LysM kinase OsRLK3 could be induced by flg22, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and chitin. An interaction gene, Ab-atps from A. besseyi, was identified by screening the interaction between the rice gene OsRLK3 and an A. besseyi cDNA library using yeast two-hybrid screening. Ab-atps is a novel ATP synthase gene with a full length of 1341 bp, coding for 183 amino acids. The mRNA of Ab-atps was located in the esophagus and reproductive system of A. besseyi. The expression of Ab-atps was assessed at different developmental stages of the nematode and found to be the highest in the juvenile, followed by the egg, female, and male. Reproduction was significantly decreased in nematodes treated with Ab-atps double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) (p < 0.05). Transient expression experiments showed that Ab-ATPS-GFP was distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane, and Ab-ATPS-GFP triggered plant cell death. OsRLK3 was expressed significantly higher at 0.5 day and 1 day (p < 0.05) in rice plants inoculated with nematodes treated with Ab-atps dsRNA and gfp dsRNA for 0.5-7 days, respectively. Further, OsRLK3 expression under Ab-atps dsRNA treatment was significantly lower than with gfp dsRNA treatment at 0.5 day (p < 0.05) and significantly higher than with gfp dsRNA treatment at 1 day (p < 0.05). These results suggest that rice OsRLK3 could interact with A. besseyi Ab-atps, which plays an important role in growth, reproduction, and infection of the nematode. Our findings provide a theoretical basis to further understand the parasitic strategy of A. besseyi and its interaction mechanism with host plants, suggesting new ideas and targets for controlling A. besseyi.

12.
EBioMedicine ; 71: 103503, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline leading to dementia, accompanied by the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) in neuritic plaques together with the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (tau), are previously noted hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously discovered hypervascularity in brain specimens from AD patients and consistent with this observation, we demonstrated that overexpression of Aß drives cerebrovascular neoangiogenesis leading to hypervascularity and coincident tight-junction disruption and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakiness in animal models of AD. We subsequently demonstrated that amyloid plaque burden and cerebrovascular pathogenesis subside when pro-angiogenic Aß levels are reduced. Based on these data, we propose a paradigm of AD etiology where, as a compensatory response to impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF), Aß triggers pathogenic cerebrovascular neoangiogenesis that underlies the conventional hallmarks of AD. Consequently, here we present evidence that repurposing anti-cancer drugs to modulate cerebrovascular neoangiogenesis, rather than directly targeting the amyloid cascade, may provide an effective treatment for AD and related vascular diseases of the brain. METHODS: We explored whether the anti-cancer drug, Axitinib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) can inhibit aberrant cerebrovascular neoangiogenic changes, reduce Aß deposits and reverse cognitive decline in an animal model of AD. One month post-treatment with Axitinib, we employed a battery of tests to assess cognition and memory in aged Tg2576 AD mice and used molecular analysis to demonstrate reduction of amyloid plaques, BBB leakage, hypervascularity and associated disease pathology. FINDINGS: Targeting the pro-angiogenic pathway in AD using the cancer drug, Axitinib, dramatically reduced cerebrovascular neoangiogenesis, restored BBB integrity, resolved tight-junction pathogenesis, diminishes Aß depositions in plaques and effectively restores memory and cognitive performance in a preclinical mouse model of AD. INTERPRETATION: Modulation of neoangiogenesis, in an analogous approach to those used to treat aberrant vascularization in cancer and also in the wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), provides an alternative therapeutic strategy for intervention in AD that warrants clinical investigation.

13.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 877-881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy of Huaiqihuang granules as adjuvant therapy for bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, and registered real-world study was performed for the children, aged 2-5 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the outpatient service of 21 hospitals in China. Among these children, the children treated with medications for long-term asthma control (inhaled corticosteroid and/or leukotriene receptor antagonist) without Huaiqihuang granules were enrolled as the control treatment group, and those treated with medications for long-term asthma control combined with Huaiqihuang granules were enrolled as the combined treatment group. The medical data of all children were collected. Outpatient or telephone follow-up was performed at weeks 4, 8, 12, 20, 28, and 36 after treatment, including asthma attacks and rhinitis symptoms. A statistical analysis was performed for the changes in these indices. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of asthma attacks or rhinitis attacks between the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). After treatment, the combined treatment group had significantly lower frequencies of asthma attacks, severe asthma attacks, and rhinitis attacks compared with the control treatment group (P<0.05). There was no signification difference in the incidence rate of adverse reactions between the two groups (P=0.667). CONCLUSIONS: Huaiqihuang granules in addition to medications for long-term asthma control can alleviate the symptoms of bronchial asthma and rhinitis and improve the level of asthma control in children with bronchial asthma, with good safety and little adverse effect. Citation.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(36): 14748-14765, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490778

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for platform technologies enabling rapid development of vaccines for emerging viral diseases. The current vaccines target the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and thus far have shown tremendous efficacy. However, the need for cold-chain distribution, a prime-boost administration schedule, and the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) call for diligence in novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approaches. We studied 13 peptide epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 and identified three neutralizing epitopes that are highly conserved among the VOCs. Monovalent and trivalent COVID-19 vaccine candidates were formulated by chemical conjugation of the peptide epitopes to cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles and virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from bacteriophage Qß. Efficacy of this approach was validated first using soluble vaccine candidates as solo or trivalent mixtures and subcutaneous prime-boost injection. The high thermal stability of our vaccine candidates allowed for formulation into single-dose injectable slow-release polymer implants, manufactured by melt extrusion, as well as microneedle (MN) patches, obtained through casting into micromolds, for prime-boost self-administration. Immunization of mice yielded high titers of antibodies against the target epitope and S protein, and data confirms that antibodies block receptor binding and neutralize SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 against infection of human cells. We present a nanotechnology vaccine platform that is stable outside the cold-chain and can be formulated into delivery devices enabling single administration or self-administration. CPMV or Qß VLPs could be stockpiled, and epitopes exchanged to target new mutants or emergent diseases as the need arises.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150082, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525774

RESUMO

The microalgal-bacterial symbiotic (MBS) system shows great advantages in the synchronous implementation of wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. To enhance the understanding of different MBS systems, this review summarizes reported MBS systems and proposes three patterns according to the living state of microalgae and bacteria. They are free microalgal-bacterial (FMB) system, attached microalgal-bacterial (AMB) system and bioflocculated microalgal-bacterial (BMB) system. Compared with the other two patterns, BMB system shows the advantages of microalgal biomass harvesting and application. To further understand the microalgal-bacterial partnerships in the bioflocculation of BMB system, this review discusses bioflocs characteristics, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties and production, and the effect of microalgae/bacteria ratio and microalgal strains on the formation of bioflocculation. Microalgal biomass production and application are important for BMB system development in the future. Food processing wastewater characterized by high biodegradability and low toxicity should be conducive for microalgal cultivation. In addition, exogenous addition of functional bacteria for nutrient removal and bioflocculation formation would be a crucial research direction to facilitate the large-scale application of BMB system.

16.
Adv Ther ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528221

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as a set of algorithms and intelligence to try to imitate human intelligence. Machine learning is one of them, and deep learning is one of those machine learning techniques. The application of AI in healthcare systems including hospitals and clinics has many possible advantages and future prospects. Applications of AI in cardiovascular medicine are machine learning techniques for diagnostic procedures including imaging modalities and biomarkers and predictive analytics for personalized therapies and improved outcomes. In cardiovascular medicine, AI-based systems have found new applications in risk prediction for cardiovascular diseases, in cardiovascular imaging, in predicting outcomes after revascularization procedures, and in newer drug targets. AI such as machine learning has partially resolved and provided possible solutions to unmet requirements in interventional cardiology. Predicting economically vital endpoints, predictive models with a wide range of health factors including comorbidities, socioeconomic factors, and angiographic factors comprising of the size of stents, the volume of contrast agent which was infused during angiography, stent malposition, and so on have been possible owing to machine learning and AI. Nowadays, machine learning techniques might possibly help in the identification of patients at risk, with higher morbidity and mortality following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). AI through machine learning has shown several potential benefits in patients with ACS. From diagnosis to treatment effects to predicting adverse events and mortality in patients with ACS, machine learning should find an essential place in clinical medicine and in interventional cardiology for the treatment and management of patients with ACS. This paper is a review of the literature which will focus on the application of AI in ACS.

17.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528724

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Globally, the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain has predominated since 2012, although GII.4 variant strains have caused AGE outbreaks in China. Recent patterns of NoV genotype distributions in 6011 children with AGE in Tianjin, China were investigated. NoV was detected using real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of partial sequences of the viral capsid gene. NoV genotypes were determined, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Epidemiological and clinical data were compared between children infected with different NoV genotypes. NoV was detected in 27.6% of the specimens tested. GII.4 strains comprised 49.4% infections, followed by GII.3 at 39.9%. Genotypes GII.2, GII.13, GII.17, GII.1, GII.6, and GII.14 were also detected. NoV was detected during most of the year, with a peak season of cases in the winter. Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, and dehydration were present in patients with NoV infection. The main genotypes were GII.4 and GII.3, with a slight increase in GII.2, beginning in March 2017. Among the GII.4 strains, GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the only epidemic strain in Tianjin. Patients with GII.4 genotypes were more likely to present with diarrhea and vomiting than those with GII.3. Children with GII. Others were more prone to suffer from dehydration and abdominal pain than those with GII.3. NoV GII has become the main cause of viral AGE in Tianjin, China. The predominant genotypes of NoV were GII.4 and GII.3. Identification of emerging genotypes is crucial for the prevention and control of NoV-caused AGE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522005

RESUMO

Behavioral sensitization is a progressive increase in locomotor or stereotypic behaviours in response to drugs. It is believed to contribute to the reinforcing properties of drugs and to play an important role in relapse after cessation of drug abuse. However, the mechanism underlying this behaviour remains poorly understood. In this study, we showed that mTOR signaling was activated during the expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and that intraperitoneal or intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) treatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, attenuated cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization. Cocaine significantly modified brain lipid profiles in the NAc of cocaine-sensitized mice and markedly elevated the levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphates (PIPs), including PIP, PIP2, and PIP3. The behavioural effect of cocaine was attenuated by intra-NAc administration of LY294002, an AKT-specific inhibitor, suggesting that PIPs may contribute to mTOR activation in response to cocaine. An RNA-sequencing analysis of the downstream effectors of mTOR signalling revealed that cocaine significantly decreased the expression of SynDIG1, a known substrate of mTOR signalling, and decreased the surface expression of GluA2. In contrast, AAV-mediated SynDIG1 overexpression in NAc attenuated intracellular GluA2 internalization by promoting the SynDIG1-GluA2 interaction, thus maintaining GluA2 surface expression and repressing cocaine-induced behaviours. In conclusion, NAc SynDIG1 may play a negative regulatory role in cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization by regulating synaptic surface expression of GluA2.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 20% of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is negative for the lineage-specific oncogene Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and exhibits worse clinical outcome with a low frequency of actionable genomic alterations. To identify molecular features associated with TTF-1-negative LUAD, we compared the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of LUAD cell lines. SRGN, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan Serglycin, was identified as a markedly overexpressed gene in TTF-1-negative LUAD. We therefore investigated the roles and regulation of SRGN in TTF-1-negative LUAD. METHODS: Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of 41 LUAD cell lines were done using mass spectrometry. The function of SRGN was investigated in 3 TTF-1-negative and 4 TTF-1-positive LUAD cell lines and in a syngeneic mouse model (n = 5 to 8 mice per group). Expression of SRGN in was evaluated in 94 and 105 surgically resected LUAD tumor specimens using immunohistochemistry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: SRGN was markedly overexpressed at mRNA and protein levels in TTF-1-negative LUAD cell lines (P < .001 for both mRNA and protein levels). Expression of SRGN in LUAD tumor tissue was associated with poor outcome (hazard ratio = 4.22, 95% confidential interval = 1.12 to 15.86; likelihood ratio test, P = .03), and with higher expression of Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells and higher infiltration of Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-positive lymphocytes. SRGN regulated expression of PD-L1, as well as proinflammatory cytokines including Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), and C-X-C motif chemokine 1 (CXCL1) in LUAD cell lines, and increased migratory and invasive properties of LUAD cells and fibroblasts, and enhanced angiogenesis. SRGN was induced by DNA de-methylation resulting from Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT)-mediated impairment of methionine metabolism. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SRGN plays a pivotal role in tumor-stromal interaction and reprogramming into an aggressive and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in TTF-1-negative LUAD.

20.
Methods Enzymol ; 658: 83-109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517961

RESUMO

Unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei maintains an elaborate mitochondrial mRNA processing pathway including 3'-5' exonucleolytic trimming of primary precursors, 5' and 3' modifications, and, in most cases, massive U-insertion/deletion editing. Whereas the role of editing in restoring protein coding sequence is apparent, recent developments suggest that terminal modifications are equally critical for generating a stable translationally competent messenger. The enzymatic activities responsible for 5' pyrophosphate hydrolysis, 3' adenylation and uridylation, and 3'-5' decay are positively and negatively regulated by pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (PPR) proteins. These sequence-specific RNA binding factors typically contain arrays of 35-amino acid repeats each of which recognizes a single nucleotide. Here, we introduce a combinatorial CTS affinity tag, which underlies a suite of methods for PPR proteins purification, in vivo RNA binding sites mapping and sub-cellular localization studies. These approaches should be applicable to most trypanosomal RNA binding proteins.

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