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1.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 8876230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029124

RESUMO

Background: Visceral hypersensitivity is a common occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), wherein early-life stress (ELS) may have a high predisposition to the development of visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood, with the specific underlying mechanism still elusive. Herein, we assessed the potential effect of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel subtype 2 (SK2) in the spinal dorsal horn (DH) on the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity induced by maternal separation (MS) in mice. Methods: Neonatal mice were subjected to the MS paradigm, an established ELS model. In adulthood, the visceral pain threshold and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) were measured with an inflatable balloon. The elevated plus maze, open field test, sucrose preference test, and forced swim test were employed to evaluate the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. The expression levels of SK2 in the spinal DH were determined by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The mRNA of SK2 and membrane palmitoylated protein 2 (MPP2) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Electrophysiology was applied to evaluate the neuronal firing rates and SK2 channel-mediated afterhyperpolarization current (I AHP). The interaction between MPP2 and SK2 was validated by coimmunoprecipitation. Results: In contrast to the naïve mice, ethological findings in MS mice revealed lowered visceral pain threshold, more evident anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and downregulated expression of membrane SK2 protein and MPP2 protein. Moreover, electrophysiological results indicated increased neuronal firing rates and decreased I AHP in the spinal DH neurons. Nonetheless, intrathecal injection of the SK2 channel activator 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO) in MS mice could reverse the electrophysiological alterations and elevate the visceral pain threshold. In the naïve mice, administration of the SK2 channel blocker apamin abated I AHP and elevated spontaneous neuronal firing rates in the spinal DH neurons, reducing the visceral pain threshold. Finally, disruption of the MPP2 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) could amplify visceral hypersensitivity in naïve mice. Conclusions: ELS-induced visceral pain and visceral hypersensitivity are associated with the underfunction of SK2 channels in the spinal DH.

2.
Plant J ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031564

RESUMO

Stigma characteristics are important factors affecting hybrid rice seed yield per unit area. Natural variation of stigma characteristics have been reported in rice, but the genetic basis for this variation is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study on three stigma characteristics in six environments using 1.3 million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) characterized in 353 diverse accessions of Oryza sativa. An abundance of phenotypic variation was present in the three stigma characteristics of these collections. We identified four significant SNPs associated with stigma length, 20 SNPs with style length (SYL), and 17 SNPs with the sum of stigma and style length, which were detected repeatedly in more than four environments. Of these SNPs, 28 were novel. We identified two causal gene loci for SYL, OsSYL3 and OsSYL2; OsSYL3 was co-localized with the grain size gene GS3. The SYL of accessions carrying allele OsSYL3AA was significantly longer than that of those carrying allele OsSYL3CC . We also demonstrated that the outcrossing rate of female parent carrying allele OsSYL2AA increased by 5.71% compared with that of the isogenic line carrying allele OsSYL2CC in F1 hybrid seed production field. The allele frequencies of OsSYL3AA and OsSYL2AA decreased gradually with an increase in latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. Our results should facilitate the improvement of stigma characteristics of parents of hybrid rice.

3.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e12305, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034128

RESUMO

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a subset of ILCs with critical roles in immunoregulation. However, the possible role of ILC2s as immunotherapy against allograft rejection remains unclear. Here, we show that IL-33 significantly prolonged islet allograft survival. IL-33-treated mice had elevated numbers of ILC2s and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Depletion of Tregs partially abolished the protective effect of IL-33 on allograft survival, and additional ILC2 depletion in Treg-depleted DEREG mice completely abolished the protective effects of IL-33, indicating that ILC2s play critical roles in IL-33-mediated islet graft protection. Two subsets of ILC2s were identified in islet allografts of IL-33-treated mice: IL-10 producing ILC2s (ILC210 ) and non-IL-10 producing ILC2s (non-ILC10 ). Intravenous transfer of ILC210 cells, but not non-ILC10 , prolonged islet allograft survival in an IL-10-dependent manner. Locally transferred ILC210 cells led to long-term islet graft survival, suggesting that ILC210 cells are required within the allograft for maximal suppressive effect and graft protection. This study has uncovered a major protective role of ILC210 in islet transplantation which could be potentiated as a therapeutic strategy.

4.
Global Spine J ; : 2192568220962440, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034233

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic spinal pain. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, the WHO Clinical Trial Registry, and the US National Library of Medicine clinical trial registry were searched from January 1, 2000, to November 1, 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with chronic spinal pain treated by acupuncture versus sham acupuncture, no treatment, or another treatment were included. RESULTS: Data was extracted from 22 RCTs including 2588 patients. Pooled analysis revealed that acupuncture can reduce chronic spinal pain compared to sham acupuncture (weighted mean difference [WMD] -12.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.86 to -8.24), mediation control (WMD -18.27, 95% CI -28.18 to -8.37), usual care control (WMD -9.57, 95% CI -13.48 to -9.44), and no treatment control (WMD -17.10, 95% CI -24.83 to -9.37). In terms of functional disability, acupuncture can improve physical function at immediate-term follow-up (standardized mean difference [SMD] -1.74, 95% CI -2.04 to -1.44), short-term follow-up (SMD -0.89, 95% CI -1.15 to -0.62), and long-term follow-up (SMD -1.25, 95% CI -1.48 to -1.03). CONCLUSION: In summary, compared to no treatment, sham acupuncture, or conventional therapy such as medication, massage, and physical exercise, acupuncture has a significantly superior effect on the reduction in chronic spinal pain and function improvement. Acupuncture might be an effective treatment for patients with chronic spinal pain and it is a safe therapy.

5.
Adv Ther ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to retrospectively analyze the therapeutic outcomes of using glucocorticoid combined with a vasodilator, breviscapine, versus glucocorticoid alone in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and to explore the impact on different audiometric curves. METHODS: Data from 154 patients were collected between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients received treatments of either glucocorticoid combined with breviscapine (GC + Bre) or glucocorticoid alone (GC). These two groups were stratified into low frequencies SSNHL (LF-SSNHL), high frequencies SSNHL (HF-SSNHL), all frequencies SSNHL (AF-SSNHL), and total deafness SSNHL (TD-SSNHL) subgroups according to their corresponding audiograms. The hearing level was evaluated by pure tone audiometry, and hearing recovery was calculated by comparing the pure tone average (PTA) at pretreatment and 4 weeks after therapy. RESULTS: Hearing recovery was significantly greater for GC + Bre than GC-only treatment in the AF-SSNHL and TD-SSNHL subgroups (P < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the LF-SSNHL and HF-SSNHL subgroups (P > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis also showed a favorable outcome for SSNHL in the GC + Bre group (odds ratio 2.848, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Treating SSNHL using glucocorticoid combined with breviscapine could be more beneficial than using glucocorticoid alone, especially for patients with AF-SSNHL and TD-SSNHL. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR18000170072.

6.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034924

RESUMO

Decorin (Dcn) is a member of the class I small leucine-rich proteoglycans whose expression in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs (IVDs) has been shown to increase with aging in humans and sheeps. Dcn induces autophagy in endothelial cells; however, its precise role in NP and IVD degeneration during aging is not well understood. We addressed this question in the present study by treating rat nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) with different concentrations of Dcn. The western blotting and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay results showed that Dcn treatment induced autophagy and decreased the apoptosis caused by interleukin (IL)-1ß application. This effect was dependent on protein kinase B/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ p70 S6 Kinase signaling. Dcn treatment also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 and decreased the IL-1ß-induced attenuation of collagen type II and aggrecan levels. The role of Dcn in stimulating autophagy was further supported by the fact that the observed effects were abrogated by knocking down autophagy-related protein 7 with Atg7 siRNA. Thus, Dcn protects NPCs in IVDs from IL-1ß-induced apoptosis and degeneration by promoting autophagy through mTOR signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014896

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) continues to be a major public health problem. DENV infection will cause mild dengue and severe dengue. Severe dengue is clinically manifested as serious complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and/or dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), which is mainly characterized by vascular leakage. Currently, the pathogenesis of severe dengue is not elucidated thoroughly, and there are no known therapeutic targets for controlling the disease effectively. This study aimed to further reveal the potential molecular mechanism of severe dengue. In this study, the long non-coding RNA, ERG-associated lncRNA (lncRNA-ERGAL), was activated and significantly up-regulated in DENV-infected vascular endothelial cells. After knockdown of lncRNA-ERGAL, the expression of ERG, VE-cadherin, and claudin-5 was repressed; besides, cell apoptosis was enhanced, and cytoskeletal remodeling was disordered, leading to instability and increased permeability of vascular endothelial barrier during DENV infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay showed lncRNA-ERGAL to be mainly expressed in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the expression of miR-183-5p was found to increase during DENV infection and revealed to regulate ERG, junction-associated proteins, and the cytoskeletal structure after overexpression and knockdown. Then, ERGAL was confirmed to interact with miR-183-5p by luciferase reporter assay. Collectively, ERGAL acted as a miRNA sponge that can promote stability and integrity of vascular endothelial barrier during DENV infection via binding to miR-183-5p, thus revealing the potential molecular mechanism of severe dengue and providing a foundation for a promising clinical target in the future.

8.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019644

RESUMO

Ceratophyllum demersum L. (CDL) is a traditional Chinese herb to treat many diseases, but research on its anti-diabetic activity is not available. In this research, the α-glucosidase inhibitory ability and phytochemical constituents of CDL extract were firstly studied. Optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) were optimized by single factor experiment and response surface methodology (RSM), which was confirmed as 70% methanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 43 (mL/g), extraction time of 54 min, ultrasonic power of 350 W, and extraction temperature of 40 °C. The lowest IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibition was 0.15 mg dried material/mL (mg DM/mL), which was much lower than that of acarbose (IC50 value of 0.64 mg DM/mL). In total, 80 compounds including 8 organic acids, 11 phenolic acids, 25 flavonoids, 21 fatty acids, and 15 others were identified or tentatively identified from CDL extract by HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis. The results suggested that CDL could be a potential source of α-glucosidase inhibitors. It can also provide useful phytochemical information for research into other bioactivities.

9.
J Genet Genomics ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023834

RESUMO

Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the human genome is a reputed key driver of cervical cancer. However, the effects of HPV integration on chromatin structural organization and gene expression are largely unknown. We studied a cohort of 61 samples and identified an integration hot spot in the CCDC106 gene on chromosome 19. We then selected fresh cancer tissue that contained the unique integration loci at CCDC106 with no HPV episomal DNA and performed whole-genome, RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) sequencing to identify the mechanisms of HPV integration in cervical carcinogenesis. Molecular analyses indicated that chromosome 19 exhibited significant genomic variation and differential expression densities, with correlation found between three-dimensional (3D) structural change and gene expression. Importantly, HPV integration divided one topologically associated domain (TAD) into two smaller TADs and hijacked an enhancer from PEG3 to CCDC106, with a decrease in PEG3 expression and an increase in CCDC106 expression. This expression dysregulation was further confirmed using 10 samples from our cohort, which exhibited the same HPV-CCDC106 integration. In summary, we found that HPV-CCDC106 integration altered local chromosome architecture and hijacked an enhancer via 3D genome structure remodeling. Thus, this study provides insight into the 3D structural mechanism underlying HPV integration in cervical carcinogenesis.

10.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(5): 1106-1111, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004755

RESUMO

Background: Even with the use of contrast-enhanced thin-layer chest computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), the likelihood of cT2N0M0 squamous cell esophageal cancer correlating with the final pathologic outcome is exceedingly low. We therefore sought to investigate the associations between different risk factors and pathologic upstaging in stage T2N0M0 esophageal cancer patients who underwent esophagectomy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 224 stage T2N0M0 squamous cell esophageal cancer patients who underwent complete resection over a 2-year period (October 2016-September 2018). The tumor volume (TV) was automatically measured from thin-layer chest CT scans using imaging software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with upstaging. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted, and its ability to identify pathological upstaging was assessed. Results: A total of 224 patients with clinical stage T2N0M0 squamous cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) underwent esophagectomy; of these patients, 96 (42.86%) had a more advanced stage during the final pathologic review than during the initial diagnosis. The risk factors for pathologic upstaging included a large TV, high total cholesterol (TC), high triglycerides (TGs), high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and high number of lymph nodes examined. The ROC analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.845 (95% confidence interval 0.794-0.895). Conclusions: In SECC diagnosed as stage T2N0M0 by CT and EUS, the incidence of postoperative pathologic upstaging increases with a large TV, high TC, high TGs, high PLR, and high number of lymph nodes examined.

11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006666

RESUMO

As a globally important legume crop, soybean provides excellent sources of protein and oil for human and livestock nutrition. Improving seed protein and oil contents has always been an important objective in soybean breeding. Water-soluble protein plays a significant role in the processing and efficacy of soybean protein. Here, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of seed compositions (protein, oil, and water-soluble protein contents) was conducted using 211 diverse soybean accessions genotyped with a 355 K SoySNP array. Three, four, and five QTLs were identified related to the protein, oil, and water-soluble protein contents, respectively. Furthermore, five QTLs (qPC-15-1, qOC-8-1, qOC-12-1, qOC-20-1 and qWSPC-8-1) were detected in multiple environments. Analysis of the favorable alleles for oil and water-soluble protein contents showed that qOC-8-1 (qWSPC-8-1) exerted inverse effects on oil and water-soluble protein synthesis. Relative expression analysis suggested that Glyma.15G049200 in qPC-15-1 affects protein synthesis and Glyma.08G107800 in qOC-8-1 and qWSPC-8-1 might be involved in oil and water-soluble protein synthesis, producing opposite effects. The candidate genes and significant SNPs detected in the present study will allow a deeper understanding of the genetic basis for the regulation of protein, oil and water-soluble protein contents and provide important information that could be utilized in marker-assisted selection for soybean quality improvement.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22388, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over half of men who have sex with men (MSM) use geosocial networking (GSN) apps to encounter sex partners. GSN apps' users have become a unique large subpopulation among MSM for interventions concerning HIV prevention and control. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising measure for HIV prevention, especially for MSM, but its effectiveness largely depends on medication adherence. However, little is known about PrEP adherence among GSN apps' users, which is critical to addressing the overall optimization of PrEP compliance outside of clinical trials in the context of large-scale implementation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to understand the correlation between GSN apps' use and medication adherence among MSM receiving PrEP, with the aim to increase their awareness about PrEP use in order to increase adherence. METHODS: This study based on the China Real-world Oral intake of PrEP (CROPrEP) project, a multicenter, real-world study of Chinese MSM on daily and event-driven PrEP. Eligible participants completed a detailed computer-assisted self-interview on sociodemographic, GSN apps' use, and sexual behavior. Then participants were followed up for 12 months and assessed for various characteristics (eg, PrEP delivery, adherence assessment, PrEP coverage of sexual activities, and regimens switch). A generalized estimation equation was used to analyze the predictors of medication adherence and regimen conversion among GSN apps' users and nonusers. RESULTS: At baseline, 756 of the 1023 eligible participants (73.90%) reported primarily using GSN apps to seek sexual partners, and GSN apps' users are more likely to have high-risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and condomless anal intercourse than other nonusers (all P<.05). During follow-up, GSN apps' users had a significantly low level of pill-counting adherence than nonusers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.0, P=.038). In the event-driven group, GSN apps' users had marginally lower levels of self-reported adherence (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.0, P=.060) and lower PrEP coverage of sexual practices (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-1.0, P=.038). Additionally, GSN apps' users seemed more likely to switch from event-driven to daily regimen (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.3, P=.084). CONCLUSIONS: GSN apps' users are highly prevalent among MSM, despite their higher sexual risk and lower adherence levels, suggesting that eHealth needs to be introduced to the GSN platform to promote PrEP adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IIN-17013762; https://tinyurl.com/yy2mhrv4. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s12879-019-4355-y.

13.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(11): e10068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053111

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a high prevalence in patients with pancreatic cancer (PaC), but the prognostic value of DM in PaC remains controversial. Alterations of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contribute to multidrug resistance and intestinal metabolism in a variety of cancer types, which may be implicated in DM development. This study aimed to explore the potential prognostic value of P-gp and CYP3A4 in PaC patients in the context of DM through long-term follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with PaC admitted at The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Jiangsu, China, from January 2011 to November 2019 and identified two cohorts of adult patients with PaC, including 24 with DM and 24 without DM (non-DM). The baseline clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared. Immunohistochemistry showed that protein expression of P-gp, but not CYP3A, in duodenum tissues was significantly upregulated in PaC patients with DM compared with those without DM. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test showed that the survival of patients with PaC and DM/high expression of P-gp was not significantly reduced compared with that of patients without DM/low expression of P-gp. These findings suggested that P-gp expression levels were different in the DM and non-DM groups of patients with PaC, but DM and duodenal P-gp levels were not associated with the long-term survival of patients with PaC. It appears that the presence of DM or P-gp expression levels may not serve as effective prognostic markers for PaC.

14.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(11): e9798, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053117

RESUMO

Osteoblast differentiation is an effective way to promote bone formation. Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) has been identified as a crucial modulator of multiple biological processes. This study was designed to investigate the function of TUG1 in the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells hFOB1.19. In this study, we found that TUG1 promoted hFOB1.19 cell proliferation, while TUG1 knockdown hindered cell proliferation. TUG1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2) were upregulated, while miR-545-3p was down-regulated in hFOB1.19 cells undergoing osteoblastic differentiation. TUG1 induced osteoblast differentiation by increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers. TUG1 was a sponge of miR-545-3p and regulated osteoblastic differentiation by modulating miR-545-3p. Moreover, miR-545-3p directly targeted CNR2 and restored the effect of CNR2 on osteoblastic differentiation. In conclusion, TUG1 accelerated the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by sponging miR-545-3p and increasing CNR2 expression, which might provide a new biomarker for bone diseases.

15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic warrants accelerated efforts to test vaccine candidates. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine candidate, BBIBP-CorV, in humans. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial at Shangqiu City Liangyuan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Henan Province, China. In phase 1, healthy people aged 18-80 years, who were negative for serum-specific IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the time of screening, were separated into two age groups (18-59 years and ≥60 years) and randomly assigned to receive vaccine or placebo in a two-dose schedule of 2 µg, 4 µg, or 8 µg on days 0 and 28. In phase 2, healthy adults (aged 18-59 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo on a single-dose schedule of 8 µg on day 0 or on a two-dose schedule of 4 µg on days 0 and 14, 0 and 21, or 0 and 28. Participants within each cohort were randomly assigned by stratified block randomisation (block size eight) and allocated (3:1) to receive vaccine or placebo. Group allocation was concealed from participants, investigators, and outcome assessors. The primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, assessed as the neutralising antibody responses against infectious SARS-CoV-2. This study is registered with www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000032459. FINDINGS: In phase 1, 192 participants were enrolled (mean age 53·7 years [SD 15·6]) and were randomly assigned to receive vaccine (2 µg [n=24], 4 µg [n=24], or 8 µg [n=24] for both age groups [18-59 years and ≥60 years]) or placebo (n=24). At least one adverse reaction was reported within the first 7 days of inoculation in 42 (29%) of 144 vaccine recipients. The most common systematic adverse reaction was fever (18-59 years, one [4%] in the 2 µg group, one [4%] in the 4 µg group, and two [8%] in the 8 µg group; ≥60 years, one [4%] in the 8 µg group). All adverse reactions were mild or moderate in severity. No serious adverse event was reported within 28 days post vaccination. Neutralising antibody geometric mean titres were higher at day 42 in the group aged 18-59 years (87·7 [95% CI 64·9-118·6], 2 µg group; 211·2 [158·9-280·6], 4 µg group; and 228·7 [186·1-281·1], 8 µg group) and the group aged 60 years and older (80·7 [65·4-99·6], 2 µg group; 131·5 [108·2-159·7], 4 µg group; and 170·87 [133·0-219·5], 8 µg group) compared with the placebo group (2·0 [2·0-2·0]). In phase 2, 448 participants were enrolled (mean age 41·7 years [SD 9·9]) and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine (8 µg on day 0 [n=84] or 4 µg on days 0 and 14 [n=84], days 0 and 21 [n=84], or days 0 and 28 [n=84]) or placebo on the same schedules (n=112). At least one adverse reaction within the first 7 days was reported in 76 (23%) of 336 vaccine recipients (33 [39%], 8 µg day 0; 18 [21%], 4 µg days 0 and 14; 15 [18%], 4 µg days 0 and 21; and ten [12%], 4 µg days 0 and 28). One placebo recipient in the 4 µg days 0 and 21 group reported grade 3 fever, but was self-limited and recovered. All other adverse reactions were mild or moderate in severity. The most common systematic adverse reaction was fever (one [1%], 8 µg day 0; one [1%], 4 µg days 0 and 14; three [4%], 4 µg days 0 and 21; two [2%], 4 µg days 0 and 28). The vaccine-elicited neutralising antibody titres on day 28 were significantly greater in the 4 µg days 0 and 14 (169·5, 95% CI 132·2-217·1), days 0 and 21 (282·7, 221·2-361·4), and days 0 and 28 (218·0, 181·8-261·3) schedules than the 8 µg day 0 schedule (14·7, 11·6-18·8; all p<0·001). INTERPRETATION: The inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV, is safe and well tolerated at all tested doses in two age groups. Humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 were induced in all vaccine recipients on day 42. Two-dose immunisation with 4 µg vaccine on days 0 and 21 or days 0 and 28 achieved higher neutralising antibody titres than the single 8 µg dose or 4 µg dose on days 0 and 14. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Mega projects of China for Major Infectious Diseases, National Mega Projects of China for New Drug Creation, and Beijing Science and Technology Plan.

16.
Food Chem ; : 128340, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069536

RESUMO

The inhibition effect of urea on ovalbumin (OVA) glycation was investigated, and the mechanism was evaluated through the changes in protein structure as well as glycation sites and average degree of substitution per peptide molecule (DSP) by conventional spectrometry and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). A urea concentration of 3 M was chosen as the optimum condition. Ultraviolet and fluorescence spectra suggested that both glycation and urea treatment could unfold the OVA, but urea inhibited the glycation-induced protein unfolding. Circular dichroism spectra showed that urea treatment could increase the ß-sheet content and reduce the α-helix content of OVA. LC-HRMS indicated that the number of glycation sites was reduced from 15 to 3, and DSP values decreased with urea treatment. In conclusion, urea could significantly inhibit the OVA-glucose glycation, and the sites competition as well as structure unfolding inhibition resulted from urea could be the main factors.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002358

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) with the general formula ABX3 hold phenomenal research interest for their great scientific and technological potential in photovoltaic, piezoelectric, and electroluminescent devices. It is their considerable structural diversity that offers a good opportunity to build a variety of HOIP structures with various functionalities. However, no organometallic-based HOIP piezoelectrics have yet been found, despite the structural diversity and functional richness of organometallic compounds such as the ferrocene-based family. Here, for the first time, we report an organometallic-based HOIP piezoelectric, [(ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium]PbI3. Benefitting from the stability of ferrocene-based cations, excellent piezoelectric performance, comparable to that of LiNbO3, can be obtained and optimized by tuning the anionic framework. The involvement of organometallic cations enables a narrow band gap of 2.37 eV, much lower than those of most HOIPs and some inorganic semiconductors. This work provides a new future direction for the study of perovskites and will inspire intriguing research on organometallic-based HOIP piezoelectrics.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16308, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004874

RESUMO

Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) is a low-cost, high-throughput genotyping method that relies on restriction enzymes to reduce genome complexity. GBS is being widely used for various genetic and breeding applications. In the present study, 2240 individuals from eight maize populations, including two association populations (AM), backcross first generation (BC1), BC1F2, F2, double haploid (DH), intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM), and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, were genotyped using GBS. A total of 955,120 of raw data for SNPs was obtained for each individual, with an average genotyping error of 0.70%. The rate of missing genotypic data for these SNPs was related to the level of multiplex sequencing: ~ 25% missing data for 96-plex and ~ 55% for 384-plex. Imputation can greatly reduce the rate of missing genotypes to 12.65% and 3.72% for AM populations and bi-parental populations, respectively, although it increases total genotyping error. For analysis of genetic diversity and linkage mapping, unimputed data with a low rate of genotyping error is beneficial, whereas, for association mapping, imputed data would result in higher marker density and would improve map resolution. Because imputation does not influence the prediction accuracy, both unimputed and imputed data can be used for genomic prediction. In summary, GBS is a versatile and efficient SNP discovery approach for homozygous materials and can be effectively applied for various purposes in maize genetics and breeding.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037036

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Investigate the effects of switching from two times per day exenatide to once-weekly exenatide administered by autoinjector (exenatide once-weekly suspension by autoinjector (QWS-AI)) or treatment with exenatide QWS-AI for 1 year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this phase III open-label study, adults with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive exenatide QWS-AI (2 mg) or exenatide two times per day (5 mcg for 4 weeks, followed by 10 mcg) for 28 weeks. During a subsequent non-randomized 24-week extension, patients who received exenatide two times per day were switched to exenatide QWS-AI and those randomized to exenatide QWS-AI continued this treatment. Efficacy measures included changes from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (A1C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body weight. RESULTS: In total, 315 patients (mean baseline A1C of 8.5%) completed the initial 28 weeks of randomized treatment with exenatide QWS-AI (n=197) or exenatide two times per day (n=118) and were included in the 24-week extension (mean A1C of 7.0% and 7.3%, respectively, at week 28). From weeks 28-52, patients who switched from exenatide two times per day to exenatide QWS-AI had additional A1C reductions of approximately 0.5% (mean A1C change from baseline of -1.4% at week 52) and further reductions from baseline in FPG. Patients who continued exenatide QWS-AI treatment for 52 weeks showed clinically relevant A1C reductions (mean A1C change from baseline of -1.3% at week 52). Body-weight reductions achieved through week 28 were sustained at week 52 in both groups. There were no unexpected safety concerns or changes in the safety profile among patients who switched from exenatide two times per day to exenatide QWS-AI or those who continued exenatide QWS-AI treatment for 52 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Switching from exenatide two times per day to exenatide QWS-AI resulted in further A1C reductions and maintenance of earlier decreases in body weight, while continued therapy with exenatide QWS-AI for 52 weeks maintained A1C and body-weight reductions, without additional safety or tolerability concerns. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01652716.

20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(10): 779-792, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039057

RESUMO

Yi-Qi-Huo-Xue Decoction (YQHX) is the recombination of Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue Decoction (DBD), which is one of the well-known traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescription, and has long been shown to have significant protective effects against myocardial ischemic injury. In previous studies, we found that YQHX could regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, promote angiogenesis, attenuate inflammatory response, and ameliorate left ventricular function in myocardial ischemia rat models. However, the underlying mechanism of how YQHX involves in lipid metabolism remains unclear so far. In this study, the underlying mechanism of YQHX in lipid metabolism disorders was elucidated in a myocardial ischemia rat model and a hypoxia-induced H9c2 cell injury model. YQHX (8.2 g·kg-1) and positive-control drug trimetazidine (10 mg·kg-1) were administered daily on the second day after left anterior descending (LAD) operation. At 7 days and 28 days after surgery, changes of cardiac morphology, structure, and function were evaluated by H&E staining and echocardiography, respectively. The plasma lipid levels and mitochondrial ATP content were also evaluated. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the protein and mRNA expressions of AMPK, PGC-1α, CPT-1α, and PPARα. YQHX improved cardiac function and ameliorated lipid metabolism disorders. Furthermore, YQHX increased the expression of p-AMPK, PGC-1α, and CPT-1α without changing PPARα in ischemic rat myocardium. In vitro, YQHX activated the protein and mRNA expression of PGC-1α, CPT-1α, and PPARα in hypoxia-induced H9c2 cells injury, whereas AMPK inhibitor Compound c blocked the effects of YQHX. Taken together, the results suggest that YQHX reduces lipid metabolism disorders in myocardial ischemia via the AMPK-dependent signaling pathway.

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