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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(28): 7932-7937, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232654

RESUMO

l-Methionine is an essential bioactive amino acid with high commercial value for diverse applications. Sustained attentions have been paid to efficient and economical preparation of l-methionine. In this work, a novel method for l-methionine production was established using O-acetyl-homoserine (OAH) and 3-methylthiopropionaldehyde (MMP) as substrates by catalysis of the yeast OAH sulfhydrylase MET17. The OAH sulfhydrylase gene Met17 was cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21. A 49 kDa MET17 was detected in the supernatant of the recombinant E. coli strain BL21-Met17 lysate with IPTG induction, which exhibited the biological activity of l-methionine biosynthesis from OAH and MMP. The recombinant MET17 was then purified from E. coli BL21-Met17 and used for in vitro biosynthesis of l-methionine. The maximal conversion rate (86%) of OAH to l-methionine catalyzed by purified MET17 was achieved by optimization of the molar ratio of OAH to MMP. The method proposed in this study provides a possible novel route for the industrial production of l-methionine.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3281-3290, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212654

RESUMO

In this study, indoor simulation experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of migration and transformation of dissolving organic matter (DOM) during the decay of algal blooms. Based on ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis) and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), spectral characterizations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in overlying water were evaluated with analyses of the physical and chemical indexes, variation in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Results showed that at the early stage of decay, a large amount of organic matter was released, and dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased sharply. With the extension of reaction time, DOC gradually changed into DIC, which further changed the oxidation-reduction and acid-base characteristics of the water. UV-vis spectra showed that a large amount of DOM was released with high aromaticity and a high degree of humification, and the released DOM was gradually degraded. With the application of parallel factor analysis in excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEM-PARAFAC), three fluorescence components were analyzed:refractory humic-like substances (C1), protein-like tryptophan substances (C2) produced by algae, and fulvic-like substances (C3) related to microbial activities. Most protein-like tryptophan substances were degraded into fulvic-like substances by microorganisms during the decaying process. Heterotrophic microorganisms promoted the release of algae-derived DOM and accelerated the degradation of DOM. The DOM born during algae blooms decaying process was eventually converted into humic-like substance, which was difficult to be degraded. We analyzed correlations of water quality, UV-vis spectrum, and EEMs parameters. Results showed that ORP was positively correlated (P<0.05) with DO. There was a significant negative correlation (P<0.05) between pH and DOC, which was consistent with the trend of the transformation to from DOC to DIC; C1 was positively correlated (P<0.05) with Fn355; and C2 was significantly positively correlated (P<0.05) with DOC and Fn280; C3 was positively correlated (P<0.05) with FI, BIX and ß:α. The variation trend of these spectral parameters was consistent with that of DOM components. In summary, with the analyses of water quality characteristics and spectral characteristics of DOM in overlying water during algae blooms decaying process, it was expected that our results could contribute to the further exploration of the dynamic migration and transformation of lake DOM and the changes of carbon cycling.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Água , Eutrofização , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Lagos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
3.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235954

RESUMO

Capsaicin, the main constituent in chili, is an extremely spicy vanillin alkaloid and is found in several Capsicum species in China. Traditionally, it has been used to treat inflammatory diseases such as allergic rhinitis, neuralgia after shingles, refractory female urethral syndrome, spontaneous recalcitrant anal pruritus, and solid tumors. Constant stimulation of the body by inflammatory factors can lead to chronic inflammation. Capsaicin possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. We investigated the effect of capsaicin on the secretion of macrophage inflammatory factors in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation model using 56 healthy, SPF grade, BALB/c mice. To this end, mice peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (1 µg/mL) and capsaicin (25, 50, 75, or 100 µg/mL) for 24 h. At all concentrations tested, capsaicin significantly promoted the phagocytosis of neutral red dye by macrophages. Furthermore, the gene expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines significantly increased after induction with lipopolysaccharide (P<0.01); the interleukin (IL)-6 level was 204 µg/mL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level was 860 µg/mL, and nitric oxide (NO) level was 19.8 µg/mL. However, the treatment with capsaicin reduced their levels (P<0.01) and protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 and p65 (P<0.05). Overall, capsaicin reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines (P<0.01), interleukins, TNF-α (P<0.01), and NO by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B and microtubule-associated protein kinase signaling pathways, and thereby reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages.

4.
Diagn Pathol ; 16(1): 59, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) is rare in Asians, and patients with CLL/SLL seldomly undergo kidney biopsy. The histopathological features and clinical relevance of tubulointerstitial injury in CLL/SLL have not been extensively characterized. Hence, we attempted to describe the clinical characteristics, renal pathology and clinical outcome of a well-characterized population of CLL/SLL patients with CLL cell infiltration in the renal interstitium from a large single center in China. METHODS: Between January 1st, 2010 and September 31st, 2020, 31946renal biopsies were performed at Peking University First Hospital, and 10 CLL/SLL patients with CLL cell infiltration in the renal interstitium were included. Complete clinical data were collected from these 10 patients, and renal specimens were examined by routine light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. RESULTS: The extent of the infiltrating CLL cells in patients with CLL/SLL varied among different patients and ranged from 10 to 90% of kidney parenchyma. Six (60%) of 10 patients presented with an extent of infiltrating CLL cells ≥50%. Interestingly, we found that three patients (3/10, 30%) expressed monoclonal immunoglobulins in the infiltrating CLL cells, and special cytoplasmic crystalline structures were found in two of the three patients by electron microscopy for the first time. Severe renal insufficiency (Scr ≥200 µmol/L) was associated with ≥50% interstitial infiltration of CLL cells in the renal interstitium. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirmed that CLL cells infiltrating the renal interstitium can directly secrete monoclonal immunoglobulins, indicating that the interstitial infiltrating CLL cells possibly cause renal injury directly by secreting monoclonal immunoglobulins in situ. This finding may prove a new clue to elucidate the pathogenetic mechanism of renal injury involved with CLL/SLL.

5.
Vaccine ; 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256969

RESUMO

Particle engineering via spray drying was used to develop a dry powder presentation of an adjuvanted tuberculosis vaccine candidate. This presentation utilizing a trileucine-trehalose excipient system was designed to be both thermostable and suitable for respiratory delivery. The stability of the spray-dried vaccine powder was assessed over one year at various storage temperatures (-20, 5, 25, 40, 50 °C) in terms of powder stability, adjuvant stability, and antigen stability. A formulation without trileucine was included as a control. The results showed that the interior particle structure and exterior particle morphology of the powder was maintained for one year at 40 °C, while the control case exhibited a small extent of particle fusing under the same storage conditions. Moisture content was maintained, and powder solid state remained amorphous for all storage temperatures. Aerosol performance was assessed with a commercial dry powder inhaler in combination with a human mouth-throat model. The emitted dose and lung dose were maintained for all samples after one year at temperatures up to 40 °C. Nanoemulsion size and oil content of the adjuvant system were maintained after one year at temperatures up to 40 °C, and the agonist content was maintained after one year at temperatures up to 25 °C. The antigen was completely degraded in the control formulation at seven months of storage at 40 °C; by contrast, 45% of the antigen was still present in the trehalose-trileucine formulation after one year of storage at 50 °C. Comparatively, the antigen was completely degraded in a liquid sample of the vaccine candidate after only one month of storage at 37 °C. The spray-dried trehalose-trileucine vaccine powder clearly maintained its inhalable properties after one year's storage at high temperatures and improved overall thermostability of the vaccine.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260206

RESUMO

Effective and selective separation of technetium from acidic nuclear liquid waste is highly desirable for partitioning and transmutation but is of significant challenge. Highly efficient extraction of pertechnetate can be achieved by taking H-bonding and electrostatic interaction combined strategy. Base on this strategy, an amine-amide ligand NTAamide(n-Oct) was employed to extract TcO4- in HNO3 solution. Using n-dodecane as a diluent, NTAamide(n-Oct) demonstrated excellent extractability and good selectivity toward TcO4- with a rapid extraction equilibrium that could be reached in less than 1 min. Its maximal loading capacity for TcO4- was almost 100 times as much as that of traditional amine extractant Aliquat-336 nitrate. Meanwhile, TcO4- could be efficiently stripped from the loaded organic phase by (NH4)2CO3 solution. Slope analysis indicated the formation of a 1:1 complex of NTAamide(n-Oct) with TcO4-. The extraction conformed to the anion exchange extraction model, as confirmed by analyses of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, 1H NMR titration, FTIR, and ESI-MS.

7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0093821, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260307

RESUMO

Biofilm formation is important in both the environmental and intestinal phases of the Vibrio cholerae life cycle. Nevertheless, most studies of V. cholerae biofilm formation focus on mono-species cultures, whereas nearly all biofilm communities found in nature consist of a variety of microorganisms. Multi-species biofilms formed between V. cholerae and other bacteria in the environment and the interactions that exist between these species are still poorly understood. In this study, the influence of Escherichia coli on the biofilm formation of V. cholerae was studied in the context of both in vitro coculture and in vivo coinfection. To understand the underlying synergistic mechanisms between these two species and to investigate the role of E. coli in V. cholerae biofilm formation, different pathotypes of E. coli and corresponding deletion mutants lacking genes that influence flagella motility, curli fibers, or type I pili were cocultured with V. cholerae. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of commensal E. coli increases biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface in vitro and the generation of biofilm-like multicellular clumps in the mice feces. Examination of laboratory E. coli flagellar-motility mutants ΔfliC and ΔmotA in the dual-species biofilm formation suggests that flagellar motility plays an important role in the synergistic interaction and co-aggregation formation between V. cholerae and E. coli. This study facilitates a better understanding of how V. cholerae resides in harsh environments and colonizes the intestine. IMPORTANCE Biofilms play an important role in the V. cholerae life cycle. Until now, mono-species biofilm formation of V. cholerae has been well studied. However, in nature, bacteria live in complex microbial communities, where biofilm is mostly composed of multiple microbial species that interact to cooperate with or compete against each other. Uncovering how V. cholerae forms multi-species biofilm is critical for furthering our understanding of how V. cholerae survives in the environment and transitions to infecting the human host. In this work, the dual-species biofilm between V. cholerae and E. coli was investigated. We demonstrate that the presence of commensal E. coli increased overall biofilm formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the motility of E. coli flagella is important for V. cholerae and E. coli to form co-aggregation clumps in dual-species biofilm. These results shed light on a new mechanism for understanding the survival and pathogenesis of V. cholerae.

8.
Plant J ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252236

RESUMO

Maize is an important crop worldwide, as well as a valuable model with vast genetic diversity. Accurate genome and annotation information for a wide range of inbred lines would provide valuable resources for crop improvement and pan-genome characterization. In this study, we generated a high-quality de novo genome assembly (contig N50 of 15.43 megabases) of the Chinese elite inbred line RP125 using Nanopore long-read sequencing and Hi-C scaffolding, which yield highly contiguous, chromosome-length scaffolds. Global comparison of the RP125 genome with those of B73, W22, and Mo17 revealed a large number of structural variations. To create new germplasm for maize research and crop improvement, we carried out an EMS mutagenesis screen on RP125. We obtained a total of 5,818 independent M2 families, with 946 mutants showing heritable phenotypes. Taking advantage of the high-quality RP125 genome, we successfully cloned 10 mutants from the EMS library, including the novel kernel mutant qk1 (quekou: 'missing a small part' in Chinese), which exhibited partial loss of endosperm and a starch accumulation defect. QK1 encodes a predicted metal tolerance protein that is specifically required for iron transport. Increased accumulation of iron and ROS as well as ferroptosis-like cell death were detected in endosperm of qk1. Our study provides the community with a high-quality genome sequence and a large collection of mutant germplasm.

9.
J Biol Chem ; : 100946, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252457

RESUMO

Phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) selectively cleaves the phosphodiester bond of cyclic AMP, and is inhibited by cGMP, making it an important regulator of cAMP/cGMP signaling crosstalk in the pulmonary vasculature. In addition, the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP axis is known to play an important role in maintaining endothelial barrier function. However, the potential role of protein kinase G-Iα (PKG-Iα) in this protective process is unresolved and was the focus of our study. We describe here a novel mechanism regulating PDE3A activity which involves a protein kinase G-Iα (PKG-Iα)-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of PDE3A at Serine (S)654. We also show that this phosphorylation is critical for maintaining intracellular cAMP levels in the pulmonary endothelium and endothelial barrier integrity. In an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by challenging mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an increase in PDE3 activity and a decrease in cAMP levels in lung tissue was associated with reduced PKG activity upon PKG-Iα nitration at tyrosine (Y)247. The peroxynitrite scavenger manganese (III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP) prevented this increase in PDE3 activity in LPS-exposed lungs. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis of PDE3A to replace S654 with alanine yielded a mutant protein that was insensitive to PKG-dependent regulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel functional link between nitrosative stress induced by LPS during ALI and the downregulation of barrier-protective intracellular cAMP levels. Our data also provide new evidence that PKG-Iα is critical for endothelial barrier maintenance, and that preservation of its catalytic activity may be efficacious in ALI therapy.

10.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930369, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) during general anesthesia induction and postoperative nausea and vomiting are common complications, yet the risk factors for FIC remain controversial. This retrospective study was conducted at a single center in China and aimed to investigate the risk factors for fentanyl-induced cough following general anesthesia in adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 601 adult patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled, and the incidence of FIC during general anesthesia induction and postoperative adverse events were recorded. The risk factors for FIC during general anesthesia induction and postoperative nausea and vomiting were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The incidence of FIC, nausea, and vomiting were 21.8%, 6.3%, and 4.5%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that pharyngitis history was associated with an increased risk of FIC during general anesthesia induction (odds ratio [OR]: 2.852; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.698-4.792; P<0.001), whereas use of lidocaine could protect against FIC risk (OR: 0.649; 95% CI: 0.557-0.757; P<0.001). However, the characteristics of patients were not associated with the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study showed that a history of pharyngitis increased the risk of FIC, while the use of lidocaine was associated with a reduced risk of FIC. The risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not affected by fentanyl use or patient characteristics.

11.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an Off-Resonance Insensitive Orthogonal CSPAMM sequence (ORI-O-CSPAMM) for the acquisition of CSPAMM and MICSR grids in half of the acquisition time. METHODS: Phantom and mid-level left ventricle short-axis tagged images were acquired using CSPAMM, ORI-CSPAMM, O-CSPAMM, and the proposed ORI-O-CPAMM sequences to interrogate and compare its behavior under off-resonance effects produced by vegetable oil and subcutaneous and epicardial fat. The images were compared in terms of signal and the capacity to obtain complex difference and MICSR images. RESULTS: Like ORI-CSPAMM, the proposed ORI-O-CSPAMM sequence removed almost completely the off-resonance artifacts produced during the tagging preparation. Tagging grids without DC components were obtained with ORI-O-CSPAMM using complex difference and MICSR from only two complementary images, which reduced the scan time to a half compared to CSPAMM and ORI-CSPAMM. The removal of off-resonance effects and the capacity to obtain MICSR images are advantages of ORI-O-CSPAMM over the O-CSPAMM sequence. CONCLUSION: We developed a novel and fast tagging sequence designed to remove off-resonance effects during the tagging preparation, and to obtain complex difference and MICSR grids in half of the scan time compared to CSPAMM and ORI-CSPAMM sequences, which could allow its application to clinical protocols.

12.
Toxicology ; 458: 152848, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217791

RESUMO

High maternal serum bile acid level is common and sometimes harmful to the gravida. This study aimed to confirm the bile acid phenotypic change caused by prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) and elucidate its placental mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered intragastrically with ethanol 4 g/kg⋅d from gestational day 9-20. Total bile acids (TBA) were detected in maternal, fetal serum and placental tissues, increasing significantly in the serum but no significant change in the placental tissues. Meta-analysis was performed and verified the efficacy of the PEE-induced model based on published data from several relevant studies. Mining of microarray data from human and rat placental sources identified the involvement of bile acid metabolism and its significant genes, which were verified by RT-qPCR and western blotting on tissues and treated BeWo cells with the administration of FXR/PXR siRNAs or FXR/PXR agonists. Our examination, consistent with microarray data and wet experiments, showed that organic anion transporter polypeptide-related protein 2B1 (Oatp2b1), multidrug resistance-associated proteins 3 (Mrp3) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) expression were increased, while nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) was decreased but pregnane X receptor (Pxr) was increased. Furthermore, the interventional experiments confirmed that FXR regulated Bcrp while PXR regulated Oatp2b1 and Mrp3. In summary, PEE could induce high bile acid level in maternal serum and its mechanism is associated with the high expression of BCRP/MRP3/OATP2B1 in the placenta through up-regulating PXR and down-regulating FXR, thereby leading to an excessive bile acid transport to maternal blood via the placenta. Our study provides a novel perspective in terms of placenta, explaining the increased maternal blood bile acids under the toxicity of PEE.

13.
Reprod Toxicol ; 104: 68-75, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242779

RESUMO

In quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) detection, the stability of reference genes varies with different organs, tissue locations, sex and developmental stages. This study aimed to screen out and determine the optimal panel of reference genes of the intestine in pre- and post-natal rats of different sex. We used qRT-PCR to detect the mRNA expression of six commonly used reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, B2M, RPLPO and SDHA) in rat intestines at gestational day 21 (GD21) and postnatal week 12 (PW12). Using GeNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder software comprehensively analyzed the stability of candidate reference genes and screened out stable reference genes. Further, we used the pathological model of prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) to verify the stability of the selected panel of reference genes. Based on the results of the software analysis, the optimal panel of reference genes in the fetal rat intestine was SDHA + ACTB, and the adult rat small intestine and colon were ACTB + HPRT1 and RPLP0 + GAPDH, respectively. There was no significant sex difference in the above results. Besides, in the PDE model, the results were consistent with those under physiological conditions. Therefore, the stability of intestinal reference genes in fetal rats and adult rats was different, and the intestinal reference genes of adult rats were intestinal segments-specific. The selected panel of reference genes was still stable under pathological conditions. This study determined the optimal panel of reference genes of pre- and post-natal rat intestines and provided reliable reference genes for the qRT-PCR analysis of rat intestines.

14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104992, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242773

RESUMO

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), as one of the major pathogens of paediatric respiratory disease, has been widely spread in the population in recent years. As the basis of virus antigenicity, antigenic epitopes are essential to monitoring the transformation of virus antigenicity. However, there is a lack of systematic studies on the antigenic epitopes of EV-D68. In this study, a bioinformatics-based prediction algorithm for human enteroviruses was used to predict the conformational epitopes of EV-D68. The prediction results showed that the conformational epitopes of EV-D68 were clustered into three sites: site 1, site 2, and site 3. Site 1 was located in the "north rim" region of the canyon near the fivefold axis; site 2 was located in the "puff" region near the twofold axis; and site 3 consisted of two parts, one in the "knob" region on the south rim of the canyon and the other in the threefold axis region. The predicted epitopes overlapped highly with the binding regions of four reported monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), indicating that the predictions were highly reliable. Phylogenetic analysis showed that amino acid mutations in the epitopes of the VP1 BC loop, DE loop, C-terminus, and VP2 EF loop played a crucial role in the evolutionary divergence of EV-D68 clades/subclades and epidemics. This finding indicated that the VP1 BC loop, DE loop, C-terminus, and VP2 EF loop were the most important epitopes of EV-D68. Research on the epitopes of EV-D68 will contribute to outbreak surveillance and to the development of diagnostic reagents and recombinant vaccines.

16.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relapsed/refractory (R/R) classical HL (cHL) and systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (sALCL) treatment options are limited in China and there is a need for new therapies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This single-arm, open-label, multicenter, Phase II study assessed efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single-agent brentuximab vedotin in Chinese patients with R/R cHL or sALCL. Patients received brentuximab vedotin as a 1.8 mg/kg intravenous infusion on Day 1 of a 3-week cycle (maximum 16 cycles). RESULTS: Patients (N=39) received a median of 10 cycles (range: 2-16) of brentuximab vedotin. The objective response rate was 69% (95% CI: 52-83%). Median duration of response, progression-free survival and overall survival were 12.1 months, 13.5 months (95% CI: 6.8 months-not estimable) and not reached after a median follow-up of 16.6 months. Twenty seven (69%) patients achieved an objective response (complete response: n=11 [28%]; partial response: n=16 [41%]). Brentuximab vedotin was well-tolerated with no on-study deaths. AEs were generally manageable and reversible. No new safety signals were identified. PK were consistent with those previously described in Western populations. CONCLUSION: Brentuximab vedotin had a positive benefit-risk profile for Chinese patients with R/R cHL or sALCL confirming it as a potential treatment option. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier is NCT02939014.

17.
Int J Mol Med ; 48(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278437

RESUMO

Liver disease is a significant health challenge worldwide and comprises liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, fatty liver, non­alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to the lack of effective treatments, the prognosis of end­stage liver disease (including advanced liver cirrhosis and HCC) is often poor. S100 proteins are a type of Ca2+ binding protein, which are expressed in a cell­specific manner in vertebrates. These proteins are involved in numerous functions, such as serving as intracellular Ca2+ sensors, transduction of Ca2+ signals and regulation of extracellular factors that affect cellular activity by binding to a range of membrane receptors. Evidence has shown that S100 proteins serve key roles in the occurrence and development of liver disease and can be used as potential therapeutic targets or diagnosis markers. For example, certain studies have suggested that blocking S100 protein expression may be an innovative treatment strategy. The present review focuses on the functions of the S100 protein family in liver disease.

18.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278487

RESUMO

Digestive system malignant tumors are common tumors, and the traditional treatment methods for these tumors include surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted drugs. However, diagnosis remains challenging, and the early detection of postoperative recurrence is complicated. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel biomarkers to facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment. Accumulating evidence supports the crucial role of chloride channels in the development of multiple types of cancers. Given that chloride channels are widely expressed and involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle, among other processes, they may serve as a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target. Chloride intracellular channels (CLICs) are a class of chloride channels that are upregulated or downregulated in certain types of cancer. Furthermore, in certain cases, during cell cycle progression, the localization and function of the cytosolic form of the transmembrane proteins of CLICs are also altered, which may provide a key target for cancer therapy. The aim of the present review was to focus on CLICs as biomarkers for digestive system tumors.

19.
J Food Sci ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287903

RESUMO

To evaluate the pollution level of toxic elements in edible mushrooms from Jilin Province, China, the lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic content present in them were monitored and evaluated. A total of 610 edible mushroom samples, including fresh and dried, were collected from nine cities in the Jilin Province. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic ranged from 0.007 to 3.31, 0.006 to 48.52, 0.003 to 0.56, and 0.008 to 57.34 mg/kg, respectively, in dried samples, and 0.007 to 0.06, 0.006 to 0.17, 0.003 to 0.06, and 0.008 to 0.12 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh samples. The concentration  of cadmium and arsenic exceeded the standard (Cd ≤ 0.2 mg/kg, Cd of Lentinus edodes ≤ 0.5 mg/kg, and As ≤ 0.5 mg/kg) in some mushroom samples. The bioconcentration levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic depended on the edible mushroom species, environment, and the physicochemical properties of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic. The results of the single factor pollution index, a method used to calculate the level of single elements in substances, showed that all edible mushrooms were at the level of unpolluted except Tricholoma matsutake and Pleurotus eryngii. The comprehensive factor (P) for T. matsutake was 1.093. The comprehensive factor pollution index, a method used to calculate the level of combined mixture in substances, was in the unpolluted level, except for T. matsutake. The pollution index results showed that cadmium and arsenic concentrations were lightly polluting in some mushroom samples. The health risk index for arsenic was the highest. Therefore, more attention should be paid to arsenic contamination in T. matsutake and P. eryngii in the Jilin Province, China. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this paper, we evaluated the contamination levels and associated safety issues of four toxic elements, lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, in edible mushrooms. The results showed that cadmium and arsenic concentrations were lightly polluting in some mushroom samples.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 638, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Searching the risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection is important in clinical practice. In the present study, we aim to investigate bacterial characteristics of colonizing strains and their correlation with subsequent CRE infection. METHODS: Between May 2018 and January 2019, patients hospitalized in the department of haematology and intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for CRE by rectal swabs and monitored for the outcome of infection. We identified the species and carbapenemase-encoding genes of colonizing strains and performed antimicrobial susceptibility tests and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Risk factors for subsequent CRE infections were ascertained by univariate and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: We collected a total of 219 colonizing strains from 153 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most abundant species, and MLST analysis showed rich diversity. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was predominant in the infection group (72.4%). In the non-infection group, 35.4% of strains were non-carbapenemase-producing CRE (NCP-CRE), and New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) was predominant (42.2%). The rate of high-level carbapenem resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥ 64 mg/L for meropenem and ertapenem, ≥ 32 mg/L for imipenem) was remarkably higher in the infection group than in the non-infection group (P <  0.001). Univariate analysis showed that K. pneumoniae, high-level carbapenem resistance, CP-CRE and KPC-CRE were infection risk factors after CRE colonization. On multivariable analysis with different carbapenemase dichotomizations, KPC-CRE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.507; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.339-15.171; P = 0.015) or imipenem MIC ≥ 32 mg/L (aOR, 9.515; 95% CI, 1.617-55.977; P = 0.013) were respectively identified as independent risk factors for subsequent infection. CONCLUSIONS: Patients colonized with KPC-CRE or strains with an imipenem MIC ≥ 32 mg/L were at particularly high risk of subsequent CRE infections during their hospital stay.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/classificação , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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