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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 342-349, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D in depression has been gaining increased research interest. However, little is known about the independent associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and D2 (25(OH)D2) with depressive symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the metabolites of vitamin D and their associations with depression. METHODS: This study was conducted in US females using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and serum 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Linear regression and generalized additive models were applied to evaluate the associations between 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2 and depression. RESULTS: A negative association between serum 25(OH)D3 and depressive symptoms was observed in the fully adjusted model. This association was also found among widowed, divorced, separated, and never-married individuals. The association between 25(OH)D2 and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant, but the dose-response analysis revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship between them with an inflection point at 56.2 nmol/L. To the left of the inflection point, we detected a positive association between 25(OH)D2 and depressive symptoms, whereas a negative association was observed to the right of the inflection point. LIMITATIONS: The study used a cross-sectional approach, so causation cannot be determined. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an inverse linear association between serum 25(OH)D3 and depressive symptoms in US females. The association between 25(OH)D2 and depression follows an inverted U-shaped curve with the inflection point at 56.2 nmol/L.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126695, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418834

RESUMO

Surface waters from three catchments having contrasting land-uses (forested, agricultural, and urban) were sampled monthly and analysed for nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (NPs-TiO2) by single particle ICPMS and electron microscopy. We report one-year of data for NPs-TiO2 having average number and mass concentrations of 9.1 × 108 NPs-TiO2 particles L-1 and 11 µg NPs-TiO2 L-1 respectively. An increase in concentration during warmer months is observed in the forested and agricultural catchments. Both concentrations of NPs-TiO2 are within the range of recently reported values using similar analytical approaches. The positive correlations for NPs-TiO2 mass concentration or particle number with the concentration of some trace elements and DOC in the forested and agricultural catchments suggest the detected NPs-TiO2 in these two systems are mostly from geogenic origin. Additionally, microscopy imaging confirmed the presence of NPs in the three catchments. Furthermore, the land-area normalized annual flux of NPs-TiO2 (1.65 kg TiO2 year-1 km-2) was highest for the agricultural catchment, suggesting that agricultural practices have a different impact on the NPs-TiO2 dynamics and exports than other land-uses (urban or forestry). A similar trend is also found by the reanalysis of recent literature data.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Microscopia Eletrônica , Titânio
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(4): 832-837, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472483

RESUMO

The mouse model of multiple cerebral infarctions, established by injecting fluorescent microspheres into the common carotid artery, is a recent development in animal models of cerebral ischemia. To investigate its effectiveness, mouse models of cerebral infarction were created by injecting fluorescent microspheres, 45-53 µm in diameter, into the common carotid artery. Six hours after modeling, fluorescent microspheres were observed directly through a fluorescence stereomicroscope, both on the brain surface and in brain sections. Changes in blood vessels, neurons and glial cells associated with microinfarcts were examined using fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The microspheres were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus ipsilateral to the side of injection. Microinfarcts were found in the brain regions where the fluorescent microspheres were present. Here the lodged microspheres induced vascular and neuronal injury and the activation of astroglia and microglia. These histopathological changes indicate that this animal model of multiple cerebral infarctions effectively simulates the changes of various cell types observed in multifocal microinfarcts. This model is an effective, additional tool to study the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and could be used to evaluate therapeutic interventions. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (approval No. D2021-03-16-1) on March 16, 2021.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114560, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454053

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nauclea officinalis, a widely used Li medicine, has been used for the treatment of cold, fever, bronchitis, pneumonia, acute tonsillitis, and other ailments. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that the most abundant and active components in N. officinalis are alkaloids, which possess various biological properties such as antibacterial and antitumor activities. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the phytochemical profile of a selected group of alkaloids from the N. officinalis total alkaloids, and to determine the chemical profile of the alkaloids extracted from rat plasma. Further investigation was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic behaviors of 11 selected major alkaloids, including pumiloside, naucleoxoside A, naucleoxoside B, nauclefine, angustidine, angustoline, (3S,19S)-3,14-dihydroangustoline,[α]D20: (-)191°, (3S,19R)-3,14-dihydroangustoline, [α]D20: (-) 294.7°, strictosamide, angustine, and 3,14-dihydroangustine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: N. officinalis total alkaloids were extracted with 79% ethanol and enriched with AB-8 macroporous resin. The phytochemical profile of alkaloids from the N. officinalis total alkaloids and the chemical profile of the alkaloids extracted from rat plasma were first analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. A simple, convenient, and sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method was subsequently developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of major active alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of N. officinalis total alkaloids. After addition of an internal standard (verapamil), plasma samples were pretreated first by protein precipitation with methanol and then underwent liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Waters BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) at 30 °C, with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B), a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, and a total run time of 30 min. The detection was performed using an electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring and positive ionization mode. RESULTS: Based on the fragmentation patterns of 11 authentic alkaloids and previous reports, 55 alkaloids were identified or tentatively identified in the N. officinalis total alkaloids. Among them, 25 alkaloids were absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract in rats after administration of the N. officinalis total alkaloids. The 11 alkaloids were selected for quantitative analysis. The established quantitative method was fully validated and proved to be sensitive and specific. Satisfactory linearity of the 11 alkaloids obtained in the respective concentration ranges (r > 0.9931). The lower limits of quantification for strictosamide was 20.86 ng/ml, and the other ten alkaloids were all less than 4.47 ng/ml in rat plasma. The intra-and inter-day precision was less than 15% for all 11 alkaloids in terms of relative standard deviation, and the accuracies ranged from -11.4% to 11.1% in terms of relative error. Extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability were within the required limits in rat plasma. CONCLUSION: The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the 11 alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of N. officinalis total alkaloids. Eleven alkaloids were rapidly absorbed to achieve a maximum plasma concentration with Tmax from 0.25 h to 1.5 h after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters and plasma concentration-time profiles will prove valuable in pre-clinical and clinical investigations on the disposition of N. officinalis total alkaloids.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118472, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752790

RESUMO

Microplastics wildly occur in soil and they can become the carriers of persistent contaminants. However, the influence of microplastics on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons vertical translocation in the soil system after rainfall is limitedly understood. Here, experiments were conducted to study the influence of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastics on the leaching behavior and bioavailability of phenanthrene (Phe). The adsorption capacity of phenanthrene on the microplastics followed the order of PS > PE > PVC. The Phe concentrations in the top soil layer after 15 days of leaching with water were 30.25, 28.32 and 27.25 mg kg-1 for the treatments of Phe-PS, Phe-PE and Phe-PVC respectively, which is consistent with the adsorption capacities of microplastics. The concentrations of Phe were correlated with the microplastic adsorption capacities at soil depths of 5-45 cm. Under long-term leaching, Phe could reach the deeper soil layer. Phe concentrations significantly decreased in the leachate over time. Phe concentrations in wheat had a positive correlation with that in leachate/leached top soil layer. Our findings are beneficial to accurately evaluate the ecological risk of the combined contamination of PAHs and microplastics, and improve the understanding of the environmental behaviors of different microplastics.


Assuntos
Fenantrenos , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Microplásticos , Fenantrenos/análise , Plásticos , Solo , Triticum
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2393: 813-828, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837213

RESUMO

The short-lived radiolabeled "tracers" needed for performing whole body imaging in animals or patients with positron-emission tomography (PET) are generally produced via automated "radiosynthesizers". Most current radiosynthesizers are designed for routine production of relatively large clinical batches and are very wasteful when only a small batch of a tracer is needed, such as is the case for preclinical in vivo PET imaging studies. To overcome the prohibitively high cost of producing small batches of PET tracers, we developed a droplet microreactor system that performs radiochemistry at the 1-10µL scale instead of the milliliter scale of conventional technologies. The overall yield for the droplet-based production of many PET tracers is comparable to conventional approaches, but 10-100× less reagents are consumed, the synthesis can be completed in much less time (<30 min), and only a small laboratory footprint and minimal radiation shielding are needed. By combining these advantages, droplet microreactors enable the economical production of small batches PET tracers on demand. Here, we describe the fabrication method of the droplet microreactor and the droplet-based synthesis of an example radiotracer ([18F]fallypride).

7.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132303, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562705

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids are widely used pesticides all over the world and pose severe water pollution. Although they can be degraded via absorbing sunlight, few attentions have been paid to the environmental risks of their photolysis products. In this paper, the photo-toxicity was investigated for four neonicotinoids (dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiamethoxam and clothianidin) based on a series of experiments (i.e., photolysis kinetics, radical scavenging, bioluminescent inhibition test to Vibrio Fischeri and intermediate identification) and in-silico calculation of photolysis pathway. The results show that direct photolysis dominates the photolysis of the four neonicotinoids under simulated sunlight radiation. The bioluminescent inhibition kinetics shows that all four neonicotinoids have photo-induced toxicity to V. fischeri, but with different light-induced responses. Scavenging radicals (·OH and 1O2) will decrease the photo-induced toxicity of all the four neonicotinoids, indicating radicals play important roles to the photo-chemical reactions of intermediates. Dissolved organic matters exhibit slightly shading effect to the photolysis rates of four parent compounds. However, the ROSs generated by DOM can accelerate the photo-chemical reactions of intermediates, leading to different photo-induced toxicity in present of DOM. According to the detected intermediates and Gaussian calculations, there are different photolysis pathways and mechanisms for the four neonicotinoids. The calculation for photo-sensitization reactions with 3O2 indicates that both energy transfer reactions and electron transfer reactions can be produced under simulated sunlight radiation, which further consolidate that reactive oxygen species are involved in the photolysis process. A theoretical model has been developed to explain the toxicity variations of four neonicotinoids in different aqueous conditions.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Aliivibrio fischeri , Cinética , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118317, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634407

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids have been often detected in aquatic environment with high concentrations; however, little is known about their risk and fate to/in fish. This study systematically investigated the bio-uptake, tissue distribution and metabolism of neonicotinoids in zebrafish, taking clothianidin (CLO) as an example. The results revealed the uptake and elimination kinetics of CLO in whole fish and different tissues was very similar, and its bioconcentration factor (<1) indicates the low bioaccumulation potential in zebrafish. The highest accumulative tissues for CLO were found to be intestine and liver. Eight biotransformation products were identified in intestine and liver, and the metabolic pathways were found to be N-demethylation and nitro-reduction. The metabolic kinetics of two products (desmethyl clothianidin and clothianidin urea) revealed the metabolism of CLO mainly occurred in liver and intestine. This suggested that the hepatobiliary system played an important role in the metabolism and elimination of CLO. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the toxicokinetics of CLO in zebrafish, and these results can contribute to its ecological risk assessment.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Animais , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Tiazóis , Distribuição Tecidual , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(1): 805-812, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the correlations between patients' opioid-taking self-efficacy, social support, and their pain management satisfaction, and to evaluate the effect of social support and opioid-taking self-efficacy in explaining the variance in pain management satisfaction. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional and correlational research design and recruited 123 cancer patients via convenience sampling. We used the following instruments: the Opioid-Taking Self-Efficacy Scale, the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behavior, and the Chinese version of the Pain Treatment Satisfaction Scale. RESULTS: There were significant and negative correlations between opioid-taking self-efficacy and pain management satisfaction (r = - .43, p < .001) and between social support and pain management satisfaction (r = - .47, p < .001). Using a hierarchical regression analysis, social support and opioid-taking self-efficacy explained 17.20% and 5.20%, respectively, of the variance in pain management satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm the importance of social support and opioid-taking self-efficacy in influencing pain management satisfaction. We recommend that professional care providers develop relevant intervention aimed at improving patients' pain management satisfaction.

10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disaster preparedness and to explore associated factors among emergency nurses in Guangdong Province, China. METHODS: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, the mainland China version of the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool was used to collect data from 633 nurses working in 26 emergency departments, in August 2018. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the disaster preparedness, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate associated factors. RESULTS: The perceived disaster preparedness of emergency nurses was at a moderate level. Among the 5 dimensions, the score for disaster management was lowest. Emergency nurses' disaster training (r = .26; P < 0.001) and drill experiences (r = .22; P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with disaster preparedness. Six significant factors associated with disaster preparedness were identified in this study: age, gender, disaster training experience, disaster drill experience, willingness, and educational level (R2 = .14; F = 18.20; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals and nurse managers should carry out interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary cooperation to improve emergency nurses' disaster preparedness, especially disaster management. Organizing disaster simulation exercises, providing psychological support and safety considerations, and formulating disaster nursing training programs may be beneficial for emergency nurses' disaster preparedness.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854213

RESUMO

In order to cultivate the ability of independent learning and lifelong learning of medical students, improve the ability of students to analyze and solve problems, improve the competence of medical talents and cultivate high-level and innovative talents, we have constructed the blended teaching model of "Clinical Case Investigation-Online Open Course Learning-Classroom PBL Seminar-After-Class Health Education". At the same time, an ability-oriented performance evaluation system improved the teaching quality feedback system has also established. This article introduces the construction and application of the blended teaching model, as well as the problems it faces, provides a theoretical basis for the optimization and improvement of this model. It also provides a model theory and practical basis for creating a blended online and offline "golden course" for the professional courses of medical laboratory technology.

12.
Build Simul ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849188

RESUMO

The couple of radiation with convection heating owned advantages of less energy utilization, healthier and more comfortable indoor environment. However, local thermal discomfort was often induced by large vertical temperature difference and radiation asymmetry temperature. This work studied indoor thermal environment characteristics under different coupling ways of radiation and convection heating terminals through experiments and CFD simulation. The studied five scenarios were denoted as: (I) lateral air supply + adjacent side wall radiation, (II) lateral air supply + opposite side wall radiation, (III) lateral air supply + floor radiation, (IV) lateral air supply + adjacent side wall radiation + floor radiation, and (V) lateral air supply + opposite side wall radiation + floor radiation. The overall thermal comfort indices (including air diffusion performance index (ADPI), predicted mean vote (PMV), and predicted percent of dissatisfaction (PPD)) and local thermal comfort indices under different scenarios were investigated. For Scenarios I-III, the local dissatisfaction rates caused by vertical air temperature difference were 0.4%, 0.1%, and 0.2%, respectively, which belonged to "A" class according to the ISO-7730 Standard. While the vertical asymmetric radiation temperature of Scenario I/II was about 6.5 °C lower than that of Scenario III/IV/V. The ADPI for Scenarios III-V were about respectively 5.7%, 16.7%, and 21.0% higher than that of Scenarios I-II, indicating that a large radiation area and radiation angle coefficient could reduce the discomfort caused by radiant temperature asymmetry. The coupling mode improved local discomfort by decreasing vertical temperature difference and radiation asymmetry temperature wherefore improving the PMV from -1.6 to -1. The lateral air supply coupled with asymmetric radiation heating could potentially improve the thermal comfort of occupied area, while the comprehensive effect of thermal environmental improvement, energy-saving, and cost-effectiveness needes to be further investigated.

13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 108393, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ligusticum striatum DC. is traditionally used to treat ischemic diseases because of its potent effect against blood stasis and thrombosis, including various cardiovascular, cerebral and renal diseases. Senkyunolide I (SEI), which is the major active phthalide ingredient of Ligusticum striatum DC., is mainly distributed in kidney and has been shown to attenuate ischemia reperfusion injury in liver. However, the underlying effect of SEI against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remain unclear. METHODS: Renal ischemia reperfusion mice model was established by clamping bilateral renal pedicles. In vitro oxidative stress model was induced by H2O2. Level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) was tested for in vivo model evaluation, while cell viability was tested using CCK8 to evaluate in vitro model. SEI solution containing 1% DMSO was injected intraperitoneally in the I/R group, while normal saline containing 1% DMSO injected in the Sham group. Reduced glutathione (GSH) solution containing 1% DMSO was used as a positive control. RESULTS: SEI protected renal function and structural integrity. It reversed the I/R-induced elevation of BUN, SCr levels and renal pathological injury. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 was inhibited, and the renal apoptosis was attenuated by SEI. In addition, SEI played a protective role by reducing the production of reactive oxidative species (ROS), as shown by the elevated expression of antioxidant proteins including Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and reduced expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) related proteins including GRP78 and CHOP. It also attenuated HK2 cell injury in an in vitro model induced by H2O2. CONCLUSIONS: SEI alleviates renal injury induced by ischemia reperfusion with anti-inflammatory, anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effect.

14.
Front Neurol ; 12: 758345, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858315

RESUMO

After long-term use of levodopa, Parkinson's patients almost inevitably develop dyskinesia, a kind of drug side effect manifesting as uncontrollable choreic movements and dystonia, which could be crippling yet have limited therapeutic options. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is the most widely studied non-invasive neuromodulation technology to treat levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Many studies have shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation has beneficial effects on levodopa-induced dyskinesia and is patient-tolerable, barely with reported adverse effects. Changes in brain connectivity, neuroplasticity, neurotransmitter, neurorestoration, and blood flow modulation could play crucial roles in the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation for levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The appearance of new modes and application for emerging targets are possible solutions for transcranial magnetic stimulation to achieve sustained efficacy. Since the sample size in all available studies is small, more randomized double-blind controlled studies are needed to elucidate the specific treatment mechanisms and optimize treatment parameters.

15.
Front Genet ; 12: 761926, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858478

RESUMO

Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells are promising candidates investigating the stem cell-related treatment. However, their proportion and utility in the human body decline with time, rendering stem cells incompetent to complete repair processes in vivo. The involvement of circRNAs in the aging process is poorly understood. Rat subcutaneous adipose tissue from 10-week-old and 27-month-old rats were used for hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining, TUNEL staining, and circRNA sequencing. Rat adipose tissue-derived stromal cells were cultured and overexpressed with circ-ATXN2. Proliferation was examined using xCELLigence real-time cell analysis, EdU staining, and cell cycle assay. Apoptosis was induced by CoCl2 and examined using flow cytometry. RT-PCR assay and Oil Red O staining were used to measure adipogenesis at 48 h and 14 days, respectively. H and E staining showed that the diameter of adipocytes increased; however, the number of cells decreased in old rats. TUNEL staining showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells was increased in old rats. A total of 4,860 and 4,952 circRNAs was detected in young and old rats, respectively. Among them, 67 circRNAs exhibited divergent expression between the two groups (fold change ≥2, p ≤ 0.05), of which 33 were upregulated (49.3%) and 34 were downregulated (50.7%). The proliferation of circ-ATXN2-overexpressing cells decreased significantly in vitro, which was further validated by xCELLigence real-time cell analysis, EdU staining, and cell cycle assay. Overexpression of circ-ATXN2 significantly increased the total apoptotic rate from 5.78 ± 0.46% to 11.97 ± 1.61%, early apoptotic rate from 1.76 ± 0.22% to 5.50 ± 0.66%, and late apoptosis rate from 4.02 ± 0.25% to 6.47 ± 1.06% in adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Furthermore, in circ-ATXN2-overexpressing cells, RT-PCR assay revealed that the expression levels of adipose differentiation-related genes PPARγ and CEBP/α were increased and the Oil Red O staining assay showed more lipid droplets. Our study revealed the expression profile of circRNAs in the adipose tissue of old rats. We found a novel age-related circular RNA-circ-ATXN2-that inhibits proliferation and promotes cell death and adipogenesis in rat adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab513, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859113

RESUMO

Background: The Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial (PADIT) investigated whether intensification of perioperative prophylaxis could prevent cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. Compared with a single dose of cefazolin, the perioperative administration of cefazolin, vancomycin, bacitracin, and cephalexin did not significantly decrease the risk of infection. Our objective was to compare the microbiology of infections between study arms in PADIT. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis. Differences between study arms in the microbiology of infections were assessed at the level of individual patients and at the level of microorganisms using the Fisher exact test. Results: Overall, 209 microorganisms were reported from 177 patients. The most common microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 82/209 [39.2%]) and S. aureus (75/209 [35.9%]). There was a significantly lower proportion of CoNS in the incremental arm compared with the standard arm (30.1% vs 46.6%; P = .04). However, there was no significant difference between study arms in the frequency of recovery of other microorganisms. In terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, 26.5% of microorganisms were resistant to cefazolin. CoNS were more likely to be cefazolin-resistant in the incremental arm (52.2% vs 26.8%, respectively; P = .05). However, there was no difference between study arms in terms of infections in which the main pathogen was sensitive to cefazolin (77.8% vs 64.3%; P = .10) or vancomycin (90.8% vs 90.2%; P = .90). Conclusions: Intensification of the prophylaxis led to significant changes in the microbiology of infections, despite the absence of a decrease in the overall risk of infections. These findings provide important insight on the physiopathology of CIED infections. Trial registration: NCT01002911.

17.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e22885, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859534

RESUMO

Ginsenoside-Rg1 (G-Rg1), a saponin that is a primary component of ginseng, is effective against inflammatory diseases. The P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel that is predominantly expressed in immune cells and plays a key role in inflammatory processes. We investigated the role of G-Rg1 in sepsis-related cardiac dysfunction and the underlying mechanism involving the regulation of the P2X7 receptor. We detected cell viability, cytotoxicity, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with or without G-Rg1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced H9c2 cell models of ischemia/reperfusion injury. We applied cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce a mouse model of sepsis and measured the survival duration and cardiac function of CLP mice. Next, we quantified the ROS level, MMP, respiratory chain complex I-IV enzymatic activity, and mitochondrial fusion in CLP mouse heart tissues. We then investigated the role of G-Rg1 in repairing LPS-induced cell mitochondrial damage, including mitochondrial superoxidation products. The results showed that G-Rg1 inhibited LPS- or H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cytotoxicity, ROS levels, and mitochondrial damage. In addition, G-Rg1 prolonged the survival time of CLP mice. G-Rg1 attenuated LPS-induced superoxide production in the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes and the excessive release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Most importantly, G-Rg1 suppressed LPS-mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax, activated Akt, induced GSK-3ß phosphorylation, and balanced mitochondrial calcium levels. Overall, G-Rg1 activates the Akt/GSK-3ß pathway through P2X7 receptors to inhibit sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction.

18.
Z Gastroenterol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A disposable upper gastrointestinal endoscope can effectively decrease infectious outbreaks associated with endoscope reuse. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a disposable endoscope for upper gastrointestinal examination. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized trial, 144 upper endoscopic procedures were allocated to either the disposable endoscope group or the conventional endoscope group. The primary outcomes were rates of excellent and good image qualities and maneuverability satisfaction. The second outcome included procedure duration, endoscopic diagnosis, and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 144 subjects were enrolled in the present analysis and prospectively randomized to 2 study groups. Finally, 70 and 69 subjects were enrolled in the novel disposable endoscope group and the conventional endoscope group, respectively, due to the schedule cancellation of 5 subjects. The baseline characteristics of the patients were similar in both groups. The excellent and good image quality rates and maneuverability satisfaction of the novel disposable endoscope were not inferior to the conventional endoscope (p = 0.99 and p = 0.99, respectively). Moreover, no significant between-group difference was observed in the endoscopic results and adverse events (p = 0.30 and p = 1, respectively). However, the procedure duration in the novel disposable endoscope was longer compared with the conventional endoscope (8.40 ± 4.28 min vs. 5.12 ± 2.65 min, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The novel disposable endoscope was as safe, effective, and maneuverable as a conventional endoscope. However, the novel disposable endoscope was associated with a longer procedure duration.

19.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211059498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755551

RESUMO

This study investigates the prognostic value of immune cell subsets in assessing the risk of death in patients with sepsis. This retrospective study collected 169 patients from March 2020 to February 2021 at our hospital. Baseline data were collected from patients. The absolute values (Abs) and percentages (%) of immune cell subsets for lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ cells, CD8+, B cells, NK cells, and NKT cells were measured using flow Cytometry. Among the included patients, 43 patients were in the nonsurvivor group and 126 patients were in the survivor group. The age of patients in the nonsurvivor survivor was higher than that of survivor group patients (P = .020). SOFA, APACHE II, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were higher in the nonsurvivor group than in the survivor group (all P values < .05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that lymphocytes (%) and SOFA were independent risk factors affecting patients' prognosis. Lymphocytes (%) have the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.812). The model area under the ROC curve for immune cell subsets was 0.800, with a sensitivity of 72.09%, and specificity of 79.27% (z = 7.796, P < .001). Analysis of patient prognosis by immune cell subsets diagnostic showed statistically significant differences in the grouping of cut-off values for all 5 indicators (all P < .05). The lymphocytes (%) and SOFA score are independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of patients. A moderate predictive power for mortality in sepsis patients by immune cell subsets model.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 756975, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776974

RESUMO

Liuweiwuling Tablet (LWWL) is a licensed Chinese patent medicine (approval number: Z20060238) included in the national health insurance for anti-inflammation of chronic HBV infection, whereas its anti-HBV effect remains clarification. The study aimed to clarify its antiviral effect and related mechanisms. HepG2.2.15 cells (wild-type HBV-replicating cells) and HepG2. A64 cells (entecavir-resistant HBV-replicating cells) were used for in vitro test. Hydrodynamic injection-mediated HBV-replicating mouse model was used for in vivo test. Active compounds and related mechanisms for antiviral effect of LWWL were analyzed using network pharmacology and transcriptomics. The inhibition rates of LWWL (0.8 mg/ml) on HBV DNA, HBsAg, and pgRNA were 57.06, 38.55, and 62.49% in HepG2.2.15 cells, and 51.57, 17.57, and 53.88% in HepG2. A64 cells, respectively. LWWL (2 g kg-1 d-1 for 4 weeks)-treated mice had 1.16 log10 IU/mL decrease of serum HBV DNA, and more than 50% decrease of serum HBsAg/HBeAg and hepatic HBsAg/HBcAg. Compared to tenofovir control, LWWL was less effective in suppressing HBV DNA but more effective in suppressing HBV antigens. Thirteen differentially-expressed genes were found in relation to HBV-host interaction and some of them were enriched in interferon (IFN)-ß pathway in LWWL-treated HepG2.2.15 cells. CD3+CD4+ T-cell frequency and serum IFN-γ were significantly increased in LWWL-treated mice compared to LWWL-untreated mice. Among 26 compounds with potential anti-HBV effects that were predicted by network pharmacology, four compounds (quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, and kaempferol) were experimentally confirmed to have antiviral potency. In conclusion, LWWL had potent inhibitory effect on both wild-type and entecavir-resistant HBV, which might be associated with increasing IFN-ß and IFN-γ production.

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