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2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1614-1621, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048850

RESUMO

Lubrication plays a pivotal role in reducing energy consumption and machinery wear, profoundly impacting technological and economic development and the environment. A recent study ( Erdemir , A. , et al. Nature 2016 , 536 , 67 ) reported the effective extraction of carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oil by catalytic activation of the coating material, opening new possibilities for innovative lubrication material research and development. Here, we showcase a solute-atom-strengthened and catalytically functionalized coating design and demonstrate its implementation in a TiN-Ag solid solution film that exhibits concurrent ultralow friction and ultralow wear. Indentation tests and Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with quantum mechanical simulations uncover the rare superhard nature of the TiN-Ag film along with a solute-Ag-atom-induced self-oxidation mechanism for its outstanding catalytic capacity. These findings identify an outstanding type of mechanically strong and catalytically active coating material with simultaneous superior protective and lubricating functionality, holding great promise for applications ranging from microdevices to large-scale industrial equipment.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19102, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy for many years. OBJECTIVES: This review was performed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). METHODS: Retrieval from 7 electronic databases was conducted to determine eligible trials published until March 1, 2018. Randomized controlled trials of NPDR that comparing compound Chinese medicine containing the therapeutic method of activating blood and remove stasis versus controls were included for analysis. Primary outcomes were progression of retinopathy. Secondary outcomes included visual acuity, mean defect of visual field, micro-aneurysms, hemorrhage areas, exudates, capillary nonperfusion areas, hemorheological indicators, oscillatory potentials (Ops), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and adverse events. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed. Results expressing as risk ratios (RRs) or mean differences (MD) were analyzed with a fixed- or random- effect model. I statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 33 trials and 3373 participants were included. Findings revealed that no included studies reported the progression of retinopathy. Compared with conventional medicine, TCM was significantly better at improving visual acuity (MD, -0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.16 to -0.05) and Ops (MD, -4.68, 95% CI -8.51 to -0.85), and reducing the mean defect of visual field (MD, -1.43; 95%CI, -2.17 to -0.68), micro-aneurysms (MD, -4.51; 95% CI, -6.23 to -2.79), hemorrhage areas (MD, -0.62; 95% CI, -1.06 to -0.19), plasma viscosity (MD, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.00), and HbA1c (MD, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.03). Compared with placebo, TCM was also associated with a decline in the number of microaneurysms (MD, -4.35; 95% CI, -6.25 to -2.45), exudates (MD, -0.17; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.03), capillary nonperfusion areas (MD, -0.18; 95% CI, -0.31 to -0.04), and HbA1c (MD, -0.88; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.32). Compared with blank groups, TCM was superior at decreasing the mean defect of visual field (MD, -0.87; 95% CI -0.95 to -0.79) and the numbers of micro-aneurysms (MD, -3.35; 95% CI, -4.73 to -1.97). Adverse events were also assessed. CONCLUSION: Activating blood compound Chinese herbal medicine could help to improve visual acuity, micro-aneurysms and HbA1c. Further trials are needed to provide more reliable evidence.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040110

RESUMO

Here, a hollowed-out Au@AgPt core-frame nanostructure is carved in the presence of PtCl62- via galvanic replacement (GR) reaction, during which the dissolution of Ag atoms from the {100} facets and the deposition of Pt atoms on the active edges of the nanocubes occur. Both ex situ and in situ monitoring of the plasmonic and structural evolutions at the single-particle level, confirmed also by theoretical simulations, shows a three-phase mechanism involved.

5.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1285-1295, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016477

RESUMO

Of the different types of lung cancer, lung squamous cell cancer (LUSC) has the second highest rates of morbidity and mortality, which have been increasing in recent years. Epigenetic abnormalities may serve as potential biomarkers and diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets, which may help to monitor and improve the prognosis of patients with cancer. In the present study, data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and survival and joint survival analyses were conducted using the R MethylMix package. Peptidase, mitochondrial processing a subunit pseudogene 1 (PMPCAP1), sosondowah ankyrin repeat domain family member C (SOWAHC) and zinc finger protein (ZNF) 454 were identified as independent prognosis­related hub methylation­driven genes (MDGs). Of these three genes, PMPCAP1 and SOWAHC, characterized by hypomethylation and high expression levels, were associated with poor prognosis in patients with LUSC, whilst ZNF454 was associated with an improved prognosis. In addition, pathway enrichment analysis suggested that PMPCAP1, SOWAHC and ZNF454 were primarily involved in gene expression or transcription pathways. Furthermore, 5, 1 and 10 key methylation sites of PMPCAP1, SOWAHC and ZNF454, respectively, were confirmed to be significantly relevant to gene expression, establishing a basis for further investigation into the mechanisms and more precise targets of these 3 genes. In conclusion, the MDGs PMPCAP1, SOWAHC and ZNF454 may be potential prognostic biomarkers of LUSC for guiding diagnosis and therapy options, as well as providing a theoretical basis for further investigation.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122901, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033842

RESUMO

The impact of lignin extracted from γ-valerolactone/water (GVL/H2O) pretreatment of corn stover on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated. Two lignin samples were separated and named as GL25 and GL75 according to the amounts of sulfuric acid (25 mM and 75 mM) used in the GVL/H2O pretreatment. With the addition of 2 g/L of GL25 and GL75, the glucan conversion of enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel improved markedly from 28.0% to 37.4% and 31.3%, respectively. Moreover, the improvement of glucan conversion increased when increasing the loadings of GL25 and GL75. A similar observation was made when GVL/H2O pretreated corn stover was the substrate. The results of the cellulase adsorption experiments showed that the GLs had a lower maximum cellulase adsorption capacity and binding strength compared to that of acid-insoluble lignin. Further structural characterization of the GLs revealed that they had a low zeta-potential and hydrophobicity, but a high Syringyl/Guaiacyl ratio.

7.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(3): 171, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062798

RESUMO

A method is described for the simultaneous determination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1). Two kinds of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanobeads (QBs), with emission maxima at 530 nm (green) and 585 nm (yellow), were used as labels, and magnetic beads (MBs) for separation. The MBs were used as substrates to couple CEA and CYFRA21-1 antibody for isolating the proteins. Then, the differently colored QBs were linked to the antibodies against CEA and CYFRA21-1, respectively. Following the formation of the immunocomplex, the intensities of the green and yellow emissions were measured at the same excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The detection limits are 0.1 ng⋅mL- 1 for CEA, and of 0.2 ng⋅mL- 1 for CYFRA21-1. The recoveries from spiked serum are 92.1 - 118.1% for CEA, and from 90.8% to 115.2% for CYFRA21-1, with the relative standard deviations of 6.3 - 12.3% and 7.1 - 11.8%. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the two proteins in human serum sample (n = 45). The results correlated well with those of the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay kit. Graphical AbstractSchematic presentation of the fluorescence immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) based on quantum dot nanobeads (QBs) and magnetic beads (MBs) is reported. The intensities of two kinds of CdSe/ZnS QBs, with the emission maxima at 530 nm (green) and 585 nm (yellow) were measured at the same excitation wavelength of 340 nm.

8.
Cell Immunol ; : 104046, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057354

RESUMO

Uncontrolled activation of NLRP3 inflammasome initiates a series of human inflammatory diseases. Targeting NLRP3 inflammasome has attracted considerable attention in developing potential therapeutic interventions. Here, we reported that dehydrocostus lactone (DCL), a main component of Saussurea lappa from the traditional Chinese medicine, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent interleukin (IL)-1ß production in primary mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and exerted an inhibitory effect on NLRP3-driven inflammation. Mechanistically, DCL significantly blocked the ASC oligomerization, which is essential for the assembly of activated inflammasome. Importantly, in vivo experiments showed that DCL reduced IL-1ß secretion and peritoneal neutrophils recruitment in LPS-mediated inflammation mouse model, which is demonstrated to be NLRP3 dependent. These results suggest that DCL is a potent pharmacological inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome and may be developed as a therapeutic drug for treating NLRP3-associated diseases.

9.
Brain Res Bull ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057952

RESUMO

Interneurons not only contribute to the global balance of activity in cortical networks but also mediate the precise gating of information through specific proteins. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is concentrated in inhibitory interneurons and that it plays an important role in neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the functions of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α in sensorimotor gating, short-term habituation and spatial reference memory are still not entirely clear. To investigate the precise involvement of PGC-1α in the progression of psychiatric disorders, we first generated PGC-1α conditional knockout mice through transgenic expression of Cre recombinase under the control of dlx5/6 promoter, Cre-mediated excision events occurred specifically in γ-amino-butyric-acid-(GABA)ergic neurons. Short-term habituation and spatial reference memory in Dlx5/6-Cre-PGC-1αf/f mice were evaluated using the novel object recognition test and the Morris water maze test, and sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. Protein expression of parvalbumin (PV) in specific brain regions was studied by western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Here, we show that mice lacking the PGC-1α gene in GABAergic neurons exhibit deficits in short-term habituation, hyperactivity, reduced prepulse inhibition and exaggerated startle reactivity but normal associative spatial reference memory. In particular, these mice display aberrant salience, whereby more attention is paid to a further copy of the original object (now familiar) (relative to the first presentation of the original object, and relative to the presentation of the novel object). These behavioral dysfunctions were associated with decreased PV expression in the cortex (including somatosensory and motor cortex) as well as in the hippocampus, especially in its CA1 and CA3 regions. Together, these findings draw attention to a hyper-response phenotype of PGC-1α conditional knockout mice and indicate that PGC-1α is a novel regulator of gene expression and function in PV-positive interneurons and a potential therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders associated with PGC-1α dysregulation.

10.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riboflavin deficiency confers a predisposition for esophageal cancer. The role of plasma riboflavin levels in development and prognosis of individuals with digestive tract inflammation and ulcer (DTIU), digestive tract polyps (DTPs), and ESCC is not well understood. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study, including 177 DTIU, 80 DTP, and 324 ESCC cases, to measure the plasma riboflavin levels among the three populations. Correlation between plasma riboflavin levels (categorized as ≥31.8, 6.5-31.8 and ≤6.5 nmol/L groups) and clinical characteristics, as well as survival of ESCC patients (556 cases) was analyzed. RESULTS: There was no difference in plasma riboflavin levels between DTIU, DTP, and ESCC cases (P > 0.05). Plasma riboflavin levels were inversely correlated with invasive depth (correlation coefficient = -0.09, P = 0.026) and lymph node metastasis (correlation coefficient = -0.11, P = 0.010) of ESCC, and ESCC patients with low riboflavin levels had poor recurrence-free survival (P = 0.035) and overall survival (P = 0.003). Decreased riboflavin was a prognostic factor for poor overall survival (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.19-3.07, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma riboflavin levels in DTIU, DTP, and ESCC patients are similar. Plasma riboflavin levels are associated with the development and prognosis of ESCC.

11.
Parasitol Res ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060726

RESUMO

To reveal the genetic diversity of Babesia microti and Theileria orientalis in Southwest China, we conducted a molecular survey of piroplasms in hard ticks in a China-Myanmar border county. Host infesting and questing ticks were collected from Tengchong County in 2013 and 2014. Piroplasm infection in ticks was detected by PCR, and then, phylogenetic analysis was conducted to study the genetic diversity of the pathogens identified in ticks. All in all, six piroplasm species comprising of B. microti; B. orientalis; a novel Babesia species designated Babesia sp. Tengchong, China; T. orientalis; T. luwenshuni; and an as yet undescribed piroplasmid species referred to as Piroplasmid sp. Tengchong, China, have been identified after screening goat- and cattle-attached ticks. In addition, B. bigemina has been identified by screening questing ticks. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA and partial ß-tubulin gene revealed two novel potentially zoonotic genotypes designated B. microti Tengchong-Type A and B. The T. orientalis genotypes identified in the present study represent the seven known genotypes 1-5, 7, and N3 as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and MPSP genes. Importantly, an additional genotype designated N4 has also been identified in this study, which brings the number of recognized T. orientalis genotypes to a total of twelve. Thus, besides the two novel species, Babesia sp. Tengchong, China, closely related to Babesia species isolated from yak and Piroplasmid sp. Tengchong, China, our study demonstrates that additional novel B. microti and T. orientalis genotypes exist in Southwest China.

12.
Obes Surg ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SILSG) has been proposed as an alternative to conventional laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (CLSG) in obese patients. This study aims to compare the surgical outcomes of these two techniques. METHODS: A meta-analysis of existing literature obtained through a systematic literature search in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases from 2009 to 2019 was conducted. RESULTS: Eleven articles including 1168 patients were analyzed. Patients in the SILSG group reported greater satisfaction with cosmetic scar outcomes than those in the CLSG group (SMD = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.83, P = 0.00). There was no significant difference between the SILSG group and the CLSG group regarding operative time, intraoperative estimated blood loss, conversion rate, intraoperative complications, length of hospital stay, postoperative analgesia, postoperative complications, excess weight loss (EWL), and improvements in comorbidities (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CLSG, SILSG resulted in improved cosmetic satisfaction and showed no disadvantages in terms of surgical outcomes; thus, SILSG can serve as an alternative to CLSG for obese patients. Nonetheless, high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with large study populations and long follow-up periods are needed.

13.
Biomaterials ; 238: 119828, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045781

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg)-based biometal attracts clinical applications due to its biodegradability and beneficial biological effects on tissue regeneration, especially in orthopaedics, yet the underlying anabolic mechanisms in relevant clinical disorders are lacking. The present study investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg) and vitamin C (VC) supplementation for preventing steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) in a rat experimental model. In SAON rats, 50 mg/kg Mg, or 100 mg/kg VC, or combination, or water control was orally supplemented daily for 2 or 6 weeks respectively. Osteonecrosis was evaluated by histology. Serum Mg, VC, and bone turnover markers were measured. Microfil-perfused samples prepared for angiography and trabecular architecture were evaluated by micro-CT. Primary bone marrow cells were isolated from each group to evaluate their potentials in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. The mechanisms were tested in vitro. Histological evaluation showed SAON lesions in steroid treated groups. Mg and VC supplementation synergistically reduced the apoptosis of osteocytes and osteoclast number, and increased osteoblast surface. VC supplementation significantly increased the bone formation marker PINP, and the combination significantly decreased the bone resorption marker CTX. TNFα expression and oxidative injury were decreased in bone marrow in Mg/VC/combination group. Mg significantly increased the blood perfusion in proximal tibia and decreased the leakage particles in distal tibia 2 weeks after SAON induction. VC significantly elevated the osteoblast differentiation potential of marrow cells and improved the trabecular architecture. The combination supplementation significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation potential of marrow cells. In vitro study showed promoting osteoblast differentiation effect of VC, and anti-inflammation and promoting angiogenesis effect of Mg with underlying mechanisms. Mg and VC supplementation could synergistically alleviate SAON in rats, indicating great translational potentials of metallic minerals for preventing SAON.

14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 33, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060755

RESUMO

Microbiota from herbivore rumen is of great interest for mining glycoside hydrolases for lignocellulosic biomass biorefinement. We previously isolated a highly active but poorly thermostable xylanase (LXY) from a rumen fluid fosmid library of Hu sheep, a local high-reproductive species in China. In this study, we used a universal enzyme-engineering strategy called SpyTag/SpyCatcher molecular cyclization to improve LXY stability via isopeptide-bond-mediated ligation. Both linear and cyclized LXY (L- and C-LXY, respectively) shared similar patterns of optimal pH and temperature, pH stability, and kinetic constants (km and Vmax). However, the C-LXY showed enhanced thermostability, ion stability, and resilience to aggregation and freeze-thaw treatment than L-LXY, without compromise of its catalytic efficiency. Circular dichroism and intrinsic and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid-binding fluorescence analysis indicated that the cyclized enzyme was more capable of maintaining its secondary and tertiary structures than the linear enzyme. Taken together, these results promote the cyclized enzyme for potential applications in the feed, food, paper pulp, and bioenergy industries.

15.
Mar Drugs ; 18(2)2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the therapeutic effects and related mechanisms of algae oil (ALG) to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). METHODS: Rats were daily gavaged with ALG after rAION induction for seven days. The therapeutic effects of ALG on rAION were evaluated using flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs), retrograde labeling of RGCs, TUNEL assay of the retina, and ED1 staining of optic nerves (ONs). The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1ß, TNF-α, Cl-caspase-3, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and p-ERK were analyzed by using western blots. RESULTS: Protection of visual function in FVEPs amplitude was noted, with a better preservation of the P1-N2 amplitude in the ALG-treated group (p = 0.032) than in the rAION group. The density of RGCs was 2.4-fold higher in the ALG-treated group compared to that in the rAION group (p < 0.0001). The number of ED1-positive cells in ONs was significantly reduced 4.1-fold in the ALG-treated group compared to those in the rAION group (p = 0.029). The number of apoptotic RGCs was 3.2-fold lower in number in the ALG-treated group (p = 0.001) than that in the rAION group. The ALG treatment inhibited ERK activation to reduce the levels of iNOS, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and Cl-caspase-3 and to increase the level of CNTF in the rAION model. CONCLUSION: The treatment with ALG after rAION induction inhibits ERK activation to provide both anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in rAION.

16.
Pain Physician ; 23(1): E31-E40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) can effectively relieve the pain for patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs), many patients still complain of mild back pain in the early postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of early limited activity (LA) on prognosis after bipedicular small-cement-volume (i.e., PVP) to treat single-segment acute OVCFs. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study and retrospective observations were performed on 125 patients with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. SETTING: A university hospital orthopedics and pathology departments. METHODS: All patients were allocated into an LA group (n = 64) and an unlimited activity group (ULA group, n = 61). Patients in the LA group were suggested to keep time of off-bed activity < 4 hours per day in the first 3 weeks postoperatively. Patients in the ULA group did not limit activity. The demographic, clinical, and radiologic outcomes were assessed, such as pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11) and vertebral height ratio (i.e., fractured vertebral height/adjacent nonfractured vertebral height). Based on outcomes following surgery, all patients were classified as responders (NRS-11 score 1-day postoperation < 50% of preoperative NRS-11 score) or low responders (NRS-11 score 1-day postoperation >= 50% of preoperative NRS-11 score). RESULTS: The demographic results and complications were similar. In the LA group, NRS-11 scores at 1 and 3 months postoperation respectively were 2.23 ± 0.42 and 1.46 ± 0.40, and corresponding scores respectively were 2.85 ± 0.80 and 1.73 ± 0.77 in the ULA group, and there was a difference in the 2 groups in both time points (P < 0.05). At 12 months postoperation, anterior and middle vertebral height ratio respectively were 78.42% ± 3.52% and 82.37% ± 3.49% in the LA group, which were higher than 76.87% ± 3.68% and 81.10% ± 3.31% in the ULA group (P < 0.05). Thirty-two cases were low responders. Among those, NRS-11 scores at 1 and 3 months postoperation respectively were 2.29 ± 0.45 and 1.53 ± 0.46 in the LA group, which were lower than 3.67 ± 0.80 and 2.56 ± 0.79 in the ULA group (P < 0.05), and at 12 months postoperation, anterior vertebral height ratio was 79.81% ± 3.25% in the LA group and 75.60% ± 3.50% in the ULA group (P < 0.05). LIMITATIONS: First, some patients lacked the results of bone mineral density during follow-up; second, the limited time in our study was chosen from our previous working experience, which may lack an objective basis; third, NRS-11 is solely used as an indicator of clinical outcomes in our study; finally, our next studies can increase the sample size to improve the clinically difference. CONCLUSIONS: LA in the early period after PVP can help patients achieve more pain relief postoperatively and maintain better vertebral shape, especially for low responders. KEY WORDS: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, percutaneous vertebroplasty, Numeric Rating Scale, vertebral height, responders, low responders, limited activity, complications.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014245

RESUMO

Associations between elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the angina pectoris risk have been reported for many years, but the results remain controversial. To address this issue, a meta-analysis was therefore conducted. Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and web of science up to January 2019. Altogether, 10 prospective cohort studies and 11 case-control studies were included, and they were published from 1997 to 2013 and summed up to 18,316 samples totally. The pooled mean difference of CRP levels was 4.44 (95% confidence interval 2.71 to 6.17) between angina patients and healthy controls. The combined odds ratio of CRP for major adverse cardiac events in angina patients was 1.67 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.26). In conclusion, the meta-analysis indicated that elevated CRP levels were associated with angina pectoris, especially unstable angina pectoris, and were probably a risk factor of major adverse cardiac events.

18.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016230

RESUMO

A controllable self-assembled growth using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of dense, uniform, and high-aspect-ratio InGaN nanorods (NRs) is achieved through regulating the Ga/In flux ratio and employing high Miller index planes of patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). It is clearly demonstrated that both the low Ga/In flux ratio and high Miller index plane of PSS patterns facilitate the three-dimensional growth mode for InGaN NRs and simultaneously suppress NR coalescence. A lower Ga/In flux ratio favors a higher density, a larger aspect ratio, and a smaller coalescence degree of InGaN NRs through enhancing axial growth and inversely suppressing radial growth. The specific surface structures of high Miller index planes, e.g., the well-organized step-terrace and irregular bulge structures, critically affect the morphology, dimensions, density, and crystallographic orientation of MBE self-assembled NRs. In particular, the narrow and ordered step-terrace structure in the C3-plane-(4 5[combining macron] 1 38) plane-on a hexagonal pyramid favors the highest density, largest aspect ratio, and best uniformity of semipolar InGaN NRs, thus contributing to optimal photoluminescence performance. A thorough understanding of the mechanism of the effect of the Ga/In flux ratio and crystallographic plane on the MBE self-assembled growth behaviour of InGaN NRs was gained through experimental and theoretical exploration. This work contributes towards a deep understanding of the MBE self-assembled growth mechanism and controllable fabrication of dense, well-separated, and uniform InGaN NRs, thus contributing to the enhanced performance of NR-based optoelectronic devices.

19.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the change of the pre- and postoperative systemic inflammatory response (SIR) levels will affect the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. We aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in the pre- and postoperative SIR and their prognostic value for GC. METHODS: The clinicopathological data from 2257 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy between January 2009 and December 2014 at Fujian Medical University Union Hospital (FMUUH) were analyzed. Perioperative SIR changes were reported as changes in the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). RESULTS: The SIR levels showed different trends from postoperative months 1 to 12. Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative (pre)-LMR was an independent predictor for the prognosis (P = 0.024). The postoperative 12-month (post-12-month) LMR predicted the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate with the highest accuracy (areas under the curve [AUC] 0.717). Patients were divided into four groups according to the optimal cutoff of the preoperative and post-12-month LMR: high pre-LMR to high postoperative (post)-LMR group, high pre-LMR to low post-LMR group, low pre-LMR to high post-LMR group, and low pre-LMR to low post-LMR group. The survival analysis showed 5-year OS rate was significantly higher in patients with high post-12-month LMR than in patients with low post-12-month LMR, regardless of pre-LMR levels (81.6% vs. 44.2%, P < 0.001). The prognostic accuracy was significantly improved by incorporating the post-12-month LMR in the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The remeasurement of LMR at post-12-month is helpful in predicting the long-term survival of GC.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006526

RESUMO

T-cell based immunity is mediated through specific T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of a small antigenic peptide in complex with a host immune molecule, major histocompatibility complex (pMHC). The interaction of a TCR and its pMHC ligand is generally quite weak, degenerate and biophysically unfavorable. Yet, the resulting immune response is extremely effective, being both sensitive and specific. Recent observations indicate that the TCR is an anisotropic mechanosensor. The force sensed by TCR's recognition module is transmitted to the non-covalently associated signal transduction module. Multiple biophysical methods reveal that the molecular mechanism for TCR-pMHC interaction under force required to induce T cell signaling is linked to "catch bond" formation between a TCR and its cognate ligand pMHC. This kind of dynamic non-covalent bond actually increases the bond lifetime by deforming the molecule to make the interaction lock tighter. The key observation is that the more stimulatory the antigenic peptide, the more pronounced the catch bond and immune response. By contrast, an unrelated, non-antigenic peptide presented by the same MHC molecule does not form a catch bond, instead manifesting a slip bond associated with rapid TCR-pMHC dissociation. In summary, a weak interaction between a TCR and agonist ligand will be dramatically amplified by a catch bond under physical load generated by cell movement during immune surveillance. These new biophysical concepts, TCR mechanosensor and dynamic catch bond formation, begin to reveal how bioforces tune T cell signaling and should be potentially enlightening for immunotherapy design against cancers.

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