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1.
Eur Neurol ; : 1-8, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Imaging data were scarce on diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP). Our study explored the MRI features and their clinical implications for diabetic ONP. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with a clinical diagnosis of diabetic ONP were recruited from our department between January 2015 and December 2019. Orbital MRI was retrospectively analyzed, and follow-up scans were obtained for 5 patients. Based on the ocular motor nerve palsy scale, the difference in the scores on the first and last hospital days was defined as the improvement score and was used to assess the treatment effects in all. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (64.41%) patients presented thickening and enhancement of the cavernous segment and inferior division of the intraorbital segment of the ipsilateral oculomotor nerve, with the cisternal segment spared in all. After complete resolution of symptoms, follow-up MRI in 5 patients revealed that the enhancement was less obvious compared with the previous images. 6 patients in the enhancement group and 4 patients in the nonenhancement group were treated with 80 mg of methylprednisolone. Significant differences were not detected in the median improvement scores between patients with and those without corticosteroid use (p = 0.240). CONCLUSION: Thickening and enhancement of the unilateral oculomotor nerve were common imaging findings in diabetic ONP, and they persisted after complete resolution of symptoms in some patients. The cavernous segment and the inferior division of the intraorbital segment were simultaneously involved, and the cisternal segment was often spared. Refraining from corticosteroids was recommended even with nerve enhancement.

2.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oculomotor paresis with cyclic spasms (OPCS) is a rare disorder in which the muscles innervated by the third cranial nerve undergo alternating rhythmic spasm and paralysis. This disease is usually noticeable at birth or developing during the first year of life. To date, most of the OPCS cases reported in the English-language literature were Caucasians. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we review OPCS patients published in China's high-quality journals and report 1 new case encountered in our clinic. The clinical characteristics of 29 Chinese OPCS patients are summarized. Our review demonstrates the same trend in the analysis values for the onset age, pupil, lid, eye movement, time of cycles, and preferentially involved side in Chinese OPCS patients in comparison with previous reviews. Moreover, we review a case combined with Marcus Gunn Syndrome, a case with rapid relief under oral carbamazepine treatment, and cases with atypical patterns of cyclic changes. DISCUSSION: Our study may broaden the current knowledge and phenotypic spectrum of OPCS.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 498, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains no clear conclusion about which is better between robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to compare the short-term and long-term efficacy between RATS and VATS for NSCLC. METHODS: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Medline, and Web of Science databases were comprehensively searched for studies published before December 2020. The quality of the articles was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the data analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 software. Fixed or random effect models were applied according to heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies including 11,247 patients were included in the meta-analyses, of which 5114 patients were in the RATS group and 6133 in the VATS group. Compared with VATS, RATS was associated with less blood loss (WMD = - 50.40, 95% CI -90.32 ~ - 10.48, P = 0.010), lower conversion rate (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.43 ~ 0.60, P < 0.001), more harvested lymph nodes (WMD = 1.72, 95% CI 0.63 ~ 2.81, P = 0.002) and stations (WMD = 0.51, 95% CI 0.15 ~ 0.86, P = 0.005), shorter duration of postoperative chest tube drainage (WMD = - 0.61, 95% CI -0.78 ~ - 0.44, P < 0.001) and hospital stay (WMD = - 1.12, 95% CI -1.58 ~ - 0.66, P < 0.001), lower overall complication rate (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.83 ~ 0.99, P = 0.020), lower recurrence rate (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36 ~ 0.72, P < 0.001), and higher cost (WMD = 3909.87 USD, 95% CI 3706.90 ~ 4112.84, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between RATS and VATS in operative time, mortality, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). Sensitivity analysis showed that no significant differences were found between the two techniques in conversion rate, number of harvested lymph nodes and stations, and overall complication. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that RATS is a feasible and safe technique compared with VATS in terms of short-term and long-term outcomes. Moreover, more randomized controlled trials comparing the two techniques with rigorous study designs are still essential to evaluate the value of robotic surgery for NSCLC.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 559: 129-134, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940383

RESUMO

Tumor brain metastasis is a severe threat to patients' neurological function, in which microglia may be involved in the process of tumor cell metastasis among nerve cells. Our study focused on the interaction between microglia and breast and lung cancer cells. Changes in the proliferation and migration ability of cocultured tumor cells were examined; synchrotron radiation-based fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIR) was used to detect changes in the structures and contents of biomolecules within the tumor cells. The experimental results showed that the proliferation and migration ability of tumor cells increased after coculture, and the structures and contents of biological macromolecules in tumor cells changed. The absorption peak positions of the amide Ⅱ and amide Ⅰ bands observed for the four kinds of tumor cells changed, and the absorption intensities were significantly enhanced, indicating changes in the secondary structures and contents of proteins in tumor cells, which may be the root cause of the change in tumor cell characteristics. Therefore, the metabolites of microglia may be involved in the progression of tumor cells in the nervous system. In this study, we focused on the interaction between microglia and tumor cells by using SR-FTIR and provided a new understanding of the mechanism of brain metastasis.

5.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) improves with age in childhood. However, it still causes parents to worry that children have flat feet. Due to the lack of a standard to quantitatively assess the arch development in kids at certain age, the pediatricians judge the flat feet by experience, causing many cases to be overtreated. The aim of this study was to plot the distribution of MLA parameters in children. METHODS: Children without lower limb deformity and lower limb pain were recruited from 12 primary schools and kindergartens in Chongqing province-level city. Foot length (FL) and navicular height (NH) was measured manually, arch index (AI) and arch volume (AV) were measured with the Foot Plantar Scanner. Each parameter was measured in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions. Significant differences were also compared between the measurements of consecutive years. RESULTS: This study was the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the MLA parameters of children aged 3-12 years in China. 1744 children (871 girls, 873 boys) participated in this study. FL, NH, AI and AV varied significantly with age in both the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions. These parameters have significant differences between the weighted and non-weighted positions (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The age distribution characteristics of these parameters indicated that the MLA improves with age. The establishment of a developmental scale for the children's MLA is necessary.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805068

RESUMO

Off-farm diversification offers an important pathway out of poverty while health-impaired rural farmers can hardly seize the opportunity in developing countries. This paper investigates how chronic illness shapes livelihood structure and income generation in rural China. Our sample consists of 3850 rural households in Southern China and we rely on instrumental variable regressions to identify causal effects. We find that farmers with chronic illness tend to diversify towards local off-farm employments, rather than migrants, since local off-farm employments are more likely to act in a strategically complementary way to farming. Further analysis shows that income returns of diversification tend to be substantially higher for the health-impaired. While the relationship between diversification and income presents a conventional inverted U shape for the healthy, it is best categorized as upward sloping with diminishing marginal effects for farmers with chronic illness.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Renda , Agricultura , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , População Rural
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2053, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824350

RESUMO

Root development relies on the establishment of meristematic tissues that give rise to distinct cell types that differentiate across defined temporal and spatial gradients. Dissection of the developmental trajectories and the transcriptional networks that underlie them could aid understanding of the function of the root apical meristem in both dicots and monocots. Here, we present a single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing and chromatin accessibility survey of rice radicles. By temporal profiling of individual root tip cells we reconstruct continuous developmental trajectories of epidermal cells and ground tissues, and elucidate regulatory networks underlying cell fate determination in these cell lineages. We further identify characteristic processes, transcriptome profiles, and marker genes for these cell types and reveal conserved and divergent root developmental pathways between dicots and monocots. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of the platform for functional genetic studies by using spatiotemporal modeling to identify a rice root meristematic mutant from a cell-specific gene cohort.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/genética , Arabidopsis/citologia , Agregação Celular , Células Epidérmicas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcrição Genética
8.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 174: 294-316, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895212

RESUMO

The 'one-size-fits-all' approach followed by conventional drug delivery platforms often restricts its application in pharmaceutical industry, due to the incapability of adapting to individual pharmacokinetic traits. Driven by the development of additive manufacturing (AM) technology, three-dimensional (3D) printed drug delivery medical devices have gained increasing popularity, which offers key advantages over traditional drug delivery systems. The major benefits include the ability to fabricate 3D structures with customizable design and intricate architecture, and most importantly, ease of personalized medication. Furthermore, the emergence of multi-material printing and four-dimensional (4D) printing integrates the benefits of multiple functional materials, and thus provide widespread opportunities for the advancement of personalized drug delivery devices. Despite the remarkable progress made by AM techniques, concerns related to regulatory issues, scalability and cost-effectiveness remain major hurdles. Herein, we provide an overview on the latest accomplishments in 3D printed drug delivery devices as well as major challenges and future perspectives for AM enabled dosage forms and drug delivery systems.

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 333: 125188, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901915

RESUMO

The characteristics of anammox granular sludge (AnGS) based on color differentiation, and the regulation mechanism of immobilized fillers in the system were investigated. The results showed that biomass content, EPS and activity of red AnGS (R1) were higher than those of brown AnGS (R2). Moreover, R1 showed nitrification, while R2 showed denitrification. Filamentous bacteria constituted the granule skeleton of R1, while R2 mainly constituted inorganic nucleation and granulation. Additionally, immobilization improved the contribution rate of Anammox, and involved different regulatory mechanisms. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that R1 encapsulation biomass eliminated miscellaneous bacteria and established specific flora, while mixed encapsulated biomass of R1 and R2 re-formed a functional bacterial network, which strengthened interspecies cooperation. The R2 encapsulated biomass and AnAOB copy numbers were inferior and the interspecific cooperation was weak, resulting in an unsatisfactory nitrogen removal performance. These results can strengthen the understanding and optimization of AnGS and its immobilization system.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(9): 4478-4486, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830639

RESUMO

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a very important role in a wide range of biological responses, such as metabolism, inflammation and cell apoptosis. Changes in the levels of SIRT1 have been detected in the brain after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Further, SIRT1 has shown a neuroprotective effect in some models of neuronal death; however, its role and working mechanisms are not well understood in the model of TBI. This study aimed to address this issue. SIRT1-specific inhibitor (sirtinol) and activator (A3) were introduced to explore the role of SIRT1 in cell apoptosis. Results of the study suggest that SIRT1 plays an important role in neuronal apoptosis after TBI by inhibiting NF-κB, IL-6 and TNF-α deacetylation and the apoptotic pathway sequentially, possibly by alleviating neuroinflammation.

11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840456

RESUMO

While a definitive understanding of the molecular pathology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is far from a current reality, it has become increasingly clear that many of the molecular effects of PTSD are sex specific. Women are twice as likely as men to develop PTSD after a traumatic event, and neurobiological evidence suggests that there are structural differences between the brains of males versus females with PTSD. Recent advances in genomic technologies have begun to shed light on the sex-specific molecular determinants of PTSD, which seem to be governed predominantly by dysfunction of GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acidergic) signaling and immune function. We review the current state of the field of PTSD genomics focusing on the effect of sex. We provide an overview of difference in heritability of PTSD based on sex, how difference in gene regulation based on sex impacts the PTSD brain, and what is known about genomic regulation that is dysregulated in specific cell types in PTSD.

12.
Brain Res ; : 147426, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737063

RESUMO

Depression is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although serotonin4 (5-HT4) receptors and the dorsal hippocampus (dHIP) are regarded to be involved in the depression, the mechanism underlying the effects of 5-HT4 receptors in the dHIP on PD-related depression should be further investigated. In the present study, unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) increased the expressions of 5-HT4 receptors and its co-localization with glutamate neurons in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. Additionally, MFB lesions induced depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose preference and forced swimming tests. The activation or blockade of dHIP 5-HT4 receptors produced antidepressant effects in the MFB lesioned rats but not in control rats. Neurochemical results showed no changes of monoamines levels in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral habenula (LHb), and ventral hippocampus (vHIP) in control rats after intra-dHIP injection of 5-HT4 receptors agonist BIMU8 (26 µg/rat), antagonist GR 113808 (16 µg/rat) or GR 113808/BIMU8 (26 µg/16 µg/rat). But in the lesioned rats, BIMU8, GR113808 or GR 113808/BIMU8 injection increased dopamine levels in the striatum, mPFC, LHb, and vHIP and increased 5-HT levels in the LHb. Intra-dHIP injection of GR 113808 or GR 113808/BIMU8 also increased the noradrenaline levels in the mPFC and LHb. All these results suggest that activation or blockade dHIP 5-HT4 receptors produce antidepressant effects in the hemiparkinsonian rats, which may be related to the upregulation of 5-HT4 receptors in the dHIP and the changes of monoamines in the limbic and limbic-related brain regions.

13.
Nature ; 591(7849): 240-245, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692559

RESUMO

Displays are basic building blocks of modern electronics1,2. Integrating displays into textiles offers exciting opportunities for smart electronic textiles-the ultimate goal of wearable technology, poised to change the way in which we interact with electronic devices3-6. Display textiles serve to bridge human-machine interactions7-9, offering, for instance, a real-time communication tool for individuals with voice or speech difficulties. Electronic textiles capable of communicating10, sensing11,12 and supplying electricity13,14 have been reported previously. However, textiles with functional, large-area displays have not yet been achieved, because it is challenging to obtain small illuminating units that are both durable and easy to assemble over a wide area. Here we report a 6-metre-long, 25-centimetre-wide display textile containing 5 × 105 electroluminescent units spaced approximately 800 micrometres apart. Weaving conductive weft and luminescent warp fibres forms micrometre-scale electroluminescent units at the weft-warp contact points. The brightness between electroluminescent units deviates by less than 8 per cent and remains stable even when the textile is bent, stretched or pressed. Our display textile is flexible and breathable and withstands repeated machine-washing, making it suitable for practical applications. We show that an integrated textile system consisting of display, keyboard and power supply can serve as a communication tool, demonstrating the system's potential within the 'internet of things' in various areas, including healthcare. Our approach unifies the fabrication and function of electronic devices with textiles, and we expect that woven-fibre materials will shape the next generation of electronics.

14.
Dev Cell ; 56(7): 1056-1074.e8, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725481

RESUMO

The shoot apical meristem allows for reiterative formation of new aerial structures throughout the life cycle of a plant. We use single-cell RNA sequencing to define the cellular taxonomy of the Arabidopsis vegetative shoot apex at the transcriptome level. We find that the shoot apex is composed of highly heterogeneous cells, which can be partitioned into 7 broad populations with 23 transcriptionally distinct cell clusters. We delineate cell-cycle continuums and developmental trajectories of epidermal cells, vascular tissue, and leaf mesophyll cells and infer transcription factors and gene expression signatures associated with cell fate decisions. Integrative analysis of shoot and root apical cell populations further reveals common and distinct features of epidermal and vascular tissues. Our results, thus, offer a valuable resource for investigating the basic principles underlying cell division and differentiation in plants at single-cell resolution.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1928, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772009

RESUMO

The development of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with low power consumption and high gain will advance many flexible electronics. Here, by combining solution-processed monolayer organic crystal, ferroelectric HfZrOx gating and van der Waals fabrication, we realize flexible OTFTs that simultaneously deliver high transconductance and sub-60 mV/dec switching, under one-volt operating voltage. The overall optimization of transconductance, subthreshold swing and output resistance leads to transistor intrinsic gain and amplifier voltage gain over 5.3 × 104 and 1.1 × 104, respectively, which outperform existing technologies using organics, oxides and low-dimensional nanomaterials. We further demonstrate battery-powered, integrated wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) and pulse sensors that can amplify human physiological signal by 900 times with high fidelity. The sensors are capable of detecting weak ECG waves (undetectable even by clinical equipment) and diagnosing arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Our sub-thermionic OTFT is promising for battery/wireless powered yet performance demanding applications such as electronic skins and radio-frequency identification tags, among many others.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1488-1495, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742946

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have different treatment effects during different seasons due to changes in water quality and temperature. To understand bacterial community structure and diversity dynamics in the WWTPs, this study employed high-throughput sequencing technology during winter and summer. A total of 60 activated sludge samples were collected in five WWTPs in Beijing with different treatment processes in summer (temperature=28℃±2℃, water temperature=24.9℃±1.1℃) and winter (temperature=0℃±3℃, water temperature=16.8℃±1.3℃). The relative abundances of dominant bacterial genera in activated sludge varied significantly between the WWTPs but microbial community structure was typically similar between different treatment units (i.e., the anaerobic tank, anoxic tank, and aerobic tank) at each WWTP. At the same time, different bacteria dominated in winter and summer, when the relative abundance of SJA-15, Ferruginibacter, and Blasocatellaceae was 6.07%, 4.50%, and 4.44% respectively, when the relative abundance of Nitrospira, Methylotenera, and RBG-13-54-9 in winter was 10.17%, 3.96%, and 3.28%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that temperature, total nitrogen (TN), NH4+-N, total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were the main environmental factors affecting microbial community structure, of which temperature had the greatest effect on species composition followed by TN. Furthermore, a predictive analysis of functional enzymes indicated that the abundance of key enzymes involved in the nitrogen cycle in the activated sludge of WWTPs is higher in winter than that in summer. These results show that temperature, water quality, and treatment process affect bacterial community structure (i.e., dominance and abundance) in WWTP activated sludge.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Pequim , Estações do Ano , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
17.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the differences in lncRNAs expression in whole blood between diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients and healthy subjects, and to evaluate the potential value of lncRNAs as a diagnostic biomarker for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: A series of 34 PDR patients, 34 patients with non-proliferative DR (NPDR) and 34 healthy participants were enroled. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were demonstrated using high-throughput sequencing and validated using qRT-PCR. Gene Ontology (GO) was performed to explore the possible biological function of the differentially expressed lncRNAs. lncRNA/mRNA coexpression network was built to determine the targets of differentially expressed lncRNAs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was utilized to evaluate the diagnostic value of lncRNAs for PDR. RESULTS: We identified 175 and 179 differentially expressed lncRNAs in PDR patients compared with control samples and NPDR patients, respectively. GO analysis showed that the various metabolic processes were possibly influenced by these dysregulated lncRNAs. Using the differently expressed lncRNAs data, we further identified 82 overlapping lncRNAs in PDR patients with NPDR and control subjects. Part of these overlapping lncRNAs was significantly correlated with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Wnt signal pathways. ROC curves were constructed for two upregulated lncRNAs and the ROC analysis indicated that both of them had potential diagnostic value and could distinguish PDR from control subjects and NPDR patients. CONCLUSIONS: LncRNAs expression was altered in PDR patients compared with NPDR and control subjects. Moreover, it provides a resource that lncRNAs might be novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for PDR.

18.
Org Lett ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784463

RESUMO

Described herein is a stereo- and regioselective cis-hydrophosphorylation reaction of the internal alkyne of 1,3-enynes that accesses various 1,3-dienes in good isolated yields. The visible-light irradiation of NiCl2(PPh3)2 allows the generation of highly reactive nickel(II)-phosphorus species that subsequently migrate into the internal alkyne of the 1,3-enynes and protonate the resulting vinyl nickel species, leading to various phosphinoyl 1,3-butadienes under mild reaction conditions.

19.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(3): 190-203, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719224

RESUMO

The rapidly developing resistance of cancers to chemotherapy agents and the severe cytotoxicity of such agents to normal cells are major stumbling blocks in current cancer treatments. Most current chemotherapy agents have significant cytotoxicity, which leads to devastating adverse effects and results in a substandard quality of life, including increased daily morbidity and premature mortality. The death receptor of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can sidestep p53-dependent pathways to induce tumor cell apoptosis without damaging most normal cells. However, various cancer cells can develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via different pathways. Therefore, it is critical to find an efficient TRAIL sensitizer to reverse the resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL, and to reinforce TRAIL's ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicines and their active ingredients have shown great potential to trigger apoptotic cell death in TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. This review aims to collate information about Chinese medicines that can effectively reverse the resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL and enhance TRAIL's ability to induce apoptosis. We explore the therapeutic potential of TRAIL and provide new ideas for the development of TRAIL therapy and the generation of new anti-cancer drugs for human cancer treatment. This study involved an extensive review of studies obtained from literature searches of electronic databases such as Google Scholar and PubMed. "TRAIL sensitize" and "Chinese medicine" were the search keywords. We then isolated newly published studies on the mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The name of each plant was validated using certified databases such as The Plant List. This study indicates that TRAIL can be combined with different Chinese medicine components through intrinsic or extrinsic pathways to promote cancer cell apoptosis. It also demonstrates that the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. This provides useful information regarding traditional Chinese medicine treatment, the development of TRAIL-based therapies, and the treatment of cancer.

20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(2): e3001044, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529193

RESUMO

Evolutionarily conserved microRNAs (miRNAs) usually have high copy numbers in the genome. The redundant and specific roles of each member of a multimember miRNA gene family are poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the miR156-SPL-miR172 axis constitutes a signaling cascade in regulating plant developmental transitions. Here, we report the feasibility and utility of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to investigate the functions of all 5 MIR172 family members in Arabidopsis. We show that an Arabidopsis plant devoid of miR172 is viable, although it displays pleiotropic morphological defects. MIR172 family members exhibit distinct expression pattern and exert functional specificity in regulating meristem size, trichome initiation, stem elongation, shoot branching, and floral competence. In particular, we find that the miR156-SPL-miR172 cascade is bifurcated into specific flowering responses by matching pairs of coexpressed SPL and MIR172 genes in different tissues. Our results thus highlight the spatiotemporal changes in gene expression that underlie evolutionary novelties of a miRNA gene family in nature. The expansion of MIR172 genes in the Arabidopsis genome provides molecular substrates for the integration of diverse floral inductive cues, which ensures that plants flower at the optimal time to maximize seed yields.

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