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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134084

RESUMO

A general approach is proposed to large scale synthesize tadpole-like composite Janus nanoparticles (JNPs). Within the head of a starting JNP achieved by electrostatic-mediated intramolecular crosslinking, a free radical initiator is incorporated. By polymerizing vinyl monomers within the head nanoreactor, the composition and performance of the JNPs are broadly tunable.

2.
Macromol Biosci ; : e1900445, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196951

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against B cell antigens are extensively used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The B cell depletion therapy prevents RA symptoms and/or alleviates existing inflammation. The previously established two-step drug-free macromolecular therapeutics (DFMT) is applied in the treatment of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis in a collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis mouse model. DFMT is a B cell depletion strategy utilizing Fab' fragment of anti-CD20 mAb for biorecognition and receptor crosslinking to induce B cell apoptosis. DFMT is composed from two nanoconjugates: 1) bispecific engager, Fab'-MORF1 (anti-CD20 Fab' fragment conjugated with morpholino oligonucleotide MORF1), and 2) a crosslinking (effector) component P-(MORF2)X (N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer grafted with multiple copies of complementary morpholino oligonucleotide MORF2). The absence of Fc fragment has the potential to avoid development of resistance and infusion-related reactions. DFMT produces B cell depletion, keeps the RA score low for more than 100 days, and shows minimal cartilage and bone erosion and inflammatory cell infiltration. Further improvements will be explored to optimize DFMT strategy in autoimmune disease treatment.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137566, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146395

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment has been attracted widespread attention in recent years due to its high efficiency. However, few studies focus on systematical comparison of the downstream AD processes for thermal hydrolyzed sludge and their corresponding microbial community compositions, especially on those at pilot scale and above. Thus, this study systematically compared the long-term performance and microbial communities of two pilot-scale anaerobic reactors for thermal hydrolyzed sludge digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The results presented that mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) showed a better performance of methane production than thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) needed to be longer than 12 days in MAD while 20 days in TAD to achieve the relatively high methane production, which could be explained by that the ammonia nitrogen accumulation especially the free ammonia determined in TAD was higher than that in MAD at all HRTs, emerging an inhibition of methane yield in TAD. High-throughput Illumina sequencing results demonstrated a more diverse microbial community in MAD than that in TAD. TAD was mediated by a suite of thermophiles, such as Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter, while taxa harbored in MAD mostly belonged to Bacteroidetes and relatively broad types of methanogens. In addition, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were the predominant of archaea communities in both digesters probably due to the relatively high concentration of ammonia nitrogen.

4.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 40(1): 30-36, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to describe clinical features of Chinese sporadic Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) caused by rare primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. METHODS: We characterized a Chinese patient cohort with rare primary mtDNA mutations at Beijing Tongren Hospital between 2015 and 2018. The clinical features of these patients were retrospectively recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with LHON who had the selected rare primary mutations, including m.4171C>A (3 patients), m.10197G>A (1 patient), m.14459G>A (4 patients), and m.14502T>C (8 patients), were evaluated. The mean age at disease onset was 15 ± 6 years, and the male to female ratio was 15:1. Of 32 eyes of all patients, 75% (24/32) had a worst Snellen best-corrected visual acuity ≤0.1 (worse than 20/200), while 67% (2/3) who were carrying the m.4171C>A mutation experienced significant visual improvement. In addition, 40% (2/5) of patients with LHON carrying only m.14502T>C mutation had only mild visual impairment. Isolated manifestations of LHON was present in 94% (15/16) of all patients; 1 patient with the m.14459G>A mutation had LHON plus dystonia. Brain MRI T2 short tau inversion recovery sequences demonstrated optic atrophy in 62.5% (10/16); increased T2 signal in the optic nerve was found in 38% (6/16) of patients. The patient with LHON plus dystonia demonstrated optic atrophy and increased T2 signal in basal ganglia. CONCLUSION: Patients with LHON and rare primary mutations have diverse clinical phenotypes. Those with the m.4171C>A mutation are more likely to have a good visual prognosis, while the m.14502T>C mutation may play a synergistic role in disease onset. Increased signal in the optic nerve on MRI is not rare, and this feature should not exclude LHON as the potential cause for optic neuropathy.

5.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048162

RESUMO

The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2 (FP-2) is an attractive antimalarial target. Here, we discovered that the natural compound NP1024 is a nonpeptidic inhibitor of FP-2 with an IC50 value of 0.44 µmol L-1. The most exciting finding is that both in vitro and in vivo, NP1024 directly targets FP-2 in malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes as a natural fluorescent probe, thereby paving the way for an integration of malaria diagnosis and treatment.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 659, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005802

RESUMO

In atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, the nonuniformity in current flow due to its edge states may alter and even dictate the charge transport properties of the entire device. However, the influence of the edge states on electrical transport in 2D materials has not been sufficiently explored to date. Here, we systematically quantify the edge state contribution to electrical transport in monolayer MoS2/WSe2 field-effect transistors, revealing that the charge transport at low temperature is dominated by the edge conduction with the nonlinear behavior. The metallic edge states are revealed by scanning probe microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and first-principle calculations. Further analyses demonstrate that the edge-state dominated nonlinear transport shows a universal power-law scaling relationship with both temperature and bias voltage, which can be well explained by the 1D Luttinger liquid theory. These findings demonstrate the Luttinger liquid behavior in 2D materials and offer important insights into designing 2D electronics.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009387

RESUMO

The separation of mixed C4 olefins is a highly energy-intensive operation in the chemical industry due to the close boiling points of the unsaturated C4 isomers. In particular, the separation of trans/cis-2-butene is among the most challenging separation processes for geometric isomers and is of prime importance to increase the added value of C4 olefins. In this work, we report a series of isostructural gallate-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, M-gallate (M = Ni, Mg, Co), featuring oval-shaped pores, that are ideally suitable for shape-selective separation of trans/cis-2-butene through their differentiation in minimum molecular cross-section size. Significantly, Mg-gallate displays a record high trans/cis-2-butene uptake selectivity of 3.19 at 298 K, 1.0 bar in single-component adsorption isotherms. These gallate-based MOFs not only exhibit the highest selectivity for trans/cis-2-butene separation but also accomplish a highly efficient separation of 1,3-butadiene, 1-butene, and iso-butene. DFT-D study shows that Mg-gallate interacts strongly with trans-2-butene and 1,3-butadiene along with short distances of C···H-O cooperative supramolecular interaction of 2.57-2.83 and 2.45-2.79 Å, respectively. In breakthrough experiments, Mg-gallate not only displays prominent separation performance for trans/cis-2-butene but also realizes the clean separation of a ternary mixture of 1,3-butadiene/1-butene/iso-butene and a binary mixture of 1-butene/iso-butene. This work indicates that M-gallate are industrially promising materials for adsorption separation of geometric isomers of C4 hydrocarbons.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086636

RESUMO

Pediatric porcines have widely been used as substitute for children in biomechanical research. Previous studies have used entire piglet cranium when testing their properties. Here, the piglet craniums from the frontal and parietal locations were carefully dissected into spongy and cortical part, and tensile tests at different strain rates were then conducted on these two bone types. It is found that the elastic modulus, yield stress, and ultimate stress of the cortical bone were all significantly higher than those of the spongy bone. The ultimate strains of the cortical and spongy bone were similar. Overall, the effect of the position on the mechanical properties did not reach significance. Cortical bone strength from the frontal location was slightly higher than that obtained from the parietal location; however, spongy bone did not show this location difference. The mechanical properties of both the cortical and spongy bone are significantly strain-rate dependent. Specifically, the elastic modulus, yield stress, and the ultimate stress of the cortical bone increased by approximately 123%, 63%, and 50%, respectively, with strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 10/s. For spongy bone, increases were approximately 128%, 73%, and 77%, respectively. Ultimate strain decreased by approximately 37% and 7% for cortical and spongy bone, respectively. An elastic-plastic constitutive model incorporating with strain rate based on a combined exponential and logarithmic function was proposed and implemented into LS-DYNA through user-defined material. The developed model and the subroutine code successfully simulated the strain-rate characteristics and the fracture process of the bone samples.

9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 574-584, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014586

RESUMO

Along with rapid offshore and onshore wind power development in modern society, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) is produced extensively in the habits of aquatic organisms. However, the biological effects of ELF-EMF on aquatic organisms are almost sparse. In this study, Onchidium struma without shell was chosen to aim whether ELF-EMF can elicit immune response of mollusk based on immune-related enzyme activities and gene expression through high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Three experimental groups, i.e. ELF-EMF unexposed control group (C), ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 100 µT) exposed E1 group, and ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 500 µT) exposed E2 group, were set, and coelomocytes were collected to analyze. The results showed that total coelomocyte and spherulocyte density in E1 group increased significantly compared to groups C and E2 (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences on amoebocyte and chromatocyte density among groups C, E1 and E2. ELF-EMF exposure could significantly increase immune-related enzyme activities in coelomic fluid of O. struma, including acidic phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, antioxidative capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and polyphenol oxidase (P < 0.05). A total of 54.32 Mb and 55.27 Mb raw reads with average length of 1520 bp were obtained from coelomocytes of O. struma in unexposed and exposed groups, respectively. There were 341 differentially expressed genes (DGEs) between unexposed and exposed groups, including 209 up-regulated and 132 down-regulated unigenes. All the DGEs were allocated to 14 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, and five pathways were associated with immune response, including TLR/TNF/NOD-like receptor/MAPK/Fc epsilon RI signaling pathways. Altogether, short-term (to one week) exposure of O. struma to lower luxy density ELF-EMF (<500 µT) could elicit the immune response, and antioxidant system is recommended as indicators of immunological effects. Hopefully, this study will further provide insights into exploring biomarker for evaluation of the effect of ELF-EMF exposure on aquatic organisms regarding to field density, frequency and exposure duration, and provide good guidance for exploitation and utilization of renewable energy.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069012

RESUMO

We developed an improved self-assembly method to obtain a large-area, high-quality templated monolayer mask using the polystyrene spheres. On the basis of the templated mask, hierarchically ordered Si metastructures with different nanosteps are fabricated using cyclic inductively coupled plasma etching technique. By evaporating a thin gold capping layer on these Si metastructures, their optical properties are comparatively studied using the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy. Our proposed technique is highly promising for fabricating a variety of periodic three-dimensional hierarchically ordered metastructures, which could be further utilized for applications in SERS-based biosensors, optical absorbers, metamaterial/metasurface devices, etc.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6627-6632, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922718

RESUMO

Electrochemical oxidation of Li2O2, i.e., the charging reaction of the aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries (Li-O2 batteries), is significantly influenced by its surface chemistry. Here, the surface species of Li2CO3, widely identified together with Li2O2 at the end of discharge, is investigated to understand its implication for the oxidation of Li2O2. In situ doping Li2O2 with various amounts of Li2CO3 has been obtained by reacting with CO2 gas in a controlled way, and the electrochemical oxidation of the doped Li2O2 is studied with a quantitative differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (DEMS). Instead of a single charging potential plateau and one O2 gas evolution stage for the pristine Li2O2, Li2CO3-doped Li2O2 exhibits two O2/CO2 gas evolution stages and three charging plateaus characterized with the larger overpotential for the initial and final stages. The conductivity of Li2CO3 dopant is invoked to explain the different oxidation behaviors of Li2CO3-doped Li2O2. The DEMS study of the electrochemical oxidation of isotope-labeled Li213CO3 is also conducted to identify the origins of O2 and CO2 evolution during the oxidation of Li2CO3-doped Li2O2. The results reported here provide an improved understanding of the Li2O2 oxidation in the presence of parasitic Li2CO3 species and will contribute to the future development of Li-O2 batteries.

12.
Memory ; 28(2): 285-292, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900048

RESUMO

We tested whether working memory (WM) resources were necessary for the interleaved presentation benefit over blocked presentation in category learning. We examined category learning in the Kornell and Bjork [2008. Learning concepts and categories: Is spacing the "enemy of induction"? Psychological Science, 19(6), 585] artistic style task while participants performed the numerical Stroop task as a dual task in order to interfere with WM maintenance and WM dependent executive functions. In addition, we evaluated whether individual differences in WM capacity (WMC), assessed via complex span tasks, would affect learning. The results revealed a superiority for interleaved presentation in both single-task and dual-task conditions, as well as superior performance for participants with relatively high WMC. Importantly, there was no interaction between the presence of the dual task and interleaving, or WMC and interleaving, indicating that the benefits of interleaving are independent of WM. We also probed participants' metacognitive judgments about whether blocking or interleaving was superior for learning, and found that most participants reported blocking was more effective, contrary to the reality that interleaving led to the best performance. These results support theories of the interleaving effect that are independent of working memory resources and pose a challenge to theories that rely on working memory mediated comparisons of items across trials.

13.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(2): 115, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919598

RESUMO

Core-shell palladium cube@CeO2 (Pd cube@CeO2) nanoparticles are shown to display oxidase-like activity. This is exploited in a method for determination of the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The Pd cube@CeO2 nanoparticles were thermally synthesized from Ce(NO3)3, L-arginine and preformed Pd cube seeds in water. The Pd cube@CeO2 nanoparticles catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by oxygen. This results in the formation of oxidized TMB (oxTMB) with an absorption peak at 652 nm. Ascorbic acid (AA) is generated from the hydrolysis of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) catalyzed by ALP. It can reduce oxTMB to TMB, and this results in a decrease of the absorbance. The method allows for quantitative determination of the activity of ALP in the range from 0.1 to 4.0 U·L-1 and with a detection limit down to 0.07 U·L-1. Endowed with high sensitivity and selectivity, the assay can quantify ALP activity in biological system with satisfactory results. Graphical abstractSchematic illustration of Pd cube@CeO2 core-shell nanoparticles for colorimetric determination of alkaline phosphatase.

14.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(7): 4073-4083, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968423

RESUMO

We have successfully enhanced the performance of commercial supercapacitors that use Japan Kuraray 80F activated carbon and Super-P conductive carbon black as the conductive agent with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) additive. The ratios of conductive carbon black to rGO studied are 3:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1 and 1:0. The enhancement is most pronounced at 15:1, and the specific capacitance being 137.5 F g-1, which is a 23.8% improvement over the 1:0 control. The specific capacitance retention is 70.1% after 10000 cycles. The impedance resistance is also reduced to 1.5 Ω, which is 3.3 times lower than the 1:0 control. Additionally, the rGO additive does not alter the favorable pore size distribution of the primary matrix and successfully preserves its small mesoporous structure, which facilitates facile transport of electrolyte.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(12): 1839-1842, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950946

RESUMO

Oxidative damage of guanine to 8-oxoguanine triggers a partial and variable loss of G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme activity and provides clues to the mechanistic origins of DNAzyme deactivation, which originates from an interplay between decreased G-quadruplex stability, lower hemin affinity and a modification of the nature of hemin binding sites.


Assuntos
DNA Catalítico/metabolismo , DNA Catalítico/química , Quadruplex G , Guanina/química , Guanina/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
16.
J Comp Eff Res ; 9(3): 161-175, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904267

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intravitreal aflibercept compared with macular laser photocoagulation and ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME) in China. Methods: A Markov model was developed to reflect the vision changes in DME patients. Parameters were estimated from VIVID-EAST trial data, published literature and physician surveys. Results: In a 20-year horizon, intravitreal aflibercept was associated with 7.825 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 217,841 Chinese Yuan Renminbi (CNY), laser photocoagulation was associated with 7.189 QALYs and 135,489 CNY, and ranibizumab was associated with 7.462 QALYs and 222,477 CNY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were 129,397 CNY/QALY and -12,774 CNY/QALY for intravitreal aflibercept versus laser photocoagulation and ranibizumab, respectively. Conclusion: Intravitreal aflibercept was considered as a cost-effective strategy for DME when compared with laser photocoagulation; it was considered as a dominant strategy when compared with ranibizumab.

17.
Plant Cell ; 32(1): 226-241, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649122

RESUMO

Age and wounding are two major determinants for regeneration. In plants, the root regeneration is triggered by wound-induced auxin biosynthesis. As plants age, the root regenerative capacity gradually decreases. How wounding leads to the auxin burst and how age and wound signals collaboratively regulate root regenerative capacity are poorly understood. Here, we show that the increased levels of three closely-related miR156-targeted Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, SPL2, SPL10, and SPL11, suppress root regeneration with age by inhibiting wound-induced auxin biosynthesis. Mechanistically, we find that a subset of APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors including ABSCISIC ACID REPRESSOR1 and ERF109 is rapidly induced by wounding and serves as a proxy for wound signal to induce auxin biosynthesis. In older plants, SPL2/10/11 directly bind to the promoters of AP2/ERFs and attenuates their induction, thereby dampening auxin accumulation at the wound. Our results thus identify AP2/ERFs as a hub for integration of age and wound signal for root regeneration.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(5): 4698-4708, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642068

RESUMO

Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), the core downstream effector of the Hippo signaling cascade, was involved in the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and in bone metabolism. However, the regulatory effects and mechanisms of YAP1 on bone-remodeling molecules in osteoblasts under inflammation remain unknown. In this study, YAP1 expression level was downregulated after treatment with inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in MC3T3-E1 cells. The key osteoclastogenic molecules induced by TNF-α, namely, interleukin-6 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand, were suppressed after lentivirus-induced YAP1 overexpression, which dramatically increased the expression level of osteoprotegerin. Conversely, the expression levels of the above factors showed opposite trends in the YAP1 small interfering RNA and YAP1 inhibitor (verteporfin) group. Mechanistically, YAP1 attenuated the TNF-α-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway as revealed by the reduced expression of phosphorylated-p65 and NF-κB reporter activity and the nuclear translocation of p65. Moreover, the expression level of YAP1 suppressed by TNF-α was reversed by berberine in concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our study suggests that YAP1 plays a critical role in the regulation of bone metabolism and is a potential therapeutic target for treating inflammatory bone resorption.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(6): 2273-2278, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743581

RESUMO

Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries are attractive because of their inherent safety, low cost, and high energy density. However, viable cathode materials (such as vanadium oxides) suffer from strong Coulombic ion-lattice interactions with divalent Zn2+ , thereby limiting stability when cycled at a high charge/discharge depth with high capacity. A synthetic strategy is reported for an oxygen-deficient vanadium oxide cathode in which facilitated Zn2+ reaction kinetic enhance capacity and Zn2+ pathways for high reversibility. The benefits for the robust cathode are evident in its performance metrics; the aqueous Zn battery shows an unprecedented stability over 200 cycles with a high specific capacity of approximately 400 mAh g-1 , achieving 95 % utilization of its theoretical capacity, and a long cycle life up to 2 000 cycles at a high cathode utilization efficiency of 67 %. This work opens up a new avenue for synthesis of novel cathode materials with an oxygen-deficient structure for use in advanced batteries.

20.
Bioinformatics ; 36(3): 704-712, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393553

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Gram-positive bacteria have developed secretion systems to transport proteins across their cell wall, a process that plays an important role during host infection. These secretion mechanisms have also been harnessed for therapeutic purposes in many biotechnology applications. Accordingly, the identification of features that select a protein for efficient secretion from these microorganisms has become an important task. Among all the secreted proteins, 'non-classical' secreted proteins are difficult to identify as they lack discernable signal peptide sequences and can make use of diverse secretion pathways. Currently, several computational methods have been developed to facilitate the discovery of such non-classical secreted proteins; however, the existing methods are based on either simulated or limited experimental datasets. In addition, they often employ basic features to train the models in a simple and coarse-grained manner. The availability of more experimentally validated datasets, advanced feature engineering techniques and novel machine learning approaches creates new opportunities for the development of improved predictors of 'non-classical' secreted proteins from sequence data. RESULTS: In this work, we first constructed a high-quality dataset of experimentally verified 'non-classical' secreted proteins, which we then used to create benchmark datasets. Using these benchmark datasets, we comprehensively analyzed a wide range of features and assessed their individual performance. Subsequently, we developed a two-layer Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) ensemble model that integrates several single feature-based models into an overall prediction framework. At this stage, LightGBM, a gradient boosting machine, was used as a machine learning approach and the necessary parameter optimization was performed by a particle swarm optimization strategy. All single feature-based LightGBM models were then integrated into a unified ensemble model to further improve the predictive performance. Consequently, the final ensemble model achieved a superior performance with an accuracy of 0.900, an F-value of 0.903, Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.803 and an area under the curve value of 0.963, and outperforming previous state-of-the-art predictors on the independent test. Based on our proposed optimal ensemble model, we further developed an accessible online predictor, PeNGaRoo, to serve users' demands. We believe this online web server, together with our proposed methodology, will expedite the discovery of non-classically secreted effector proteins in Gram-positive bacteria and further inspire the development of next-generation predictors. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://pengaroo.erc.monash.edu/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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