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1.
Hypertension ; 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of RNA and its regulators have important roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Ythdf2 (YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2) is best known for its role in degrading m6A-modified mRNAs such as Hmox1 mRNA, which leads to alternative activation of macrophages in PH. Recent studies have also linked Ythdf2 to the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). However, its specific roles in PASMCs and downstream targets during the development of PH remain unclear. METHODS: The expression and biological function of Ythdf2 in PASMCs were investigated in human and experimental models of PH. Smooth muscle cell-specific Ythdf2-deficient mice were used to assess the roles of Ythdf2 in PASMCs in vivo. Proteomic analysis, m6A sequencing, and RNA immunoprecipitation analysis were used to screen for potential downstream targets. RESULTS: Ythdf2 was significantly upregulated in human and rodent PH-PASMCs, and smooth muscle cell-specific Ythdf2 deficiency ameliorated PASMC proliferation, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and PH development. Higher expression of Ythdf2 promoted PASMC proliferation and PH by paradoxically stabilizing Myadm mRNA in an m6A-dependent manner. Loss of Ythdf2 decreased the expression of Myadm in PASMCs and pulmonary arteries, both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, silencing Myadm inhibited the Ythdf2-dependent hyperproliferation of PASMCs by upregulating the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel mechanism where the increased expression of Ythdf2 stimulates PH-PASMC proliferation through an m6A/Myadm/p21 pathway. Strategies targeting Ythdf2 in PASMCs might be useful additions to the therapeutic approach to PH.

2.
New Phytol ; 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822646

RESUMO

Cross-kingdom RNA interference (RNAi) is a crucial mechanism in host-pathogen interactions, with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) playing a vital role in signal amplification during RNAi. However, the role of pathogenic fungal RdRP in siRNAs generation and the regulation of plant-pathogen interactions remains elusive. Using deep sequencing, molecular, genetic, and biochemical approaches, this study revealed that VmRDR2 of Valsa mali regulates VmR2-siR1 to suppress the disease resistance-related gene MdLRP14 in apple. Both VmRDR1 and VmRDR2 are essential for the pathogenicity of V. mali in apple, with VmRDR2 mediating the generation of endogenous siRNAs, including an infection-related siRNA, VmR2-siR1. This siRNA specifically degrades the apple intracellular LRR-RI protein gene MdLRP14 in a sequence-specific manner, and overexpression of MdLRP14 enhances apple resistance against V. mali, which can be suppressed by VmR2-siR1. Conversely, MdLRP14 knockdown reduces resistance. In summary, this study demonstrates that VmRDR2 contributes to the generation of VmR2-siR1, which silences the host's intracellular LRR protein gene, thereby inhibiting host resistance. These findings offer novel insights into the fungi-mediated pathogenicity mechanism through RNAi.

3.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 97: 104092, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life stress (ELS) significantly increases the risk of mood disorders and affects the neurodevelopment of the primary cortex. HYPOTHESIS: Modulating the primary cortex through neural intervention can ameliorate the impact of ELS on brain development and consequently alleviate its effects on mood disorders. METHOD: We induced the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in adolescent rats, followed by applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to their primary cortex in early adulthood. To assess the applicability of primary cortex rTMS in humans, we recruited individuals aged 17-25 with mood disorders who had experienced ELS and performed primary cortex rTMS on them. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and depression-related behavioral and clinical symptoms were conducted in both rats and human subjects before and after the rTMS. RESULTS: In animals, fMRI analysis revealed increased activation in the primary cortex of CUMS rats and decrease subcortical activation. Following the intervention of primary cortex rTMS, the abnormal functional activity was reversed. Similarly, in mood disorders patients with ELS, increased activation in the primary cortex and decreased activation in the frontal cortex were observed. During rTMS intervention, similar neuroimaging improvements were noted, particularly decreased activation in the primary cortex. This suggests that targeted rTMS in the primary cortex can reverse the abnormal neuroimaging. CONCLUSION: This cross-species translational study has identified the primary cortex as a key region in mood disorders patients with ELS. Targeting the primary cortex with rTMS can correct abnormal functional activity while improving symptoms. Our study provides translational evidence for therapeutics targeting the ELS factor of mood disorders patients.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 339: 122246, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823914

RESUMO

Biodegradable packaging materials from cellulose are eco-friendly alternatives to traditional petroleum-based plastics. Balancing its mechanical properties as well as protective values (antioxidation, oxygen barrier, etc.) is critical. However, most studies to improve its antioxidation performance were accompanied by sacrificed mechanical properties. In the current work, a series of linear -COOH functionalized phenolic polymers were prepared from phenolic compounds (vanillin, 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde) through a facile tri-component thiol-aldehyde polycondensation. While circumventing the cumbersome protection-deprotection of phenol groups, the one-pot strategy also affords water dispersible polymers for fabricating composites with cellulose nanofibers in an aqueous medium. After introducing 5-10 wt% of the copolymers, a minor soft phase was formed inside the composites, contributing to enhanced mechanical strength, toughness, antioxidation capability, and ultra-violet blocking performance, while its oxygen barrier property was well maintained.

5.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824429

RESUMO

Three new phenylpropanoids, namely (7'R,8'R) guaiacylglycerol 4'-O-ß-D-[6″-O-(4-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-p-hydroxyl-benzoyl]-glucopyranoside (1), (7 R,8R) guaiacylglycerol 8-O-1'-(2',6'-dimethoxy-4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzene (2), (7'R,8'R) guaiacylglycerol 4'-O-ß-D-[6″-O-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxylbenzoyl]-gluco-pyranoside (3), along with one known phenylpropanoid (4) were isolated from the ethanol extract of Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis fresh culm. The structures of all compounds were determined by analysis of UV, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and CD data. All compounds were evaluated for their DPPH radical scavenging activity. Compound 2 (IC50 54.9 µM) and 3 (IC50 77.2 µM) exhibited moderate antioxidant activity compared with two positive control compounds L-ascorbic acid (IC50 15.5 µM) and 2,6-ditertbutyl-4-methyl phenol (IC50 19.1 µM).

6.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(4)2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856169

RESUMO

Transcriptomic analysis across species is increasingly used to reveal conserved gene regulations which implicate crucial regulators. Cross-species analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data provides new opportunities to identify the cellular and molecular conservations, especially for cell types and cell type-specific gene regulations. However, few methods have been developed to analyze cross-species scRNA-seq data to uncover both molecular and cellular conservations. Here, we built a tool called CACIMAR, which can perform cross-species analysis of cell identities, markers, regulations, and interactions using scRNA-seq profiles. Based on the weighted sum models of the conserved features, we developed different conservation scores to measure the conservation of cell types, regulatory networks, and intercellular interactions. Using publicly available scRNA-seq data on retinal regeneration in mice, zebrafish, and chick, we demonstrated four main functions of CACIMAR. First, CACIMAR allows to identify conserved cell types even in evolutionarily distant species. Second, the tool facilitates the identification of evolutionarily conserved or species-specific marker genes. Third, CACIMAR enables the identification of conserved intracellular regulations, including cell type-specific regulatory subnetworks and regulators. Lastly, CACIMAR provides a unique feature for identifying conserved intercellular interactions. Overall, CACIMAR facilitates the identification of evolutionarily conserved cell types, marker genes, intracellular regulations, and intercellular interactions, providing insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of species evolution.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Camundongos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie , Software , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Galinhas , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1404736, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846149

RESUMO

Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a widely-used treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. However, it is common for patients to experience issues with knee joint function and abnormal gait following the surgery. Previous studies have primarily focused on concentric contraction of the quadriceps during TKA, neglecting the potential benefits of eccentric isokinetic training for the hamstrings. This protocol outlines a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial aimed at assessing the impact of eccentric isokinetic training for the hamstring muscles on pain, function, and gait in patients after TKA. Methods and analysis: Fifty participants between the ages of 50 and 80 with knee osteoarthritis undergo unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for the first time. They will be transferred to the rehabilitation department 10-14 days after the operation. The participants are randomly divided into two groups, with 25 participants in each group: the control group and the Hamstring training group. The Control group will receive routine rehabilitation treatment, while the Hamstring training group will receive a combination of routine rehabilitation treatment and isokinetic eccentric training of the hamstring. The intervention will last four consecutive weeks. Both groups will be assessed at three different times: before the intervention, after 4 weeks of intervention, and 4 weeks after the interventions (follow-up). The primary outcome will be functional capacity (TUGT) and Hospital for Special knee Score (HSS). Secondary outcomes will be knee-related health status (isokinetic knee position perception, Peak torque of hamstring strength), pain intensity (Visual analog scale, VAS) and 3D gait analysis. Discussion: The study aims to provide relevant evidence on the effectiveness of eccentric hamstring muscle contraction training in improving knee joint function and walking function after TKA. Clinical trial registration: https://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.html?proj=195544, Identifier ChiCTR2300073497.

8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1312: 342747, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid droplets (LDs) polarity is intricately linked to diverse biological processes and diseases. The visualization of LDs-polarity is of vital importance but challenging due to the lack of high-specificity, high-sensitivity and large-Stokes shift probes for real-time tracking LDs-polarity in biological systems. RESULTS: Four D-π-A based fluorescent probes (TPA-TCF1-TPA-TCF4) have been developed by combining tricyanofuran (an electron acceptor, A) and triphenylamine (an electron donor, D) derivatives with different terminal groups. Among them, TPA-TCF1 and TPA-TCF4 exhibit excellent polar sensitivity, large Stokes shift (≥182 nm in H2O), and efficient LDs targeting ability. In particular, TPA-TCF4 is capable of monitoring the change of LDs-polarity during ferroptosis, inflammation, apoptosis of cancer cell, and fatty liver. SIGNIFICANCE: All these features render TPA-TCF4 a versatile tool for pharmacodynamic evaluation of anti-cancer drugs, in-depth understanding of the biological effect of LDs on ferroptosis, and medical diagnosis of LDs-polarity related diseases.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Ferroptose , Corantes Fluorescentes , Inflamação , Gotículas Lipídicas , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Small ; : e2402819, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837885

RESUMO

Janus-micromotors, as efficient self-propelled materials, have garnered considerable attention for their potential applications in non-agitated liquids. However, the design of micromotors is still challenging and with limited approaches, especially concerning speed and mobility in complex environments. Herein, a two-step spray-drying approach encompassing symmetrical assembly and asymmetrical assembly is introduced to fabricate the metal-organic framework (MOF) Janus-micromotors with hierarchical pores. Using a spray-dryer, a symmetrical assembly is first employed to prepare macro-meso-microporous UiO-66 with intrinsic micropores (<0.5 nm) alongside mesopores (≈24 nm) and macropores (≈400 nm). Subsequent asymmetrical assembly yielded the UiO-66-Janus loaded with the reducible nanoparticles, which underwent oxidation by KMnO4 to form MnO2 micromotors. The micromotors efficiently generated O2 for self-propulsion in H2O2, exhibiting ultrahigh speeds (1135 µm s-1, in a 5% H2O2 solution) and unique anti-gravity diffusion effects. In a specially designed simulated sand-water system, the micromotors traversed from the lower water to the upper water through the sand layer. In particular, the as-prepared micromotors demonstrated optimal efficiency in pollutant removal, with an adsorption kinetic coefficient exceeding five times that of the micromotors only possessing micropores and mesopores. This novel strategy fabricating Janus-micromotors shows great potential for efficient treatment in complex environments.

10.
Water Res ; 259: 121805, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838481

RESUMO

Understanding the structure and activity of activated sludge (AS) microbiome is key to ensuring optimal operation of wastewater treatment processes. While high-throughput metagenomics offers a comprehensive view of AS microbiome, its cost and time demands warrant alternative approaches. This study employed machine learning methods to integrate metabolomic and metagenomic data, enabling predictions of selected microbial abundances from metabolite profiling. Model training relied on rich microbial and metabolite abundance data collected in an intensively sampled AS system, including a period of filamentous bulking, as well as a few other AS systems. Multiple linear regression out-competed other three algorithms in achieving relatively high prediction accuracy (R2 = 0.70±0.02) for the abundances of 10 selected, either keystone or core metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). The model predicted the abundances of filamentous Microtrichaceae and Thiotrichaceae during bulking with an error range of 14-17.8 %. This predictive power extends beyond the specific system studied, showcasing potentials for broader applications across other AS systems. Aspartate, glycine, and folate were the most influential metabolite features contributing to model performance, which were also effective indicators for filamentous bulking, with up to one week of early warning potential. This study pioneers the application of metabolomics for fast, relatively accurate and cost-effective prediction of AS community composition, enabling proactive management of AS systems towards improved efficiency and stability.

11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4744, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834549

RESUMO

Developing mild photocatalytic bromination strategies using sustainable bromo source has been attracting intense interests, but there is still much room for improvement. Full utilization of redox centers of photocatalysts for efficient generation of Br+ species is the key. Herein we report heterogenous organophotocatalytic HBr oxidation coupled with oxygen reduction to furnish Br2 and H2O2 for effective bromination of arenes over Al2O3 supported perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). Mechanism studies suggest that O-vacancy in Al2O3 can provide Lewis-acid-type anchoring sites for O2, enabling unexpected dual-electron transfer from anchored photoexcited PTCDA to chemically bound O2 to produce H2O2. The in-situ generated H2O2 and Br2 over redox centers work together to generate HBrO for bromination of arenes. This work provides new insights that heterogenization of organophotocatalysts can not only help to improve their stability and recyclability, but also endow them with the ability to trigger unusual reaction mode via cooperative catalysis with supports.

13.
Ann Nucl Med ; 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to develop a novel prediction model and risk stratification system that could accurately predict progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Herein, we included 106 individuals diagnosed with NPC, who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning before treatment. They were divided into training (n = 76) and validation (n = 30) sets. The prediction model was constructed based on multivariate Cox regression analysis results and its predictive performance was evaluated. Risk factor stratification was performed based on the nomogram scores of each case, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the model's discriminative ability for high- and low-risk groups. RESULTS: Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that N stage, M stage, SUVmax, MTV, HI, and SIRI were independent factors affecting the prognosis of patients with NPC. In the training set, the model considerably outperformed the TNM stage in predicting PFS (AUCs of 0.931 vs. 0.841, 0.892 vs. 0.785, and 0.892 vs. 0.804 at 1-3 years, respectively). The calibration plots showed good agreement between actual observations and model predictions. The DCA curves further justified the effectiveness of the model in clinical practice. Between high- and low-risk group, 3-year PFS rates were significantly different (high- vs. low-risk group: 62.8% vs. 9.8%, p < 0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was also effective for prolonging survival in high-risk patients (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Herein, a novel prediction model was successfully developed and validated to improve the accuracy of prognostic prediction for patients with NPC, with the aim of facilitating personalized treatment.

14.
Cell Death Differ ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867004

RESUMO

Cancer cells rely on metabolic reprogramming to sustain the prodigious energetic requirements for rapid growth and proliferation. Glutamine metabolism is frequently dysregulated in cancers and is being exploited as a potential therapeutic target. Using CRISPR/Cas9 interference (CRISPRi) screening, we identified TARBP1 (TAR (HIV-1) RNA Binding Protein 1) as a critical regulator involved in glutamine reliance of cancer cell. Consistent with this discovery, TARBP1 amplification and overexpression are frequently observed in various cancers. Knockout of TARBP1 significantly suppresses cell proliferation, colony formation and xenograft tumor growth. Mechanistically, TARBP1 selectively methylates and stabilizes a small subset of tRNAs, which promotes efficient protein synthesis of glutamine transporter-ASCT2 (also known as SLC1A5) and glutamine import to fuel the growth of cancer cell. Moreover, we found that the gene expression of TARBP1 and ASCT2 are upregulated in combination in clinical cohorts and their upregulation is associated with unfavorable prognosis of HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). Taken together, this study reveals the unexpected role of TARBP1 in coordinating the tRNA availability and glutamine uptake during HCC progression and provides a potential target for tumor therapy.

15.
Org Lett ; 26(23): 4868-4872, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832854

RESUMO

A new strategy for facile access to multifunctionalized furans via N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed cross-coupling/cyclization of ynenones with aldehydes has been explored. This protocol features readily obtainable starting materials, mild and metal-free conditions, broad substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, excellent yields, and easy scale-up. Synthetic utility of the protocol has been further corroborated through functionalization of complex substrates and postmodifications of the product.

16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 535, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has greatly improved the utilization of heterosis in crops due to the absence of functional male gametophyte. The newly developed sporophytic D1 type CMS (CMS-D1) rice exhibits unique characteristics compared to the well-known sporophytic CMS-WA line, making it a valuable resource for rice breeding. RESULTS: In this research, a novel CMS-D1 line named Xingye A (XYA) was established, characterized by small, transparent, and shriveled anthers. Histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays conducted on anthers from XYA and its maintainer line XYB revealed that male sterility in XYA is a result of delayed degradation of tapetal cells and abnormal programmed cell death (PCD) of microspores. Transcriptome analysis of young panicles revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in XYA, compared to XYB, were significantly enriched in processes related to chromatin structure and nucleosomes during the microspore mother cell (MMC) stage. Conversely, processes associated with sporopollenin biosynthesis, pollen exine formation, chitinase activity, and pollen wall assembly were enriched during the meiosis stage. Metabolome analysis identified 176 specific differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) during the meiosis stage, enriched in pathways such as α-linoleic acid metabolism, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, and linolenic acid metabolism. Integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data underscored the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathway was significant enriched in XYA during the meiosis stage compared to XYB. Furthermore, levels of JA, MeJA, OPC4, OPDA, and JA-Ile were all higher in XYA than in XYB at the meiosis stage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the involvement of the JA biosynthetic pathway in pollen development in the CMS-D1 line, providing a foundation for further exploration of the molecular mechanisms involved in CMS-D1 sterility.


Assuntos
Oryza , Infertilidade das Plantas , Pólen , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Metaboloma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Meiose
17.
Sci Adv ; 10(24): eado5362, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865464

RESUMO

Spontaneously occurred electrostatic breakdown releases enormous energy, but harnessing the energy remains a notable challenge due to its irregularity and instantaneity. Here, we propose a revolutionary method that effectively harvests the energy of dynamic interfacial electrostatic breakdown by simply imbedding a conductive wire (diameter, 25 micrometers) beneath dielectric materials to regulate the originally chaotic and distributed electrostatic energy resulted from contact electrification into aggregation, effectively transforming mechanical energy into electricity. A point-charge physical model is proposed to explain the power generation process and output characteristics, guide structural design, and enhance output performance. Furthermore, a quantified triboelectric series including 72 dielectric material pairs is established for materials choice and optimization. In addition, a high voltage of over 10 kilovolts is achieved using polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephthalate. This work opens a door for effectively using electrostatic energy, offering promising applications ranging from novel high-voltage power sources, smart clothing, and internet of things.

18.
Redox Biol ; 73: 103208, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, numerous studies have reported the interaction between senescence and oxidative stress in cancer. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive understanding of the precise mechanisms involved. AIM: Therefore, our review aims to summarize the current findings and elucidate by presenting specific mechanisms that encompass functional pathways, target genes, and related aspects. METHODS: Pubmed and Web of Science databases were retrieved to search studies about the interaction between senescence and oxidative stress in cancer. Relevant publications in the reference list of enrolled studies were also checked. RESULTS: In carcinogenesis, oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence acts as a barrier against the transformation of stimulated cells into cancer cells. However, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is positively linked to tumorigenesis. In the cancer progression stage, targeting specific genes or pathways that promote oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence can suppress cancer progression. In terms of treatment, many current clinical therapies combine with novel drugs to overcome resistance and reduce side effects by attenuating oxidative stress-induced senescence. Notably, emerging drugs control cancer development by enhancing oxidative stress-induced senescence. These studies highlight the complacted effects of the interplay between oxidative stress and senescence at different cancer stages and among distinct cell populations. Future research should focus on characterizing the roles of distinct senescent cell types in various tumor stages and identifying the specific components of SASP. CONCLUDSION: We've summarized the mechanisms of senescence and oxidative stress in cancer and provided illustrative figures to guide future research in this area.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Neoplasias , Estresse Oxidativo , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Fenótipo Secretor Associado à Senescência , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Life Sci ; 351: 122820, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857652

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common mental illness with high morbidity and disability. The discovery of laboratory biomarkers has progressed slowly, resulting in suboptimal diagnosis and treatment of AUD. This study aimed to identify promising biomarkers, as well as the potential miRNA-mRNA networks associated with AUD pathogenesis. RNA sequencing was performed on plasma-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) from AUD patients and healthy controls (HCs) to harvest miRNAs expression profiles. Machine learning (ML) models were built to screen characteristic miRNAs, whose target mRNAs were analyzed using TargetScan, miRanda and miRDB databases. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets (GSE181804 and GSE180722) providing postmortem hippocampal gene expression profiles of AUD subjects were mined. A total of 247 differentially expressed (DE) plasma-derived sEVs miRNAs and 122 DE hippocampal mRNAs were obtained. Then, 22 overlapping sEVs miRNAs with high importance scores were gained by intersecting 5 ML models. As a result, we established a putative sEVs miRNA-hippocampal mRNA network that can effectively distinguish AUD patients from HCs. In conclusion, we proposed 5 AUD-representative sEVs miRNAs (hsa-miR-144-5p, hsa-miR-182-5p, hsa-miR-142-5p, hsa-miR-7-5p, and hsa-miR-15b-5p) that may participate in the pathogenesis of AUD by modulating downstream target hippocampal genes. These findings may provide novel insights into the diagnosis and treatment of AUD.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the role of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in clinically node-negative (cN0) sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to define the optimal radiation fields for ENI. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed 368 cN0 SNSCC patients treated between 2009 and 2021. The study evaluated the impact of ENI on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), regional-failure-free survival (RFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), along with the coverage areas of ENI. RESULTS: The majority of patients underwent surgery (n=316, 85.9%), with 75% (n=276) having tumors in the maxillary sinus or nasal cavity and 67.7% (n=249) presenting with T4 disease. Additionally, 32.3% (n=119) of the tumors were poorly differentiated. The 5-year OS, PFS, RFS, and DMFS rates were 59.3%, 54.0%, 57.6%, and 58.8%, respectively. ENI was performed in 217 patients (59%), with sixteen experiencing neck relapse during follow-up. While ENI did not enhance survival rates, it significantly reduced the overall regional-failure rate (7.9% vs. 1.8%, χ2 =7.98, p<0.01) and the cumulative incidence of regional failure (p=0.045). Additionally, the subgroups with maxillary sinus origin (2.33% vs. 13.51%, p=0.025), T4 stage (1.80% vs. 8.54%, p=0.028), and poor differentiation (2.44% vs. 13.51%, p=0.029) had higher cumulative incidences of regional failure in patients without ENI. No significant difference was observed in survival and regional failure rates between patients treated with ENI to levels Ib and II with or without level III, as well as between cN0 patients with non-midline crossing lesions receiving unilateral or bilateral ENI. CONCLUSIONS: Despite no survival benefit, ENI significantly decreases the regional failure rate in cN0 SNSCC patients. For primary lesions not crossing the midline, ipsilateral ENI targeting levels Ib and II proves to be an effective strategy.

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