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1.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The optimal treatment strategy of combining systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is controversial. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicities of induction chemotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IC-RT) versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in NPC. METHODS: Of 448 stage II-IVb NPC patients treated with IC-RT or CCRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary outcome was overall survival, which was analysed by using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 66 months (interquartile range, 46-84 months). There was no statistically significant difference in the estimated 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distance metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS) between IC-RT group and CCRT group (OS: 89.5% vs 91.7%, P = .568; PFS: 85.2% vs 87.5%, P = .615; DMFS: 90.9% vs 91.7%, P = .847; LRFS: 92.0% vs 96.9%, P = .104). In the multivariate analysis, the treatment group (IC-RT vs CCRT) was not an independent prognostic factor for OS, PFS, DMFS and LRFS. Less advanced tumour stage and lymph node stage were predictive of higher OS. EBV-DNA level was an independent prognostic factor that was only significantly associated with LRFS. CONCLUSIONS: IC-RT achieves similar survival outcomes and treatment-related toxicities as CCRT in OS, PFS, DMFS and LRFS for patients with NPC. We need multicentre randomised controlled trials to reconfirm our data.

2.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826105

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Levornidazole is a novel nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent active against anaerobes. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of levornidazole after single and multiple oral doses of levornidazole tablets in healthy Chinese subjects and propose the dosing regimen based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with a single ascending dose (250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg) and multiple doses of 500 mg levornidazole q12h for 7 days. Food effect on PK and absolute bioavailability were investigated at the 500 mg dose level. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine the PK parameters of levornidazole. The probability of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fraction of response (CFR) were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation to predict the clinical efficacy of levornidazole tablets. RESULTS: Plasma concentration reached peak about 0.5 h after single dose (250-1500 mg) of levornidazole tablets. The maximal concentration (Cmax) and exposure (AUC0-∞) of levornidazole increased linearly with dose. High-fat diet did not affect the absorption extent of levornidazole tablets. The absolute oral bioavailability of levornidazole tablets was 98.3% ± 7.6%, associated with large apparent volume of distribution (48.68 ± 4.92 l) and long half-life (11.93 ± 1.28 h). The urinary excretion of levornidazole was 7.99%. Levornidazole, administered at either 500 mg q12h or 750 mg q24h, achieved a CFR > 95.4% and PTA > 99% for B. fragilis (minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1.0 mg/l) infections. CONCLUSION: Levornidazole tablets are absorbed rapidly and completely and distributed extensively with a long half-life and low urinary excretion after a single dose or multiple doses in healthy Chinese subjects. Levornidazole tablets can be taken with or without food. Levornidazole tablets 500 mg q12h and 750 mg q24h are expected to achieve the desired efficacy in B. fragilis infections. CLINICAL TRAIL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number CTR20160786 at http://www.chinadrugtrials.org.cn/ .

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800648

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a significant threat to people's lives. Compliance with preventive behaviors, recommended by public health authorities, is essential for infection control. In the remission stage, one year after the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, we advanced a moderated parallel mediation model of the link between risk perception and compliance with preventive behaviors as well as a serial mediation model of the link between optimism and compliance with preventive behaviors, explaining the roles of various psychosocial factors in these associations. In January 2021, 200 participants under 50 years of age, located in 80 Chinese cities, participated in an online survey assessing risk perception, compliance with preventive behaviors, fear, anxiety, political trust, government dependency, and dispositional optimism. The results showed that the effect of risk perception on compliance with preventive behaviors was mediated by political trust and fear, and was moderated by government dependency. Anxiety and fear serially mediated the effect of optimism on compliance with preventive behaviors. Our study provided implications for future research to reduce negative emotions, strengthen confidence in the government, and sustain moderate government dependency accompanied by individual self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125039, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845317

RESUMO

Rice straw (RS) is one of abundant agricultural waste for biogas production in China. However, the low carbon-methane conversion rate limits its wide application due to the low degradation rate of RS during fermentation. This study investigated the effect of acclimatized paddy soil microorganisms using swine wastewater on degradation of RS before anaerobic digestion. The total organic carbon, reducing sugar and NH4+-N content of paddy soil + RS + swine wastewater (PRS) (653.50 mg/L) was higher than that of other groups after 19 days. The carboxymethyl cellulose activity (4.01 IU), cellulose/lignin ratio (5.25) and the degradation rate of lignin (51.96%) in PRS were higher than those of other groups. The Firmicutes (21.02%), Chloroflexi (12.48%), Proteobacteria (20.92%), and Bacteroidetes (25.78%) were the main fermentation phyla in PRS during acclimatization. These results indicated that the acclimatized paddy soil microorganisms using swine wastewater (SW) could degrade RS more efficiently.

5.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808436

RESUMO

The unavoidable noise often present in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, such as speckle noise, negatively impacts the subsequent processing of SAR images. Further, it is not easy to find an appropriate application for SAR images, given that the human visual system is sensitive to color and SAR images are gray. As a result, a noisy SAR image fusion method based on nonlocal matching and generative adversarial networks is presented in this paper. A nonlocal matching method is applied to processing source images into similar block groups in the pre-processing step. Then, adversarial networks are employed to generate a final noise-free fused SAR image block, where the generator aims to generate a noise-free SAR image block with color information, and the discriminator tries to increase the spatial resolution of the generated image block. This step ensures that the fused image block contains high resolution and color information at the same time. Finally, a fused image can be obtained by aggregating all the image blocks. By extensive comparative experiments on the SEN1-2 datasets and source images, it can be found that the proposed method not only has better fusion results but is also robust to image noise, indicating the superiority of the proposed noisy SAR image fusion method over the state-of-the-art methods.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 385, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837179

RESUMO

Human antigen R (HuR) is a widespread RNA-binding protein involved in homeostatic regulation and pathological processes in many diseases. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease and acute cardiovascular events. However, the role of HuR in atherosclerosis remains unknown. In this study, mice with smooth muscle-specific HuR knockout (HuRSMKO) were generated to investigate the role of HuR in atherosclerosis. HuR expression was reduced in atherosclerotic plaques. As compared with controls, HuRSMKO mice showed increased plaque burden in the atherosclerotic model. Mechanically, HuR could bind to the mRNAs of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 and AMPKα2, thus increasing their stability and translation. HuR deficiency reduced p-AMPK and LC3II levels and increased p62 level, thereby resulting in defective autophagy. Finally, pharmacological AMPK activation induced autophagy and suppressed atherosclerosis in HuRSMKO mice. Our findings suggest that smooth muscle HuR has a protective effect against atherosclerosis by increasing AMPK-mediated autophagy.

7.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 235: 110234, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813288

RESUMO

Histamine plays a central role in various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation is a novel effector mechanism of neutrophils to defend against various stimuli. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the role of histamine on bovine NET formation, and examined its preliminary molecular mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that histamine had no significant influence on PMNs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) viability. Confocal microscopy analyses identified NET structures by co-localizing the main components of NETs, and NET quantification revealed that histamine-triggered NETs were released in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 proteins were significantly elevated in histamine-challenged PMNs. By applying functional inhibitors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase), ERK and p38, histamine-triggered NETs were markedly reduced, indicating their importance in histamine-triggered NET formation. Our findings described histamine-triggered NET formation, and revealed its potential molecular mechanisms via NADPH oxidase, ERK and p38 pathways. This is the first study to depict histamine-triggered NET formation, which could provide a new insight into histamine-related diseases.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e214846, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825837

RESUMO

Importance: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as a first-line therapy for patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma has been shown to improve overall and progression-free survival compared with standard sorafenib treatment. However, because of the high cost of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, assessment of its value by considering both efficacy and cost is needed. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab vs sorafenib for patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma from a US payer perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation was performed from June through September 2020, with a 6-year investment time period. Hypothetical patients were male and female adults 18 years or older who had a diagnosis of locally advanced metastatic or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by histologic or clinical features. Main Outcomes and Measures: Health care costs (adjusted to 2020 US dollars), life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab vs sorafenib were examined using a partitioned survival model. One-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to examine model uncertainty. The model was also used to estimate price reductions of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab that would achieve more favorable cost-effectiveness. Results: In the base case analysis of a hypothetical sample of 424 patients, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was associated with an increase of 0.623 life-years (1.840 vs 1.218 life-years) and 0.484 QALYs (1.412 vs 0.928 QALYs) and with an incremental cost of $156 210 per patient compared with sorafenib. The ICER was $322 500 per QALY (5th to 95th percentile, $149 364-$683 744 per QALY), with 0.6% and 5.1% chance of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $100 000 and $150 000 per QALY, respectively. The ICER never decreased below $150 000 per QALY in the 1-way sensitivity analyses. To achieve more favorable cost-effectiveness under the thresholds of $150 000 to $100 000 per QALY, the prices of atezolizumab and bevacizumab would need to be reduced by 37% to 47%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this economic evaluation, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was associated with clinical benefit but was not cost-effective compared with sorafenib for first-line treatment of unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma from a US payer perspective. A substantial reduction in price for atezolizumab plus bevacizumab would be needed to achieve favorable cost-effectiveness for this new therapy.

9.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 620-627, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848891

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many individuals test positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA after recovering from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but the incidence of reactivation is unknown. We, therefore, estimated the incidence of reactivation among individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and determined its predictors. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with COVID-19 were followed up for at least 14 days after two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test results obtained ≥24 h apart, and the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 reactivation was assessed. RESULTS: Of the 109 patients, 29 (27%) experienced reactivation, and seven (24%) of these were symptomatic. The mean period for the real-time PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 from negative to positive results was 17 days. Compared with patients without reactivation, those with reactivation were significantly younger and more likely to have a lymphocyte count of <1500/µL (odds ratio [OR]: 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.94) and two or fewer symptoms (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07-0.55) during the initial episode. CONCLUSION: Risk-stratified surveillance should be conducted among patients who have recovered from COVID-19.

10.
Foods ; 10(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809138

RESUMO

A massive amount of chalaza with nearly 400 metric tons is produced annually as waste in the liquid-egg industry. The present study aimed to look for ways to utilize chalaza as a natural emulsifier for high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) at the optimal production conditions to expand the utilization of such abundant material. To the author's knowledge, for the first time, we report the usage of hen egg chalaza particles as particulate emulsifiers for Pickering (HIPEs) development. The chalaza particles with partial wettability were fabricated at different pH or ionic strengths by freeze-drying. The surface electricity of the chalaza particles was neutralized when the pH was adjusted to 4, where the chalaza contained a particle size around 1500 nm and held the best capability to stabilize the emulsions. Similarly, the chalaza reaches proper electrical charging (-6 mv) and size (700 nm) after the ionic strength was modified to 0.6 M. Following the characterization of chalaza particles, we successfully generated stable Pickering HIPEs with up to 86% internal phase at proper particle concentrations (0.5-2%). The emulsion contained significant stability against coalescence and flocculation during long term storage due to the electrical hindrance raised by the chalaza particles which absorbed on the oil-water interfaces. Different rheological models were tested on the formed HIPEs, indicating the outstanding stability of such emulsions. Concomitantly, a percolating 3D-network was formed in the Pickering HIPES stabilized by chalaza which provided the emulsions with viscoelastic and self-standing features. Moreover, the current study provides an attractive strategy to convert liquid oils to viscoelastic soft solids without artificial trans fats.

11.
Head Neck ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy and toxicities among different induction chemotherapy regimens in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for literature up to September 16, 2019. Two researchers independently selected the articles, evaluated the quality of the literature, and extracted and analyzed the data. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in survival outcomes, mucositis, or gastrointestinal adverse events among the four regimens. The probability of GP being the best induction scheme to improve OS was 43.7%. The completion rate of concurrent chemotherapy with the GP regimen was significantly reduced than the other three regimens. CONCLUSIONS: The survival outcomes of the four regimens in LA-NPC were comparable. Considering only OS, GP showed the highest probability of improving the survival of LA-NPC, while it also affected the completion of concurrent chemotherapy.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(12): 14015-14027, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751882

RESUMO

Cancer vaccines have attracted increasing attention for their application in tumor immunotherapy. DNA vaccines are one of them that have been proven very promising with the advantages of safety, rapid design, and low cost. However, the low stability, ineffective cell internalization, and low immunostimulation hinder their wide application. Thus, developing targeted and safe systems to effectively deliver DNA vaccines becomes a vital step. In this study, we report the development of mannose- and bisphosphonate (BP)-modified calcium phosphate (CP) nanoparticles (NPs) as efficient vaccine delivery vehicles by targeting C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using a model antigen ovalbumin (OVA)-encoded plasmid DNA (pOVA) as a model vaccine, we demonstrate that mannose-modified and BP-stabilized CP (MBCP) nanoparticles are mono-dispersed for enhanced uptake by APCs and subsequently induce OVA antigen presentation and immunostimulation. Mice immunized with MBCP-pOVA nanovaccines show a significantly stronger anti-OVA antibody response with a quicker IgG1 and IgG2a antibody production than unmodified NPs. Moreover, MBCP-pOVA immunization significantly inhibits the growth of OVA-expressing E.G7 tumor cells in C57BL/6J mice. Our data collectively suggest that the modifications to enhance the stability and targeting ability of MBCP NPs are essential for effective delivery of DNA vaccines and promote robust anti-tumor immunity.

13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 133, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and protein interactions play essential roles in various physiological and pathological processes. The experimental methods used for predicting ncRNA-protein interactions are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for computational methods to accurately and efficiently predict ncRNA-protein interactions. RESULTS: In this work, we presented an ensemble deep learning-based method, EDLMFC, to predict ncRNA-protein interactions using the combination of multi-scale features, including primary sequence features, secondary structure sequence features, and tertiary structure features. Conjoint k-mer was used to extract protein/ncRNA sequence features, integrating tertiary structure features, then fed into an ensemble deep learning model, which combined convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn dominating biological information with bi-directional long short-term memory network (BLSTM) to capture long-range dependencies among the features identified by the CNN. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods under five-fold cross-validation, EDLMFC shows the best performance with accuracy of 93.8%, 89.7%, and 86.1% on RPI1807, NPInter v2.0, and RPI488 datasets, respectively. The results of the independent test demonstrated that EDLMFC can effectively predict potential ncRNA-protein interactions from different organisms. Furtherly, EDLMFC is also shown to predict hub ncRNAs and proteins presented in ncRNA-protein networks of Mus musculus successfully. CONCLUSIONS: In general, our proposed method EDLMFC improved the accuracy of ncRNA-protein interaction predictions and anticipated providing some helpful guidance on ncRNA functions research. The source code of EDLMFC and the datasets used in this work are available at https://github.com/JingjingWang-87/EDLMFC .


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Camundongos , Redes Neurais de Computação , RNA não Traduzido , Software
14.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 32(4): 31, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751254

RESUMO

No effective treatment has been established for nerve dysfunction caused by spinal cord injury (SCI). Orderly axonal growth at the site of spinal cord transection and creation of an appropriate biological microenvironment are important for functional recovery. To axially guiding axonal growth, designing a collagen/silk fibroin scaffold fabricated with 3D printing technology (3D-C/SF) emulated the corticospinal tract. The normal collagen/silk fibroin scaffold with freeze-drying technology (C/SF) or 3D-C/SF scaffold were implanted into rats with completely transected SCI to evaluate its effect on nerve repair during an 8-week observation period. Electrophysiological analysis and locomotor performance showed that the 3D-C/SF implants contributed to significant improvements in the neurogolical function of rats compared to C/SF group. By magnetic resonance imaging, 3D-C/SF implants promoted a striking degree of axonal regeneration and connection between the proximal and distal SCI sites. Compared with C/SF group, rats with 3D-C/SF scaffold exhibited fewer lesions and disordered structures in histological analysis and more GAP43-positive profiles at the lesion site. The above results indicated that the corticospinal tract structure of 3D printing collagen/silk fibroin scaffold improved axonal regeneration and promoted orderly connections within the neural network, which could provided a promising and innovative approach for tissue repair after SCI.

15.
Org Lett ; 23(6): 2114-2119, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689374

RESUMO

An unprecedented 19-membered allenic macrolide archangiumide (1) was discovered from the myxobacterium Archangium violaceum SDU8 by integrating NMR-based metabolic profiling and genome mining. Its biosynthesis pathway was proposed based on the architectural analysis of the encoding trans-AT PKS genes and validated by isotope labeling. The methodology of combing 2D NMR-based metabolic profiling and bioinformatics-aided structure prediction, as exemplified by this study, is anticipated to improve discovery efficiency of a broader range of microbial "dark matter".

16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 592: 448-454, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714763

RESUMO

Lithium sulfur batteries (LSBs) with high energy density hold some promising applications in the wearable and flexible devices. However, it has been still challenging to develop a simple and feasible approach to prepare flexible LSB cathodes with both robust mechanical strength. Herein, flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes with controllable thicknesses are successfully fabricated via a facile blade-coating method. Due to the strong cohesion among CNTs bundles and the well-designed structure, the flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes are demonstrated to be with a combination of impressive mechanical strength and enhanced electrochemical performance. For the flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes with the sulfur mass loading of 4 mg cm-2, the areal capacity is close to 3.0 mA h cm-2, and the breaking stress is up to 5.59 MPa with 7.77% strain. Meanwhile, the pouch cell exhibits excellent cyclic stability at both flat/bent conditions. All demonstrate that the flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes may satisfy the demands of practical application. Moreover, this methodology is suitable for designing other flexible battery electrodes, such as flexible Si@C-CNTs anodes for lithium ion batteries, flexible P@C-CNTs anodes for sodium/potassium ion batteries, etc.

17.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(1): 75-86, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the association of folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6 from diet and supplements with diabetes and prediabetes in U.S. adults. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2016 to conduct this crosssectional study. Diabetes and prediabetes status were based on self-report, medication use, fasting plasma glucose levels (FPG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the two hours plasma glucose (PG) value during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6 and diabetes. RESULTS: After adjustment for the potential confounders, compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs (odds ratios) with 95%CIs (confidence intervals) of diabetes for the highest quartile intakes of folate and vitamin B-6 were 0.65 (0.47-0.90) and 0.61 (0.42-0.89), the OR with 95% CI of diabetes for the third quartile of dietary vitamin B-12 was 0.76 (0.60-0.97). Further excluded participants with diabetes history, the ORs with 95% CI of newly diagnosed diabetes were 0.60 (0.39-0.94), 0.84 (0.58-1.23), and 0.65 (0.43-0.98) for the third quartile of dietary folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6, respectively. A linear inverse relationship was found between vitamin B12 and diabetes, and a nonlinear inverse relationship was found between dietary folate, dietary vitamin B6 and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6 intake were inversely associated with the risk of diabetes in US adults.

18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(3): e25838, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity accompanied by lower levels of health-related physical fitness (HRPF) is a major threat to public health both internationally and locally. Children with intellectual disability, especially adolescents, have a higher risk of being overweight/obese and having poor HRPF levels. Therefore, more interventions are needed to help this population attain their optimal health levels. However, there has been relatively limited research on this population compared with on their typically developing peers. OBJECTIVE: The proposed study aims to fill this knowledge gap by developing and examining the success of a physical activity (PA) intervention for the target population. METHODS: The proposed study will be a 12-week, school-based randomized controlled trial. The participants (N=48) will be recruited from special schools for students with mild intellectual disability and then randomly allocated to either the intervention group (IG) or the wait-list control group (CG). During the intervention period, the participants in the IG will receive a fun game-based moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) training program (2 sessions/week, 60 minutes/session, for a total of 24 sessions). The intensity of the activities will increase in a progressive manner. Participants in the CG will receive no program during the study period, but the same PA program will be provided to them after the completion of the study. To observe and evaluate the sustaining effects of the intervention, follow-up testing will be scheduled for the participants 12 weeks after the intervention concludes. The study outcomes will include primary outcomes (obesity- and fitness-related outcomes) and a secondary outcome (blood pressure). All of the measurements will be taken at 3 time points. After the follow-up tests, the same PA training program will be provided to the participants in the CG. RESULTS: This study is ongoing. The participants were recruited from October 2020 to November 2020. The total duration of the study is 13 months. Study results are expected at the end of 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed study is expected to reduce obesity and improve HRPF levels in children with intellectual disability. If proven effective, the intervention will be made accessible to more special schools and mainstream schools with students with intellectual disability. Furthermore, the study can serve as an example for international researchers, policy makers, and members of the public who are seeking to tackle the problem of obesity and poor HRPF among children with intellectual disability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04554355; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04554355. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/25838.

19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 603-612, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774465

RESUMO

Dendrobium candidum stems are used as Chinese medicine and functional food. Red stems of D. candidum are rich in anthocyanins, which attract pollinator insects, protect the plants against environmental stress, and improve human health. The regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis and stem color differentiation in D. candidum are not fully understood. Using transcriptome profiling, we identified a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (DcTT8) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in D. candidum stems. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine pigment contents and compositions in red and green stems, revealing that cyanidin is responsible for the red color. DcTT8 could bind the DcF3'H and DcUFGT promoters and finely regulate DcF3'H and DcUFGT expression. Our data indicate that DcTT8 participates in anthocyanin biosynthesis and offers novel insights into the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in D. candidum.

20.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754415

RESUMO

Estuaries connect rivers with the ocean and are considered transition regions due to the continuous inputs from rivers. Microbiota from different sources converge and undergo succession in these transition regions, but their assembly mechanisms along environmental gradients remain unclear. Here, we found that salinity had a stronger effect on planktonic than on benthic microbial communities, and the dominant planktonic bacteria changed more distinctly than the dominant benthic bacteria with changes in salinity. The planktonic bacteria in the brackish water came mainly from seawater, which was confirmed in the laboratory, whereas the benthic bacteria were weakly affected by salinity, which appeared to be a mixture of the bacteria from riverine and oceanic sediments. Benthic bacterial community assembly in the sediments was mainly controlled by homogeneous selection and almost unaffected by changes in salinity, the dominant assemblage processes for planktonic bacteria changed dramatically along the salinity gradient, from homogeneous selection in freshwater to drift in seawater. Our results highlight that salinity is the key driver of estuarine microbial succession and that salinity is more important in shaping planktonic than benthic bacterial communities in the Yellow River estuary.

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