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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(18)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143680

RESUMO

Electric-field control of spin dynamics is significant for spintronic device applications. Thus far, effectively electric-field control of magnetic order, magnetic damping factor and spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been studied in magnetic materials, but the electric field control of spin relaxation still remains unexplored. Here, we use ionic liquid gating to control spin-related property in the ultra-thin (4 nm) heavy metal (HM) platinum (Pt) and ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG) heterostructure. It is found that the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), spin relaxation time and spin diffusion length can be effectively controlled by the electric field. The anomalous Hall resistance is almost twice as large as at 0 voltage after applying a small voltage of 5.5 V. The spin relaxation time can vary by more than 50 percent with the electric field, from 41.6 to 64.5 fs. In addition, spin relaxation time at different gate voltage follows the reciprocal law of the electron momentum scattering time, which indicates that the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is dominant in the Pt/YIG system. Furthermore, the spin diffusion length can be effectively controlled by an ionic gate, which can be well explained by voltage-modulated interfacial spin scattering. These results help us to improve the interface spin transport properties in magnetic materials, with great contributions to the exploration of new physical mechanisms and spintronics device.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115697, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087846

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Borneol (BO) represents a global trade-driven spreading of ethnic medicine traceable to the classical age, and won its name specific to its original habitat "Borneo". BO shows broad spectral pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, inducing resuscitation, and widely applied in the protection and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, used singly or mostly in compound formulae. AIM OF THE STUDY: Three stereoscopic configuration forms of BO, l-borneol (LB), d-borneol (DB), and dl-borneol (synthetic, SB), are formulated in broad spectral application, yet their diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties caused by configurations, and accurate assay and quality assessment are often overlooked. A systematic review and analysis of lumped studies and applications is necessary to clarify the relationship between configuration and its original plant, analysis method, activity and side effect BO in order to guarantee the efficacy and safety during their application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The public databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure were referenced to summarize a comprehensive research and application data of BO published up to date. RESULTS: This review includes following sections: History and current status, Stereochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Quality assessment. In the section of history, the changes of the plant origins of the two isomeric forms of natural BO were described respectively, and the methods for synthetic racemate SB were also included. The section of stereochemistry deals with the stereoscopic structures, physical/chemical property, optical rotation of the three forms of BO, as well as the main related substances like isoborneol, obtained in SB via chemical transformation of camphor and turpentine oil. In the section of Ethnopharmacology, pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetics of different forms of BO were discussed. BO is usually used as an "adjuvant", by enhancing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and intervene the ADME/T pathways of the other ingredients in the same formulation. In the section of quality assessment, the analytical methods, including chromatography, especially GC, and spectroscopy were addressed on the chiral separation of the coexisting enantiomers. CONCLUSIONS: This overview systematically summarized three forms of BO in terms of history, stereochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and quality assessment, which, hopefully, can provide valuable information and strategy for more reasonable application and development of the globally reputed ethnic medicine borneol with characteristics in stereochemistry.

3.
Front Genet ; 13: 896064, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046240

RESUMO

Tumor microenvironment and heterogeneity play vital roles in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). In the past decade, a considerable amount of single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) studies have been published in the fields of oncology and immunology, which improve our knowledge of the GC immune microenvironment. However, much uncertainty still exists about the relationship between the macroscopic and microscopic data in transcriptomics. In the current study, we made full use of scRNA-seq data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE134520) to identify 25 cell subsets, including 11 microenvironment-related cell types. The MIF signaling pathway network was obtained upon analysis of receptor-ligand pairs and cell-cell interactions. By comparing the gene expression in a wide variety of cells between intestinal metaplasia and early gastric cancer, we identified 64 differentially expressed genes annotated as immune response and cellular communication. Subsequently, we screened these genes for prognostic clinical value based on the patients' follow-up data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. TMPRSS15, VIM, APOA1, and RNASE1 were then selected for the construction of LASSO risk scores, and a nomogram model incorporating another five clinical risk factors was successfully created. The effectiveness of least absolute shrinkage and selection operator risk scores was validated using gene set enrichment analysis and levels of immune cell infiltration. These findings will drive the development of prognostic evaluations affected by the immune tumor microenvironment in GC.

5.
Chemosphere ; : 136590, 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167200

RESUMO

Although the single role of selenium (Se) or phosphorus (P) in regulating the As contamination of rice plants has been reported in some studies, the combined impacts of Se and P on the fate of As and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, the uptake, translocation, and biotransformation of As mediated by Se were investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings hydroponically cultured with P-normal and P-deficient conditions. The results showed Se addition stimulated the uptake of arsenite and arsenate by 15.6% and 30.7%, respectively in P-normal condition, and such effect was more profound in P-deficient condition with the value of 43.8% and 70.8%. However, regardless of Se addition, P-deficiency elevated the As uptake by 47.0%-92.1% for arsenate but had no obvious effects for arsenite. Accompanying with the As transfer factorShoot/Root reduced by 74.5%-80.2% and 71.1%-85.7%, Se addition decreased the shoot As content by 65.8%-69.7% and 59.6%-73.1%, respectively, in the arsenite- and arsenate-treated rice plants. Relative to the corresponding treatments of P-normal condition, P-deficiency reduced the As transfer factorShoot/Root by 38.9%-52.5% and thus decreasing the shoot As content by 35.2%-42.5% in the arsenite-treated plants; while the opposite impacts were observed in the arsenate-treated plants, in which the shoot As content was increased by 22.4%-83.7%. The analysis results of As species showed As(III) was dominant in both shoots (68.9%-75.1%) and roots (94.9%-97.2%), and neither Se addition nor P-deficiency had obvious impacts on the interconversion between As(III) and As(V). Our results demonstrate the regulating roles of Se in As accumulation mainly depend on P regimes and the specific rice tissues, but the effects of P-deficiency on the fate of As were influenced by the form of As added to the culture.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16081, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167893

RESUMO

Borehole extraction is the basic method used for control of gases in coal mines. The quality of borehole sealing determines the effectiveness of gas extraction, and many influential factors result in different types of borehole leaks. To accurately identify the types of leaks from boreholes, characteristic parameters, such as gas concentration, flow rate and negative pressure, were selected, and new indexes were established to identify leaks. A model based on an improved naive Bayes framework was constructed for the first time in this study, and it was applied to analyse and identify boreholes in the 229 working face of the Xiashijie Coal Mine. Eight features related to single hole sealing sections were taken as parameters, and 144 training samples from 18 groups of real-time monitoring time series data and 96 test samples from 12 groups were selected to verify the accuracy and speed of the model. The results showed that the model eliminated strong correlations between the original characteristic parameters, and it successfully identified the leakage conditions and categories of 12 boreholes. The identification rate of the new model was 98.9%, and its response time was 0.0020 s. Compared with the single naive Bayes algorithm model, the identification rate was 31.8% better, and performance was 55% faster. The model developed in this study fills a gap in the use of algorithms to identify types of leaks in boreholes, provides a theoretical basis and accurate guidance for the evaluation of the quality of the sealing of boreholes and borehole repairs, and supports the improved use of boreholes to extract gases from coal mines.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Gases , Teorema de Bayes
7.
Clin Invest Med ; 45(3): E47-54, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) is a common chronic glomerulonephritis and the main cause of end-stage renal diseases. Recent evidence suggests that mannan binding lectin associated serine proteases 2 (MASP2) is related to IgAN; therefore, we investigated the expression and significance of MASP2 in serum and urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) in patients with IgAN. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with IgAN and 17 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. UEVs were extracted by ultracentrifugation. The separation by ultra-high-speed centrifuge was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Candidate internal references (TSG101, CD9, flotillin, ß-actin and GAPDH) were identified by western blotting in the control group, and the expression of MASP2 in the UEVs was compared. The levels of MASP2 in the serum and UEVs in the IgAN and control groups were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: TEM and NTA results demonstrated that UEVs were successfully extracted. Western blotting results confirmed that TSG101 was suitable as an internal reference for this study. Compared with the control group, the IgAN group showed positive expression of MASP2. MASP2 levels in the UEVs, determined by ELISA, showed significant differences between IgAN and control groups, which were significantly positively correlated with the level of urinary microalbumin. CONCLUSIONS: The level of MASP2 in UEVs was related to IgAN and shows promise as a biomarker for evaluating the severity of renal injury and prognosis of IgAN, thereby helping to elucidate the role of MASP2 in the mannan-binding lectin pathway.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Lectina de Ligação a Manose , Actinas , Biomarcadores , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose , Serina Proteases
8.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(9): e698-e706, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055334

RESUMO

The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement assembled an international working group of venous thromboembolism experts and patient representatives to develop a standardised minimum set of outcomes and outcome measurements for integration into clinical practice and potentially research to support clinical decision making and benchmarking of quality of care. 15 core outcomes important to patients and health-care professionals were selected and categorised into four domains: patient-reported outcomes, long term consequences of the disease, disease-specific complications, and treatment-related complications. The outcomes and outcome measures were designed to apply to all patients with venous thromboembolism aged 16 years or older. A measurement tool package was selected for inclusion in the core standard set, with a minimum number of items to be measured at predefined timepoints, which capture all core outcomes. Additional measures can be introduced to the user by a cascade opt-in system that allows for further assessment if required. This set of outcomes and measurement tools will facilitate the implementation of the use of patient-centred outcomes in daily practice.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Consenso , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077023

RESUMO

The YfeA gene, belonging to the well-conserved ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system Yfe, encodes the substrate-binding subunit of the iron, zinc, and manganese transport system in bacteria. As a potential vaccine candidate in Glaesserella parasuis, the functional mechanisms of YfeA in the infection process remain obscure. In this study, vaccination with YfeA effectively protected the C56BL6 mouse against the G. parasuis SC1401 challenge. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that YfeA is highly conserved in G. parasuis, and its metal-binding sites have been strictly conserved throughout evolution. Stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with YfeA verified that toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 participated in the positive transcription and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. The activation of TLR2 and TLR4 utilized the MyD88/MAL and TRIF/TRAM pairs to initiate TLRs signaling. Furthermore, YfeA was shown to stimulate nuclear translocation of NF-κB and activated diverse mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades, which are specific to the secretion of particular cytokine(s) in murine macrophages. Separate blocking TLR2, TLR4, MAPK, and RelA (p65) pathways significantly decreased YfeA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, YfeA-stimulated RAW 264.7 produces the pro-inflammatory hallmark, reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, our findings indicate that YfeA is a novel pro-inflammatory mediator in G. parasuis and induces TLR2 and TLR4-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages through P38, JNK-MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Haemophilus parasuis , Proteínas Periplásmicas de Ligação , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Periplásmicas de Ligação/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
10.
J Drug Target ; : 1-11, 2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093744

RESUMO

Dissolving microneedles, the promising vehicles for transdermal delivery, are incapable of directly loading hydrophobic components that limit the application of transdermal drug delivery. Microemulsion holds great potential in the solubilisation of water-insoluble drugs but is limited by the high epidermal retention. In this study, we fabricated microemulsion-incorporated dissolving microneedles co-loading celecoxib and α-linolenic acid (Cel-MEs@MNs) for enhancing osteoarthritis (OA) therapy via synergistic anti-inflammation and potent transdermal delivery. Cel-MEs@MNs composed of celecoxib & α-linolenic acid-coloaded microemulsion (Cel-MEs) and hyaluronic acid-based microneedles (MNs) can be completely dissolved in 90 s with a particle size of ∼30 nm. Each microneedle array with a hardness exceeding 30 N contained 57.9 ± 2.5 µg of celecoxib and 442.5 ± 24.2 µg of α-linolenic acid. The 8 h-cumulative transdermal of celecoxib from Cel-MEs@MNs was 89.2 ± 5.1 µg celecoxib/cm2, which is 2.98-fold higher than that from Cel-MEs. Combinational celecoxib and α-linolenic acid with a weight ratio of 1/5 can synergistically induce M1-like macrophage to M2 repolarization, reduce M1-like macrophages-resulted chondrocytes apoptosis, and lower serum prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2). Notably, Cel-MEs@MNs amplified such collaborated anti-inflammatory effects. More importantly, in the treatment of OA-bearing rat models, Cel-MEs@MNs with a half-dose of celecoxib and α-linolenic acid significantly shrunk the paw swelling, reduced inflammatory cytokines, and improved cartilage damage compared with the oral administration of celecoxib and α-linolenic acid, as well as transdermal administration of Cel-MEs. Such an integrational strategy of microemulsion-incorporated dissolving MNs offers the feasibility of combinational celecoxib and α-linolenic acid in transdermal permeation and boosted OA therapy.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921613, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052062

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports the ability of eugenol to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and anti-inflammatory in vitro and in vivo; however, whether eugenol alleviates virus-mediated intestinal barrier damage and inflammation remains a mystery. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus, is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in piglets and significantly impacts the global swine industry. Here, we found that eugenol could alleviate TGEV-induced intestinal functional impairment and inflammatory responses in piglets. Our results indicated that eugenol improved feed efficiency in TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol not only increased serum immunoglobulin concentration (IgG) but also significantly decreased serum inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α) in TGEV-infected piglets. In addition, eugenol also significantly decreased the expression of NF-κB mRNA and the phosphorylation level of NF-κB P65 protein in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol increased villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum, and decreased serum D-lactic acid levels. Importantly, eugenol increased tight junction protein (ZO-1) and mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporter-related genes (GluT-2 and CaT-1) in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Meanwhile, compared with TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, treatment with eugenol reduced the cell cytopathic effect, attenuated the inflammatory response. Interestingly, eugenol did not increase the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin in IPEC-J2 cells. However, western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that eugenol restored TGEV-induced down-regulation of ZO-1 and Occludin, while BAY11-7082 (The NF-κB specific inhibitor) enhanced the regulatory ability of eugenol. Our findings demonstrated that eugenol attenuated TGEV-induced intestinal injury by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. Eugenol may offer some therapeutic opportunities for coronavirus-related diseases.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Eugenol/farmacologia , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ocludina , RNA Mensageiro , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/fisiologia
12.
Nano Lett ; 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130299

RESUMO

Achieving superradiance in solids is challenging due to fast dephasing processes from inherent disorder and thermal fluctuations. Perovskite quantum dots (QDs) are an exciting class of exciton emitters with large oscillator strength and high quantum efficiency, making them promising for solid-state superradiance. However, a thorough understanding of the competition between coherence and dephasing from phonon scattering and energetic disorder is currently unavailable. Here, we present an investigation of exciton coherence in perovskite QD solids using temperature-dependent photoluminescence line width and lifetime measurements. Our results demonstrate that excitons are coherently delocalized over 3 QDs at 11 K in superlattices leading to superradiant emission. Scattering from optical phonons leads to the loss of coherence and exciton localization to a single QD at temperatures above 100 K. At low temperatures, static disorder and defects limit exciton coherence. These results highlight the promise and challenge in achieving coherence in perovskite QD solids.

13.
J Med Chem ; 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136378

RESUMO

Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death. Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) is the necroptosis executor, and it is involved in various diseases such as tissue damage and neurodegeneration-related diseases. Here, we report the development of novel MLKL inhibitors with a uracil nucleus through scaffold morphing from our previously reported xanthine MLKL inhibitor TC13172. After a rational structure-activity relationship study, we obtained the highly potent compounds 56 and 66. Mechanism studies revealed that these compounds partially inhibited MLKL oligomerization and significantly inhibited MLKL translocation to the membrane. Compared with TC13172, 56 and 66 have a different mode of action and, importantly, their reaction rate with glutathione is more than 150-fold lower. This reduction in potential off-target effects and cell toxicity makes this series an attractive starting point for further drug development for MLKL-related disease treatments.

14.
Anal Chem ; 94(37): 12836-12844, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062507

RESUMO

Hydrazine is widely used in industrial and agricultural production, but excessive hydrazine possesses a serious threat to human health and environment. Here two new ratiometric fluorescence probes, DDP and DDC, with the hydroxyl coumarin chalcone unit as the sensing site are developed, which can achieve colorimetric and ratiometric recognition for hydrazine with good sensitivity, excellent selectivity, and anti-interference. The calculated fluorescence limits of detections are 0.26 µM (DDC) and 0.14 µM (DDP). The ratiometric fluorescence response to hydrazine is realized through the adjustment of donor and receptor units in coumarin conjugate structure terminals, accompanied by fluorescence peak shift about 200 nm (DDC, 188 nm; DDP, 229 nm). Stronger electropositivity in the carbon-carbon double bond is helpful to the first phase addition reaction between the probe and hydrazine. Higher phenol activity in the hydroxyl coumarin moiety will facilitate the following dihydro-pyrazole cyclization reaction. In addition, both of these probes realized the convenient detection of hydrazine vapor. The probes were also successfully applied to detect hydrazine in actual water samples, different soils, and living cells.


Assuntos
Chalcona , Chalconas , Carbono , Cumarínicos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Hidrazinas/química , Radical Hidroxila , Fenóis , Pirazóis , Solo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Água
15.
Cell Res ; 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151216

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy against T cell malignancies faces major challenges including fratricide between CAR-T cells and product contamination from the blasts. Allogeneic CAR-T cells, generated from healthy donor T cells, can provide ready-to-use, blast-free therapeutic products, but their application could be complicated by graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and host rejection. Here we developed healthy donor-derived, CD7-targeting CAR-T cells (RD13-01) with genetic modifications to resist fratricide, GvHD and allogeneic rejection, as well as to potentiate antitumor function. A phase I clinical trial (NCT04538599) was conducted with twelve patients recruited (eleven with T cell leukemia/lymphoma, and one with CD7-expressing acute myeloid leukemia). All patients achieved pre-set end points and eleven proceeded to efficacy evaluation. No dose-limiting toxicity, GvHD, immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity or severe cytokine release syndrome (grade ≥ 3) were observed. 28 days post infusion, 81.8% of patients (9/11) showed objective responses and the complete response rate was 63.6% (7/11, including the patient with AML). 3 of the responding patients were bridged to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With a median follow-up of 10.5 months, 4 patients remained in complete remission. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation was observed in several patients, and one died from EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Expansion of CD7-negative normal T cells was detected post infusion. In summary, we present the first report of a Phase I clinical trial using healthy donor-derived CD7-targeting allogeneic CAR-T cells to treat CD7+ hematological malignancies. Our results demonstrated the encouraging safety and efficacy profiles of the RD13-01 allogeneic CAR-T cells for CD7+ tumors.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 221: 1345-1355, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115451

RESUMO

The pausing event in RNA molecule folding that occurs during the cotranscription process plays a critical role in cellular RNA function. Based on Conformational Resampling through Kinetic Relaxation (CRKR), this paper investigates a method to reveal the specifics of pausing for RNA cotranscriptional folding of 117-nucleotide E. coli SRP RNA and 73-nucleotide HIV-1 TAR RNA. It can be inferred from the results that pausing events generate valid cotranscriptional conformational rearrangement to protect the function structures and influence the folding pathway, which is remarkably consistent with the experimental results. Additionally, different transcription speeds result in different levels of protection capability. The folding pathway or conformational rearrangement can also be affected by a change in transcription speed after pausing site. These findings illuminate that RNAs with functional structures undergo complex rearrangement folding in pausing events, and different RNAs prefer different speeds for specific folding pathways. Moreover, pausing in particular circumstances can be employed to regulate the population of final functional structures. In conclusion, this paper offers fresh perspectives on the pausing event in the cotranscriptional folding of RNAs.

17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139913

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea due to oxidative stress in the piglet intestine, is a major cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. However, limited interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of TGEV. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic activity of eugenol in TGEV-induced intestinal oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our data show that eugenol supplementation protects intestine and IPEC-J2 cells from TGEV-induced damage. Mechanistically, eugenol reduces TGEV-induced oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells by reducing reactive oxygen species levels. Interestingly, eugenol also inhibits TGEV-induced intestinal cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that eugenol prevents TGEV-induced intestinal oxidative stress by reducing ROS-mediated damage to antioxidant signaling pathways. Therefore, eugenol may be a promising therapeutic strategy for TGEV infection.

18.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126321

RESUMO

In transport, the topological Hall effect (THE) presents itself as nonmonotonic features (or humps and dips) in the Hall signal and is widely interpreted as a sign of chiral spin textures, like magnetic skyrmions. However, when the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is also present, the coexistence of two AHEs could give rise to similar artifacts, making it difficult to distinguish between genuine THE with AHE and two-component AHE. Here, we confirm genuine THE with AHE by means of transport and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy, in which magnetic skyrmions are directly observed, and find that genuine THE occurs in the transition region of the AHE. In sharp contrast, the artifact "THE" or two-component AHE occurs well beyond the saturation of the "AHE component" (under the false assumption of THE + AHE). Furthermore, we distinguish artifact "THE" from genuine THE by three methods: (1) minor loops, (2) temperature dependence, and (3) gate dependence. Minor loops of genuine THE with AHE are always within the full loop, while minor loops of the artifact "THE" may reveal a single loop that cannot fit into the "AHE component". In addition, the temperature or gate dependence of the artifact "THE" may also be accompanied by a polarity change of the "AHE component", as the nonmonotonic features vanish, while the temperature dependence of genuine THE with AHE reveals no such change. Our work may help future researchers to exercise caution and use these methods for careful examination in order to ascertain the genuine THE.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(37): 17209-17218, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084308

RESUMO

Developing conjugated three-dimensional (3D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) still remains an extremely difficult task due to the lack of enough conjugated 3D building blocks. Herein, condensation between an 8-connected pentiptycene-based D2h building block (DMOPTP) and 4-connected square-planar linkers affords two 3D COFs (named 3D-scu-COF-1 and 3D-scu-COF-2). A combination of the 3D homoaromatic conjugated structure of the former building block with the 2D conjugated structure of the latter linking units enables the π-electron delocalization over the whole frameworks of both COFs, endowing them with excellent conductivities of 3.2-3.5 × 10-5 S cm-1. In particular, the 3D rigid quadrangular prism shape of DMOPTP guides the formation of a twofold interpenetrated scu 3D topology and high-connected permanent porosity with a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 2340 and 1602 m2 g-1 for 3D-scu-COF-1 and 3D-scu-COF-2, respectively, ensuring effective small molecule storage and mass transport characteristics. This, in combination with their good charge transport properties, renders them promising sulfur host materials for lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) with high capacities (1035-1155 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C, 1 C = 1675 mA g-1), excellent rate capabilities (713-757 mA h g-1 at 5.0 C), and superior cycling stability (71-83% capacity retention at 2.0 C after 500 cycles), surpassing the most of organic LSB cathodes reported thus far.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175725

RESUMO

Understanding households' attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for clean heating can provide a scientific basis for decision-makers to assess the potential to develop clean heating, choose heating methods, and formulate subsidy standards in the region. In this paper, the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method-modified by the spike model-was used to better estimate the actual WTP of households through a sample survey of 456 households in rural areas of Yongcheng City, China, in 2021. The factors influencing attitudes and WTP were examined to reveal mechanisms of accepting clean heating. The results showed that 94.96% of households were willing to pay for clean heating. The annual WTP was 1071 yuan per household, more than eight times the current heating cost. Factors that affect clean heating attitudes do not necessarily affect the WTP. Specifically, gender, length of time spent living at home, and family income had significant influences on WTP, whereas the educational level, adaptive perceptions in relation to environmental perceptions, and the recognition variables for gender equality in energy consumption had a significant impact on attitudes. It is worth noting that elderly people and females were identified as vulnerable groups in the implementation of clean heating.

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