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2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242702, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the data reported in the studies for comparison of osteopontin (OPN) levels in tuberculosis and healthy participants, and to discuss whether OPN could be extended to disease diagnosis, severity assessment and therapeutic effect monitering. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WanFang databases. The pooled risk estimates were shown in standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for OPN levels. The random effect model was used according to the test of heterogeneity among studies. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression models were performed to identify the possible sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: 17 retrospective studies with 933 tuberculosis participants and 786 healthy controls were finally included in this article. In the primary meta-analysis, higher serum/plasma OPN levels were found in tuberculosis patients (SMD = 2.58, 95%CI = 2.09~3.08, P<0.001). Besides, pooled results from positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining and imaging-severe tuberculosis group demonstrated higher OPN concentrations (SMD = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.58~1.21, P<0.001; SMD = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.90~1.33, P<0.001; respectively), and OPN levels decreased after two months of standard anti-tuberculosis therapy (SMD = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.36~2.85, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum/plasma OPN levels may be associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis, while further well-designed studies are needed. Moreover, OPN could be considered as a potential biomarker for tuberculosis surveillance and severity assessment.


Assuntos
Osteopontina/sangue , Tuberculose/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viés de Publicação , Publicações/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escarro/metabolismo , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PBL approach has been widely used in many Chinese universities over the past decade. However, the effects of PBL approach on medical psychology education in China are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the PBL approach was superior to the lecture-based teaching method in the context of the medical psychology curriculum in China. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to confirm the effectiveness of PBL in Chinese medical psychology. Corresponding databases were searched for available studies, where data were extracted to calculated Hedges' g and its 95% confidence interval in total and subgroup analyses. Subgroup analyses were also carried out. RESULTS: Nine studies with 551 cases and 496 controls were identified. The total examination scores of students in the PBL approach group were significantly higher compared with students in the traditional lecture-based teaching group under the random effect model (Hedges' g = 1.510, 95%CI 0.792-2.227, p<0.001). Subgroup analyses based on major and school system exhibited similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supported the notion that the PBL approach may be applicable to Chinese medical psychology education.

4.
J Int Med Res ; 48(11): 300060520969331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vein graft restenosis (VGR), which appears to be caused by dyslipidemia following vascular transplantation, seriously affects the prognosis and long-term quality of life of patients. METHODS: This study analyzed the genetic data of restenosis (VGR group) and non-stenosis (control group) vessels from patients with coronary heart disease post-vascular transplantation and identified hub genes that might be responsible for its occurrence. GSE110398 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A repeatability test for the GSE110398 dataset was performed using R language. This included the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), enrichment analysis via Metascape software, pathway enrichment analysis, and construction of a protein-protein interaction network and a hub gene network. RESULTS: Twenty-four DEGs were identified between VGR and control groups. The four most important hub genes (KIR6.1, PCLP1, EDNRB, and BPI) were identified, and Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that KIR6.1 and BPI were significantly correlated with VGR. KIR6.1 could also sensitively predict VGR (0.9 < area under the curve ≤1). CONCLUSION: BPI and KIR6.1 were differentially expressed in vessels with and without stenosis after vascular transplantation, suggesting that these genes or their encoded proteins may be involved in the occurrence of VGR.

5.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(3): 115246, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most observational studies identify viral or bacterial pathogens in 50% or less of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we previously demonstrated that a multi-test bundle (MTB) detected a potential pathogen in 73% of patients. This study compares detection rates for potential pathogens with the MTB versus the Biofire® Pneumonia FilmArray® panel (BPFA) multiplex PCR platform and presents an approach for integrating BPFA results as a foundation for subsequent antibiotic stewardship (AS) activities. METHODS: Between January 2017 to March 2018, all patients admitted for CAP were enrolled. Patients were considered evaluable if all elements of the MTB and the BPFA were completed, and they met other a priori inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was the percentage of potential pathogens detected using the MTB (8 viral and 6 bacterial targets) versus the BPFA (8 viral and 18 bacterial targets). Blood and sputum cultures were performed on all patients. Two or more procalcitonin (PCT) levels assisted clinical assessments as to whether detected bacteria were invading or colonizing. RESULTS: Of 585 enrolled patients, 274 were evaluable. A potential viral pathogen was detected in 40.5% with MTB versus 60.9% of patients with BPFA with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 9.00 (4.12 to 23.30) p<0.01. A potential bacterial pathogen was identified in 66.4% with the MTB vs 75.5% with the BPFA odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.09 (1.24 to 3.59), p 0.003). Low PCT levels helped identify detected bacteria as colonizers.

6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111646, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181928

RESUMO

The seabed off North West Europe contains much unexploded ordnance (UXO), posing a hazard to offshore developments such as windfarms. The typical removal method is through high-order detonation of a donor charge placed adjacent to the UXO. This method poses a risk of injury or death to marine mammals and other fauna from the high sound levels produced. This paper describes a controlled field experiment to compare the sound produced by high-order detonations with a low-order disposal method called deflagration, which uses a shaped charge of modest size, is less energetic, and offers reduced environmental impact from lower acoustic output. The results demonstrate a substantial reduction over high order detonation, with the peak sound pressure level and sound exposure level being more than 20 dB lower for the deflagration, and with the acoustic output depending only on the size of the shaped charge (rather than the size of the UXO).


Assuntos
Acústica , Som , Europa (Continente)
7.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 171, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218341

RESUMO

Human trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) have been confirmed to play a cardioprotective role in heart failure. However, whether trophoblast stem cell-derived exosomes (TSC-Exos) can protect cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin (Dox)-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, TSC-Exos were isolated from the supernatants of human trophoblasts using the ultracentrifugation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. In vitro, primary cardiomyocytes were subjected to Dox and treated with TSC-Exos, miR-200b mimic or miR-200b inhibitor. Cellular apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. In vivo, mice were intraperitoneally injected into Dox to establish a heart failure model. Then, different groups of mice were administered either PBS, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vector, AAV-miR-200b-inhibitor or TSC-Exos via tail vein injection. Then, the cardiac function, cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group were evaluated, and the downstream molecular mechanism was explored. TSC-Exos and miR-200b inhibitor both decreased primary cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Similarly, mice receiving TSC-Exos and AAV-miR-200b inhibitor exhibited improved cardiac function, accompanied by reduced apoptosis and inflammation. The bioinformatic prediction and luciferase reporter results confirmed that Zeb1 was a downstream target of miR-200b and had an antiapoptotic effect. TSC-Exos attenuated doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury by playing antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory roles. The underlying mechanism could be an increase in Zeb1 expression by the inhibition of miR-200b expression. In summary, this study sheds new light on the application of TSC-Exos as a potential therapeutic tool for heart failure.

8.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 164, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNAs) and hypoxia have been found to play the key roles in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expressions and functions of the specific circRNAs in regulating hypoxia-involved CRC metastasis, and the circRNAs that are relevant to regulate HIF-1α levels in CRC remain elusive. METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of circRNAs and mRNA in CRC cells and tissues. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze the location of circ-ERBIN. Function-based experiments were performed using circ-ERBIN overexpression and knockdown cell lines in vitro and in vivo, including CCK8, colony formation, EdU assay, transwell, tumor growth and metastasis models. Mechanistically, luciferase reporter assay, western blots and immunohistochemical stainings were performed. RESULTS: Circ-Erbin was highly expressed in the CRC cells and Circ-Erbin overexpression facilitated the proliferation, migration and metastasis of CRC in vitro and in vivo. Notably, circ-Erbin overexpression significantly promoted angiogenesis by increasing the expression of hypoxia induced factor (HIF-1α) in CRC. Mechanistically, circ-Erbin accelerated a cap-independent protein translation of HIF-1α in CRC cells as the sponges of miR-125a-5p and miR-138-5p, which synergistically targeted eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1(4EBP-1). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncover a key mechanism for circ-Erbin mediated HIF-1α activation by miR-125a-5p-5p/miR-138-5p/4EBP-1 axis and circ-ERBIN is a potential target for CRC treatment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Provide a progress report updating our long-term quality improvement collaboration focused on major morbidity reduction in extremely premature infants 23-27 weeks. METHODS: 10 Vermont Oxford Network (VON) neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (the POD) sustained a structured alliance: (A) face-to-face meetings, site visits and teleconferences, (B) transparent process and outcomes sharing, (C) utilisation of evidence-based potentially better practice toolkits, (D) family integration and (E) benchmarking via a composite mortality-morbidity score (Benefit Metric). Morbidity-specific toolkits were employed variably by each NICU according to local priorities. The eight major VON morbidities and the risk-adjusted Benefit Metric were compared in two epochs 2010-2013 versus 2014-2018. RESULTS: 5888 infants, mean (SD) gestational age 25.8 (1.4) weeks, were tracked. The POD Benefit Metric significantly improved (p=0.03) and remained superior to the aggregate VON both epochs (p<0.001). Four POD morbidities significantly improved through 2018 - chronic lung disease (48%-40%), discharge weight <10th percentile (32%-22%), any late infection (19%-17%) and periventricular leukomalacia (4%-2%). In epoch 2, 34% of survivors had none of the eight major morbidities, while 36% had just one. Mortality did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Inter-NICU collaboration, process and outcomes sharing and potentially better practice toolkits sustain improvement in 23-27 week morbidity rates, notably chronic lung disease, extrauterine growth restriction and the lowest zero-or-one major morbidity rate reported by a quality improvement collaboration. Unrevealed biological and cultural variables affect morbidity rates, countless remain unmeasured, thus duplication to other quality improvement groups is challenging. Understanding intensive care as innumerable interactions and constant flux that defy convenient linear constructs is fundamental.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(13): 131806, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034473

RESUMO

The XENON1T collaboration has observed an excess in electronic recoil events below 5 keV over the known background, which could originate from beyond-the-standard-model physics. The solar axion is a well-motivated model that has been proposed to explain the excess, though it has tension with astrophysical observations. The axions traveling from the Sun can be absorbed by the electrons in the xenon atoms via the axion-electron coupling. Meanwhile, they can also scatter with the atoms through the inverse Primakoff process via the axion-photon coupling, which emits a photon and mimics the electronic recoil signals. We found that the latter process cannot be neglected. After including the keV photon produced via the inverse Primakoff process in the detection, the tension with the astrophysical constraints can be significantly reduced. We also explore scenarios involving additional new physics to further alleviate the tension with the astrophysical bounds.

11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9485398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908926

RESUMO

Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development has been characterized by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which contributes to angiogenesis via cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Quercetin, one of the most common and well-researched flavonoids and abundant in vegetables and fruits, has beneficial effects in inhibiting angiogenesis. This study investigated the antiangiogenic effects of quercetin on experimental aneurysms. Methods: We utilized the in vivo AAA mouse model induced by the periaortic application of CaCl2 to examine the effectiveness of quercetin in blocking angiogenesis. Quercetin was administered at 60 mg/kg once daily on the day of the AAA induction and then continued for 6 weeks. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was used as the positive control. Results: Our results demonstrated that quercetin significantly attenuated aneurysm growth in AAA mice and medial neovascularization. Accordingly, quercetin decreased the expression of proangiogenic mediators, including VEGF-A, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and vascular endothelial cadherin. Quercetin treatment also inhibited the expression of COX-2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). It was also found that quercetin-3-glucuronide, a major quercetin metabolite, downregulated the expression of COX-2, HIF-1α, VEGF-A, and matrix metalloproteinase activities in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from AAA mice. Conclusion: Quercetin attenuates neovascularization during AAA growth, and this effect is mediated via the inhibition of COX-2, which decreases HIF-1α/VEGF signaling-related angiogenesis.

12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3533-3538, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893541

RESUMO

To explore the general characteristics of adverse drug reactions/adverse events(ADR/AE) in patients after using Shujin Jianyao Pills, and explore risk warning signals, this study analyzed 166 cases of ADR/AE reports of Shujin Jianyao Pills collected from 2005 to 2017 based on the National Center for ADR Monitoring spontaneous reporting system(SRS). And the descriptive statistical method was used to analyze general characteristics. The results showed that among the 166 ADR/AE cases, 106 cases were female patients, accounting for 63.86%. Middle-aged and elderly people aged 45 to 64 accounted for the largest proportion(82 cases, 49.40%), which were followed by elderly aged 65 and over(48 cases, 28.91%). ADR/AE involved a wide range of systems and organs, of which skin and its accessories were the most damaged(30 cases, 12.93%), which were followed by systemic damage(27 cases, 11.64%). The top 10 ADR/AE manifestations were rash(15 cases, 6.33%), nausea(14 cases, 5.91%), dizziness(14 cases, 5.91%), abdominal pain(12 cases, 5.06%), pruritus(11 cases, 4.64%), low back pain(11 cases, 4.64%), vomiting(10 cases, 4.22%), hepatocyte damage(9 cases, 3.80%), headache(9 cases, 3.80%), and diarrhea(7 cases, 2.95%). Bayesian confidence propagation neural network(BCPNN) was used to mine the ADR/AE risk early warning signal of Shujin Jianyao Pills, and the propensity score method was used to control the balance of confounding factors. The results suggested warning signs for nausea, diarrhea, rash, and dizziness, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, liver cell damage. This study provides a basis for the post-marke-ting safety evaluation of Shujin Jianyao Pills, and can provide guidance for its rational clinical use and risk management.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacovigilância , Gestão de Riscos
13.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(4): 3240-3251, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987527

RESUMO

A stochastic two-species competition system with saturation effect and distributed delays is formulated, in which two coupling noise sources are incorporated and every noise source has effect on two species' intrinsic growth rates in nonlinear form. By transforming the two-dimensional system with weak kernel into an equivalent four-dimensional system, sufficient conditions for extinction of two species and the existence of a stationary distribution of the positive solutions to the system are obtained. Our main results show that the two coupling noises play a significant role on the long time behavior of system.

14.
Heart Surg Forum ; 23(5): E636-E640, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to elucidate the feasibility of using right ventricular (RV) strain and strain rate to evaluate right heart function of Ebstein anomaly (EA) patients before and after operation. METHODS: Sixty EA patients and 30 healthy controls underwent echocardiography (UCG) for evaluation of right heart function. Preoperative UCG and 1-week and 3-month postoperative UCG were performed in EA patients. RV strain and strain rate were measured on the four-chamber section of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). RESULTS: The strain and strain rate representative of right ventricle systolic function were reduced prior to operation. RV strain and strain rate improved after the operation (P < .001), most significantly in the basal segment and middle segment of the free wall of the right ventricle as well as the basal segment of the interventricular septum (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of RV strain and strain rate on tissue Doppler imaging can be employed to assess the preoperative and postoperative RV function, proves the positive effect of tricuspid valve repair on right heart function, and offers more insight on right heart function evaluation.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967136

RESUMO

Due to their high expectations, teachers often hide their real emotions and play a role that conforms to public expectations of educational work. Special education teachers face a group of students with physical and mental disabilities who have high heterogeneity and require individualized services every day. Using social support theory, this study discusses special education teachers' emotional labor and well-being. A total of 439 special education teachers in China participated in this study. We collected data at two different time-points and verified the research hypotheses with hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling analysis. The research findings show the mediating role of emotional labor in social support and well-being. It is, therefore, suggested that schools should pay more attention to special education teachers' mental health and provide them with regular guidance and support.


Assuntos
Educação Especial , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 475(1-2): 277-283, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812103

RESUMO

Coumarin-pi, a new coumarin derivative isolated from the mushroom Paxillus involutus, has antioxidative activity, but the underlying mechanism against intracellular oxidative stress is still unclear. This study investigated its cytoprotective effects and the antioxidative mechanism in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced HepG2 cells. The results demonstrated that coumarin-pi suppressed t-BHP-stimulated cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, coumarin-pi promoted nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and upregulated the protein expression of antioxidantenzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidase (NQO1), glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit (GCLM). After coumarin-pi treatment, transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis revealed that 256 genes were differentially expressed; interestingly, only 20 genes were downregulated, and the rest of the genes were upregulated. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional annotation were used to identify changes in metabolic pathways. Collectively, the results presented in this study indicate that coumarin-pi has a protective effect against t-BHP-induced cellular damage and oxidative stress.

17.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765369

RESUMO

Eye-tracking has been a hot topic in human-computer interaction (HCI). Nevertheless, previous studies usually adopted eye-tracking as information output rather than input. The eye-control technique can achieve convenient and rapid real-time operation through the movement of the eyes and reduce unnecessary manual operations. Because the layout determines the location orientation, organizational complexity, cognitive consistency, and predictive ability of the information display, the interface layout design affects the user's perception of information intensity, complexity, and logic. Moreover, the method of target clicking by eye-control techniques, which include blink and dwell, also depends on the application and user's ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of target layout and target picking method on picking time and dragging performance based on eye-control technique. The results indicate that the target picking method, i.e., blink or dwell, had significant effects on the dragging time and dragging numbers. However, there was no significant effect of target layout on picking time and dragging performance (dragging time and numbers), which may be related to the setting of the experimental conditions (e.g., lighting level and screen resolution). Moreover, the target picking method and the target layout had no significant interaction effect on picking time and dragging performance. The findings are anticipated to provide helpful implications for future eye control technique design.

18.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(2): 1048-1052, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765658

RESUMO

Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is characterized by central facial erythema and transient papules and/or pustules, with or without telangiectases. The treatment of PPR is challenging due to the unclear and complex pathogenesis. In the present retrospective study, patients with PPR treated with oral minocycline and supramolecular salicylic acid (SSA) 30% chemical peels enrolled between June 2018 and June 2019 were evaluated. All patients were treated with 50 mg minocycline twice a day and SSA 30% twice a month. A total of 19 patients were enrolled and all received the therapy for 12 weeks. A significant reduction of rosacea severity was observed by Investigator Severity Assessment (ISA) after treatment; the mean score reduced from 3.32±0.6 at baseline to 0.89±0.7 (P<0.01) at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, all patients achieved at least a 'moderate response' and 17 patients (89.47%) obtained 'excellent improvement' in the Investigator Global Assessment of efficacy. No obvious adverse reactions were observed during each patient's visit. In conclusion, the combination treatment of minocycline and SSA 30% was an effective therapy for PPR. The limitation of the present study was that it was a retrospective analysis; more high-quality, prospective, blinded, controlled clinical trials are required to evaluate the efficacy based on the current study.

19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 405, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections may cause significant effects on behavior, learning, and memory of the host. In the brain of mice heavily infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, severe damage has been observed in the hippocampus. This component has been considered to have associations with spatial learning and memory in humans and vertebrates. This study was designed to determine the impairments in behavior, learning, and memory in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice heavily infected with the parasite. METHODS: Each mouse was inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis. After infection, daily changes in weight and dietary consumption, worm recoveries and survival rates were determined. The forced swimming test, open field test, and Morris water maze test were employed to evaluate depression- and anxiety-like behavior as well as impairments in spatial learning and memory, respectively. RESULTS: The worm recovery rate in the BALB/c mice was significantly lower than that of C57BL/6 mice from day 14 post-infection. The survival rate in infected BALB/c mice decreased to 0% by day 25 whereas those with swim-training survived three more days. On day 42, the C57BL/6 mice had a survival rate of 85.7% in the swimming group and 70% in the non-swimming group. Significant differences were found in weight between infected and non-infected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice from day 13 and day 12, respectively with corresponding changes in their dietary consumption. Depression-like behavior was found in the infected BALB/c mice but not in C57BL/6 mice. However, anxiety-like behavior was found to occur only in C57BL/6 mice. Impaired spatial learning and memory were also found in the two strains of mice which occurred from day 14 post-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicate that A. cantonensis causes depression, anxiety, and impairments in spatial learning and memory in heavily infected mice. Moreover, significantly higher severity was observed in the Th-2 dominant BALB/c mice.

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