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1.
Environ Pollut ; : 113427, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672354

RESUMO

As a strong reductant and highly active alkali, hydrazine (N2H4) has been widely used in chemical industry, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agricultural production. However, its high acute toxicity poses a threat to ecosystem and human health. In the present study, a ratiometric fluorescent probe for the detection of N2H4 was designed, utilizing dicyanoisophorone as the fluorescent group and 4-bromobutyryl moiety as the recognition site. 4-(2-(3-(dicyanomethylene)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-1-enyl) phenyl 4-brobutanoate (DDPB) was readily synthesized and could specially sense N2H4 via an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) pathway. The cyclization cleavage reaction of N2H4 with a 4-bromobutyryl group released phenolic hydroxyl group and reversed the ICT process between hydroxy group and fluorophore, turning on the fluorescence in the DDPB-N2H4 complexes. DDPB exhibits a low cytotoxicity, reasonable cell permeability, a large Stokes shift (186 nm) and a low detection limit (86.3 nM). The quantitative determination of environmental water systems and the visualization fluorescence of DDPB test strips provides a strong evidence for the applications of DDPB. In addition, DDPB is suitable for the fluorescence imaging of exogenous N2H4 in HeLa cells and zebrafish.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670942

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic technique that can induce the regression of targeted lesions via generating excessive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. However, due to the limited penetration depth of visible excitation light and the intrinsic hypoxia microenvironment of solid tumors, the efficacy of PDT in the treatment of cancer, especially deep-seated or large tumors, is unsatisfactory. Herein, we developed an efficient in vivo PDT system based on a nanomaterial, dihydrolipoic acid-coated gold nanocluster (AuNC@DHLA), that combined the advantages of large penetration depth in tissue, extremely high two-photon (TP) absorption cross-section (σ2 ~106 GM), efficient ROS generation, a Type I photochemical mechanism, and negligible in vivo toxicity. With AuNC@DHLA as the PSs, highly efficient in vivo TP-PDT has been achieved.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671209

RESUMO

Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer, and a worldwide problem with increasing incidence. Little is known about the burden of melanoma in Chinese population. We evaluated temporal trends and geographic variation in melanoma-associated burden, to narrow an important knowledge gap concerning the consequences of this disorder across time, provinces in China. Following the general analytic strategy used in the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study, we analyzed the incidence, mortality, prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of melanoma, by age, sex and geography from 1990 to 2017. Levels in melanoma burden were assessed for 33 province-level administrative units between 1990 and 2017. We used joinpoint regression analysis to estimate the slope of incidence and mortality trends. The age-standardized incidence rate of melanoma was 0.9 per 100,000 in 2017, with a 110.3% rise compared with 1990. Although the age-standardized DALYs rate (per 100,000) decreased from 9.1 in 1990 to 7.6 in 2017, it showed an upward trend from 2007 to 2017. The DALYs rate increased steadily with age for females while increased and peaked at 55-59 years for males. The incidence of melanoma was higher in the clustered eastern provinces than western provinces, while the DALYs showed a pattern in opposite direction. In China, there has been a substantial increase in the burden of melanoma over the last decade, representing an ongoing challenge in Chinese population. More targeted strategies should be developed for elderly population, especially for females, to reduce the melanoma burden throughout China, particularly the western provinces. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119026240, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570084

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Early use of antiplatelet drugs within 24 hours after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) has always been a confusing clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of early low-dose tirofiban treatment in patients with early neurological deterioration (END) within the first 24 hours after IVT. Methods- This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 1764 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with IVT between January 2017 and September 2018. Patients with early neurological deterioration within the first 24 hours after IVT were treated with or without tirofiban. The safety outcomes included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, any ICH, severe systemic bleeding, and mortality. Efficacy outcomes included excellent (modified Rankin scale scores 0-1) and favorable (modified Rankin scale scores 0-2) 3-month functional outcomes. Results- Early neurological deterioration occurred in 278 (15.8%) patients. Of the 187 eligible patients, 121 (64.7%) were treated with tirofiban within the first 24 hours after IVT. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that early tirofiban use was not associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.088-11.02; P=1.000), ICH (aOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.45-4.25; P=0.512), and mortality (aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.19-2.27; P=0.875) but was significantly associated with excellent (aOR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.16-3.94; P=0.027) and favorable (aOR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.48-3.99; P=0.011) functional outcomes. Subgroup analyses suggested that early tirofiban-use efficacy is time dependent, being more effective in patients receiving tirofiban treatment earlier. Conclusions- Low-dose tirofiban use in patients with early neurological deterioration within the first 24 hours after IVT did not increase the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, ICH, and mortality, it seems associated with neurological improvement at 3 months. Future randomized clinical trials will be needed to validate these results.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653194

RESUMO

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of cattail followed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was studied. The intent of the research was to develop agricultural waste-based biorefining technologies for bioenergy production along with value-added products. Cattail was anaerobically digested at 55 °C for 14 days and protein and cellulose components were partially degraded. The average methane yield was 230-280 mL/g volatile solids and the total solids decreased by 33-55%. When the particle size of cattail was reduced from 1 in. to 1 mm, the lag phase was shortened from 1.48 to 0 d. Following the AD process of cattail, the AD digestate was hydrothermally carbonized at 250 °C for 4 h, yielding approximately 6.7-7.5 wt % gaseous products, 64 wt % liquid products and 28 wt % hydrochar. The gaseous products contained >5000 ppm H2S and liquid products possessed fewer chemicals and higher ratio of phenolic compounds compared to the liquid products from HTC of original cattail. The hydrochar had a higher carbon content (76.8-79.8%) and a higher specific surface area (∼10 m2/g) than those of the feedstock. Hydrochar was further activated by using Na2CO3, NaHCO3 and NaCl. The activation process increased the carbon content and specific surface area to 84-93% and 250-630 m2/g, respectively.

6.
Oncol Res ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653278

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA KCNQ1OT1 (KCNQ1OT1) has been identified to be deregulated in several kinds of cancers. However, its expression pattern and functions in ovarian cancer remains unknown. Bioinformatics analysis showed that miR-212-3p, an identified suppressor in ovarian cancer, was a direct target of KCNQ1OT1, suggesting that KCNQ1OT1 may play a role in ovarian cancer progression via targeting miR-212-3p. Here, we aimed to explore the effect of KCNQ1OT1 on the carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer, as well as to investigate miR-212-3p roles in this process. The expression of KCNQ1OT1 and miR-212-3p in ovarian cancer tissues and cells were detected by qPCR. MTT, flow cytometry, wound healing, transwell chambers and in vivo tumor formation assays were carried out to assess cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, respectively. RNA pulldown and luciferase gene reporter assays were used to evaluate the RNA-RNA interaction. The results showed that KCNQ1OT1 was overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissues and cells, which closely associated with the advanced clinic process and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. Upregulation of KCNQ1OT1 significantly enhanced cell growth, migration, invasion and inhibited cell apoptosis via miR-212-3p. In addition, we identified that lipocalin2 (LCN2) was a direct target of miR-212-3p and functioned as an oncogene to promote cell growth and to inhibit cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we observed that KCNQ1OT1 overexpression significantly enhanced the tumorigenesis of SKOV3 cells, whereas this effect was significantly impaired when LCN2 expression was downregulated. Overall, the present study reveals that KCNQ1OT1 functions as an oncogene in ovarian cancer via targeting miR-212-3p/LCN2 axis, which might provide new markers and targets for ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647213

RESUMO

The degradation or dendrite formation of zinc metal electrodes has shown to limit the cycle life of rechargeable aqueous zinc batteries, and a few anode protection methods are proposed. We herein demonstrate that except for external protections, a simple design of electrolyte can effectively promote stable and facile Zn stripping/plating from/on zinc electrodes. By using Zn(ClO4)2 in aqueous electrolyte, reversible Zn stripping/plating is achieved for over 3000 h at 1 mA cm-2 current density and 1 mAh cm-2 capacity, superior to the conventional ZnSO4 electrolyte. The overpotential is constant within each cycle and only increases slightly with the increase of current densities. The excellent performance is guaranteed by the controlled formation of a Cl- containing layer which limits continuous side reactions. The Zn(ClO4)2 electrolyte shows anodic stability up to 2.4 V, and excellent electrochemical performance is achieved for an example cell with VO2 cathode, confirming the applicability of the electrolyte for Zn batteries.

8.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 186: 105543, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular atherosclerotic stenosis (CAS) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) have a common underlying arterial pathology and common risk factors, but the clinical significance of CAS in IA rupture (IAR) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CAS on the risk of IAR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 336 patients with 507 sacular IAs admitted at our center were included. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between IAR and the angiographic variables for CAS. We also explored the differences in CAS in patients aged <65 and ≥65 years. RESULTS: In all the patient groups, moderate (50%-70%) cerebrovascular stenosis was significantly associated with IAR (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-6.5). Single cerebral artery stenosis was also significantly associated with IAR (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9), and intracranial stenosis may be a risk factor for IAR (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.2). In addition, IAs with lobulation may be at a higher risk for rupture than IAs with regular shape (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-5.8; P = 0.026), although the same was not true of aneurysms with a daughter sac (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-3.7; P = 0.098). Bifurcation location (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.8; P < 0.001) was significantly associated with aneurysmal rupture. For the patient subgroup aged <65 years, rupture risk was higher for aneurysms with moderate stenosis (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.5). For patients aged ≥65 years, single-artery stenosis (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0) was statistically associated with IAR. CONCLUSIONS: We observed substantial differences in the severity of atherosclerotic stenosis, parent-artery stenosis, number of stenotic arteries, and intracranial/extracranial stenosis as indicators between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. CAS is significantly associated with the risk of intracranial aneurysm rupture, whether in patients aged ≥65 years or <65 years. These findings indicate the clinical significance of CAS in IAR.

10.
Food Funct ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651924

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that 7S protein is the active ingredient responsible for the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of soybean. It is hypothesized that isoflavones in soybean could enhance the blood cholesterol-lowering activity of 7S protein. Forty-eight hamsters were divided into six groups and fed a non-cholesterol diet or one of the five high-cholesterol diets containing 12.1% 7S protein with 0-15.62 mg g-1 isoflavones. The results showed that addition of isoflavones in diets dose-dependently enhanced the plasma total cholesterol-lowering activity of 7S protein. Addition of isoflavones in 7S protein-based diets significantly reduced hepatic cholesterol accumulation by 12.6-26.1%, compared with the high cholesterol control diet. Isoflavones could also facilitate excretion of neutral sterols in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation of isoflavones in diets favourably modulated mRNA expression and the protein mass of HMG-CoA reductase. It was concluded that the enhancing effect of isoflavones on the blood cholesterol-lowering activity of 7S protein was mediated by inhibiting the cholesterol absorption and de novo cholesterol synthesis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(19): 11251-11259, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478650

RESUMO

Mineral-soil organic matter (SOM including DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides) associations formed through various interactions, play a key role in regulating long-term SOM preservation. The mechanisms underlying DNA-mineral and DNA-protein/polysaccharide interactions at nanometer and molecular scales in environmentally relevant solutions remain uncertain. Here, we present a model mineral-SOM system consisting of mineral (mica)-nucleic acid (environmental DNA, eDNA)/protein (bovine serum albumin)/polysaccharide (alginate), and combine atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based dynamic force spectroscopy and PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping using DNA-decorated tips. Single-molecule binding and adhesion force of eDNA to mineral and to mineral adsorbed by protein/polysaccharide reveal the noncovalent bonds and that systematically changing ion compositions, ionic strength, and pH result in significant differences in organic-organic and organic-mineral binding energies. Consistent with the bond-strength measurements, protein, rather than polysaccharide, promotes mineral-bound DNA molecules by ex situ AFM deposition observations in relatively high concentrations of divalent cation-containing acidic solutions. These molecular-scale determinations and nanoscale observations should substantially improve our understanding of how environmental factors influence the organic-mineral interfacial interactions through the synergy of collective noncovalent and/or covalent bonds in mineral-organic associations.

12.
Appl Opt ; 58(19): 5213-5218, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503616

RESUMO

A tunable external cavity diode laser (ECDL) with high side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is demonstrated. The ECDL is operated at both strong and weak feedback steady states with single longitudinal mode. Compared with the strong feedback mode, the SMSR of the weak feedback mode is significantly enhanced by rotating the grating along the axis of the incident beam, which changes the polarization orientation versus the grating grooves. The highest SMSR of the weak feedback mode is 54 dB at the injection current of 300 mA. The tunable range of the ECDL with weak feedback mode reaches 130.9 nm.

13.
Appl Opt ; 58(23): 6426-6432, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503791

RESUMO

A high-power single-longitudinal-mode regrowth-free tapered gain-coupled distributed feedback laser diode based on periodic current injection is achieved at 996 nm. It enhances the output power without beam quality degrading. A continuous-wave output power of over 1.12 W is achieved at 3 A. The maximum output power in single-longitudinal-mode operation is up to 0.56 W at 1.4 A. The power conversion efficiency is over 24%, and the slope efficiency is 0.58 W/A. The side mode suppression ratio is over 38 dB; the 3 dB spectral linewidth is less than 2.4 pm. The lateral far-field divergence angle is only 14.98°, and the beam quality factor M2 is 1.64, achieving a near-diffraction-limit emission. Our device has great potential in commercial applications and the experimental study of high-power near-diffraction-limit laser diodes for its low-cost fabrication technique and narrowband single-longitudinal-mode emission at high power.

14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 160: 171-180, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519252

RESUMO

As molecular chaperones, DnaJs play critical roles in maintaining cytoplasmic structure and resisting various stresses. However, the functions of DnaJs in insects are poorly understood. In this study, we identified a DnaJC3 from Apis cerana cerana (AccDnaJC3) and investigated its roles in adverse conditions. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that AccDnaJC3 was highly expressed in muscle and epidermis. In addition, AccDnaJC3 was induced by a variety of stresses, such as 4 °C, 24 °C, 44 °C, H2O2, HgCl2, VC, UV, cyhalothrin, abamectin and emamectin benzoate treatments, whereas it was inhibited by CdCl2 and paraquat treatments. Disc diffusion experiments indicated that overexpression of recombinant AccDnaJC3 enhanced Escherichia coli tolerance to some stress conditions. In contrast to the control group, when AccDnaJC3 was knocked down with RNAi technology, several other antioxidant genes were downregulated, suggesting that AccDnaJC3 may play important roles in stress response. Furthermore, we found that the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were lower in AccDnaJC3-knockdown bees than in control bees. Taken together, these results suggest that AccDnaJC3 may be involved in various stress responses in Apis cerana cerana.

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 791, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (SGSP) is often underestimated. Herein, the epidemiological features and resistant characteristics of SGSP in mainland China are characterized to enable a better understanding of its role in clinical infections. METHODS: In the present work, 45 SGSP isolates were collected from the samples of bloodstream, urine, aseptic body fluid, and fetal membrane/placenta from patients in 8 tertiary general hospitals of 6 cities/provinces in China from 2011 to 2017. The identification of all isolates was performed using traditional biochemical methods, 16S rRNA and gyrB sequencing, followed by the characterization of their antibiotic resistance profiling and involved genes. RESULTS: Among 34 non-pregnancy-related patients, 4 (4/34,11.8%) patients had gastrointestinal cancer, 10 (10/34, 29.4%) patients had diabetes, and one patient had infective endocarditis. Moreover, 11 cases of pregnant women were associated with intrauterine infection (9/11, 81.2%) and urinary tract infection (1/11, 9.1%), respectively. Except one, all other SGSP isolates were correctly identified by the BD Phoenix automated system. We found that all SGSP isolates were phenotypically susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, and vancomycin. Forty strains (40/45, 88.9%) were both erythromycin and clindamycin-resistant, belonging to the cMLSB phenotype, and the majority of them carried erm(B) gene (39/40, 97.5%). Although the cMLSB/erm(B) constituted the most frequently identified phenotype/genotype combination (25/40, 62.5%) among all erythromycin-resistant cMLSB isolates, erm(B)/erm(A), erm(B)/mef(A/E), and erm(B)/erm(T) was detected in 7, 4, and 3 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, 43 strains (43/45, 95.6%) were tetracycline-resistant, and out of these, 39 strains (39/45, 86.7%) carried tet(L), 27(27/45, 60.0%) strains carried tet(O), and 7 (7/45, 15.6%) strains carried tet(M), alone or combined, respectively. All erythromycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to study and draw attention on SGSP, an underreported opportunistic pathogen targeting immunodeficient populations, notably elderly subjects, pregnant women and neonates.

16.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 490-497, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514980

RESUMO

Current study systematically investigated the interaction of two alkaloids, anisodine and monocrotaline, with organic cation transporter OCT1, 2, 3, MATE1 and MATE2-K by using in vitro stably transfected HEK293 cells. Both anisodine and monocrotaline inhibited the OCTs and MATE transporters. The lowest IC50 was 12.9 µmol·L-1 of anisodine on OCT1 and the highest was 1.8 mmol·L-1 of monocrotaline on OCT2. Anisodine was a substrate of OCT2 (Km = 13.3 ± 2.6 µmol·L-1 and Vmax = 286.8 ± 53.6 pmol/mg protein/min). Monocrotaline was determined to be a substrate of both OCT1 (Km = 109.1 ± 17.8 µmol·L-1, Vmax = 576.5 ± 87.5 pmol/mg protein/min) and OCT2 (Km = 64.7 ± 14.8 µmol·L-1, Vmax = 180.7 ± 22.0 pmol/mg protein/min), other than OCT3 and MATE transporters. The results indicated that OCT2 may be important for renal elimination of anisodine and OCT1 was responsible for monocrotaline uptake into liver. However neither MATE1 nor MATE2-K could facilitate transcellular transport of anisodine and monocrotaline. Accumulation of these drugs in the organs with high OCT1 expression (liver) and OCT2 expression (kidney) may be expected.

17.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(9): e473-e481, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The estimation of influenza-associated excess mortality in countries can help to improve estimates of the global mortality burden attributable to influenza virus infections. We did a study to estimate the influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality in mainland China for the 2010-11 through 2014-15 seasons. METHODS: We obtained provincial weekly influenza surveillance data and population mortality data for 161 disease surveillance points in 31 provinces in mainland China from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention for the years 2005-15. Disease surveillance points with an annual average mortality rate of less than 0·4% between 2005 and 2015 or an annual mortality rate of less than 0·3% in any given years were excluded. We extracted data for respiratory deaths based on codes J00-J99 under the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases. Data on respiratory mortality and population were stratified by age group (age <60 years and ≥60 years) and aggregated by province. The overall annual population data of each province and national annual respiratory mortality data were compiled from the China Statistical Yearbook. Influenza surveillance data on weekly proportion of samples testing positive for influenza virus by type or subtype for 31 provinces were extracted from the National Sentinel Hospital-based Influenza Surveillance Network. We estimated influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality rates between the 2010-11 and 2014-15 seasons for 22 provinces with valid data in the country using linear regression models. Extrapolation of excess respiratory mortality rates was done using random-effect meta-regression models for nine provinces without valid data for a direct estimation of the rates. FINDINGS: We fitted the linear regression model with the data from 22 of 31 provinces in mainland China, representing 83·0% of the total population. We estimated that an annual mean of 88 100 (95% CI 84 200-92 000) influenza-associated excess respiratory deaths occurred in China in the 5 years studied, corresponding to 8·2% (95% CI 7·9-8·6) of respiratory deaths. The mean excess respiratory mortality rates per 100 000 person-seasons for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and B viruses were 1·6 (95% CI 1·5-1·7), 2·6 (2·4-2·8), and 2·3 (2·1-2·5), respectively. Estimated excess respiratory mortality rates per 100 000 person-seasons were 1·5 (95% CI 1·1-1·9) for individuals younger than 60 years and 38·5 (36·8-40·2) for individuals aged 60 years or older. Approximately 71 000 (95% CI 67 800-74 100) influenza-associated excess respiratory deaths occurred in individuals aged 60 years or older, corresponding to 80% of such deaths. INTERPRETATION: Influenza was associated with substantial excess respiratory mortality in China between 2010-11 and 2014-15 seasons, especially in older adults aged at least 60 years. Continuous and high-quality surveillance data across China are needed to improve the estimation of the disease burden attributable to influenza and the best public health interventions are needed to curb this burden. FUNDING: National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, National Science and Technology Major Project of China, National Institute of Health Research, the Harvard Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and the China-US Collaborative Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease.

18.
J Neurol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical features, outcomes, and prognostic factors for TBM in adults. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science were searched for studies that reported the clinical outcomes and/or risk factors for death in adults with TBM between January 1990 and July 2018. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to pool data on clinical features, outcomes, and risk factors for death. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies that examined 5023 adults who had TBM met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the mortality was 22.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.9-26.8] and the risk of neurological sequelae was 28.7% (95% CI 22.8-35.1). The major risk factors for death (OR > 2 and P < 0.05) were advanced stage of disease (OR = 6.06, 95% CI 4.31-8.53), hydrocephalus (OR = 5.27, 95% CI 2.25-12.37), altered consciousness (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.51-7.36), altered sensorium (OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.20-4.98), advanced age (> 60 years; OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.27-5.51), and cerebral infarction (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.63-3.38). The clinical features and diagnostic findings present in more than four-fifths of the patients were fever (86.3%, 95% CI 82.4-89.8) and low CSF/serum glucose ratio (80.6%, 95% CI 64.8-92.6). CONCLUSIONS: Adults with TBM have high rates of mortality. Clinicians should maintain a high clinical suspicion for patients who present with certain clinical features, and should pay more attention to prognostic factors.

19.
ChemSusChem ; 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496072

RESUMO

Interface engineering of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs)-based perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) is often necessary to facilitate the extraction and transport of charge carriers. In this work, poly[{9,9-bis[3'-(N,N-dimethyl)propyl]-2,7-fluorene}-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) and polystyrene (PS) are demonstrated to be effective surface modifiers of the TiO2 NPs electron-transporting layer in n-i-p PVSCs. The low-cost insulating polymer PS performs better than the PFN conjugated polymer owing to its high film quality, low surface energy and insulating characteristics. A peak power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.09 % with an open-circuit voltage (VOC ) of 1.05 V and a PCE of 17.13 % with an ultrahigh VOC of 1.18 V is achieved with TiO2 NPs/PS-based PVSCs using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and spiro-OMeTAD, respectively, as the hole-transporting material.

20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 519(4): 861-867, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558320

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that allergic asthma can induce atherosclerosis formation in mice. Moreover, allergic asthma and atherosclerosis have been shown to be strongly associated with dyslipidemia. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of allergic asthma-aggravated atherosclerosis-induced cholesterol metabolism disorder in asthmatic apoE-/- mice. We found that allergic asthma increased the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in the liver and CD36 in the aorta during the acute and advanced stages of atherosclerosis, respectively. These results indicate that cholesterol biosynthesis is increased during acute atherosclerosis and cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation is increased during advanced atherosclerosis. Simvastatin administration significantly ameliorated the aortic root lesion size of asthmatic mice and significantly decreased HMGCR and CD36 expression. However, the expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 was markedly increased, indicating that the beneficial effect of statins in allergic asthma and coronary artery disease was mediated, at least in part, by decreasing cholesterol biosynthesis and foam cell formation. In conclusion, allergic asthma aggravates atherosclerosis by regulating cholesterol metabolism in apoE-/- mice. Allergic asthma selectively promotes cholesterol biosynthesis in acute atherosclerosis and increases foam cell formation in advanced atherosclerosis.

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