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1.
J Food Sci ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084074

RESUMO

Polysaccharides have been considered as a group of promising candidate for preventing the protein-polyphenol haze formation in beverages. In order to select effective polysaccharides to prevent the haze formation, four protein-polyphenol haze model systems were successfully established using two proteins (i.e., gelatin and bovine serum albumin) and two polyphenols (i.e., procyanidin [PC] and epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG]). Among seven common polysaccharides, 0.5 mg/mL pectin, 0.05 mg/mL xanthan gum, and 0.01 mg/mL guar gum demonstrated the maximum potential for preventing the formation of four protein-polyphenol hazes. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry confirmed that polysaccharides affected protein-polyphenol interactions. Fluorescence spectrophotometry combined with microscale thermophoresis data indicated the relative affinities of polyphenol to protein and polysaccharide determined the mechanism of polysaccharide for preventing the haze formation. In bovine serum albumin (BSA)/gelatin-EGCG system, polysaccharides (pectin, xanthan gum and guar gum) competed with BSA/gelatin to bind EGCG for prevention the formation of BSA/gelatin-EGCG haze. However, in BSA/gelatin-PC system, polysaccharides (pectin, xanthan gum, and guar gum) formed a ternary complex (protein-tannin-polysaccharide) for increasing the solubility of protein-polyphenol aggregation. From apple juice results, the reduction rates of guar gum in two apple juice systems (gelatin-PC, BSA-PC) were 21% and 56% within 8 weeks, indicating guar gum might be the most effective polysaccharide in preventing the haze formation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This experiment data could be used for development of polysaccharide products for prevention of protein-polyphenol haze formation in beverages.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103036, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been the most effective and widely implemented diagnostic technology since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, fuzzy rRT-PCR readouts with high Ct values are frequently encountered, resulting in uncertainty in diagnosis. METHODS: A Specific Enhancer for PCR-amplified Nucleic Acid (SENA) was developed based on the Cas12a trans-cleavage activity, which is specifically triggered by the rRT-PCR amplicons of the SARS-CoV-2 Orf1ab (O) and N fragments. SENA was first characterized to determine its sensitivity and specificity, using a systematic titration experiment with pure SARS-CoV-2 RNA standards, and was then verified in several hospitals, employing a couple of commercial rRT-PCR kits and testing various clinical specimens under different scenarios. FINDINGS: The ratio (10 min/5 min) of fluorescence change (FC) with mixed SENA reaction (mix-FCratio) was defined for quantitative analysis of target O and N genes, and the Limit of Detection (LoD) of mix-FCratio with 95% confidence interval was 1.2≤1.6≤2.1. Totally, 295 clinical specimens were analyzed, among which 21 uncertain rRT-PCR cases as well as 4 false negative and 2 false positive samples were characterized by SENA and further verified by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The cut-off values for mix-FCratio were determined as 1.145 for positive and 1.068 for negative. INTERPRETATION: SENA increases both the sensitivity and the specificity of rRT-PCR, solving the uncertainty problem in COVID-19 diagnosis and thus providing a simple and low-cost companion diagnosis for combating the pandemic. FUNDING: Detailed funding information is available at the end of the manuscript.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103036, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been the most effective and widely implemented diagnostic technology since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, fuzzy rRT-PCR readouts with high Ct values are frequently encountered, resulting in uncertainty in diagnosis. METHODS: A Specific Enhancer for PCR-amplified Nucleic Acid (SENA) was developed based on the Cas12a trans-cleavage activity, which is specifically triggered by the rRT-PCR amplicons of the SARS-CoV-2 Orf1ab (O) and N fragments. SENA was first characterized to determine its sensitivity and specificity, using a systematic titration experiment with pure SARS-CoV-2 RNA standards, and was then verified in several hospitals, employing a couple of commercial rRT-PCR kits and testing various clinical specimens under different scenarios. FINDINGS: The ratio (10 min/5 min) of fluorescence change (FC) with mixed SENA reaction (mix-FCratio) was defined for quantitative analysis of target O and N genes, and the Limit of Detection (LoD) of mix-FCratio with 95% confidence interval was 1.2≤1.6≤2.1. Totally, 295 clinical specimens were analyzed, among which 21 uncertain rRT-PCR cases as well as 4 false negative and 2 false positive samples were characterized by SENA and further verified by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The cut-off values for mix-FCratio were determined as 1.145 for positive and 1.068 for negative. INTERPRETATION: SENA increases both the sensitivity and the specificity of rRT-PCR, solving the uncertainty problem in COVID-19 diagnosis and thus providing a simple and low-cost companion diagnosis for combating the pandemic. FUNDING: Detailed funding information is available at the end of the manuscript.

5.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 238, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a fatal disease and a serious health problem worldwide. Patients are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, and the effectiveness of chemotherapy for such patients is very limited. Iodine 125 seed (125I) irradiation can be used as an important adjuvant treatment for lung carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of irradiation by 125I seeds in human lung cancer xenograft model and to determine the underlying mechanisms involved, with a focus on apoptosis. METHODS: 40 mice with A549 lung adenocarcinoma xenografts were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n = 10), sham seed (0 mCi) implant group (n = 10), 125I seed (0.6 mCi) implant group (n = 10) and 125I seed (0.8 mCi) implant group (n = 10), respectively. The body weight and tumor volume, were recorded every 4 days until the end of the study. Apoptotic cells were checked by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and activities of caspase-3 and caspase-8 enzyme were tested. Expression of P21, survivin, livin, caspase-9 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki-67) was detected with immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The results of TUNEL staining assays showed that 125I seed irradiation suppresses the growth of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice and induced apoptosis. The activity of caspase-3 and caspase-8 was significantly higher. The expression levels Ki67, survivin and livin were substantially downregulated, while P21 and caspase-9 protein expression were significantly increased following 125I seed irradiation. This study revealed that 125I seed irradiation could significantly change apoptosis-related protein in human lung cancer xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study demonstrates that radiation exposure by 125I seeds could be a new treatment option for lung cancer.

6.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128214, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035855

RESUMO

Biphasic transition is an important behavior of starch caused by heat-moisture treatment (HMT). Starch may change from typical single endotherm to biphasic endotherm (G1, G2) by HMT which corresponded to two viscosity peaks (PV1 and PV2) in pasting analysis. During PV1, remarkable disruption of birefringence occurred in the inner region of starch granules, accompanied by a decreased relative crystallinity from 20.59 to 14.73%. Native starch completely lost their birefringence at 73 °C, while the HMT starch still showed strong birefringence in granule periphery. The HMT starch only lost crystallites at 80 °C (PV2). A crystallite stability hypothesis was developed that G1 was mainly due to the gelatinization of the inner crystalline lamellae of starch granule, and the newly formed G2 was caused by the peripheral ones enhanced by HMT. This work also provided details on the mechanism of HMT and a potential method for the thermal transition study on starch.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22290, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether time of day has impact on outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains controversial. However, there are no evidence syntheses describing the impact of time differences on outcomes from OHCA. METHODS: A meta-analysis of cohort studies exploring the association between time of day and survival in patients with OHCA was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Ten studies involving 252,848 patients and 24,646 survivals were included. Patients with night-time OHCA had significantly lower short-term survival compared to patients with daytime OHCA (OR, 1.20; 1.07-1.36; P < .001). The relationship between temporal differences and survival was consistent in most subgroups. For long-term survival, it remained unclear whether night-time was associated with reduced OHCA survival at 12 months (OR, 1.47; 0.71-3.06; P < .001). Three studies including 183,129 patients examined the association between weekend and survival in OHCA patients. Survival did not differ on weekends compared to weekdays (OR, 1.00; 0.9 7-1.04; P = .918). CONCLUSIONS: Night-time is associated with a lower survival in OHCA patients. However, similar findings are not observed in OHCA patients on weekends. Caution is required in interpretation of these results accounting for high level of heterogeneity and large, well designed, randomized trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1349, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco advertisements have been banned in Hong Kong, but low intensity e-cigarette (EC) advertising can still be found in various media outlets. We investigated the associations between exposure to EC advertising and susceptibility to EC use in adolescents who had never used cigarettes or ECs, with potential mediation by attitudes towards ECs and the tobacco industry. METHODS: The School-based Smoking Survey 2016/17 assessed exposure to EC advertising in the past 30 days, attitudes towards ECs and the tobacco industry, susceptibility to EC use, and other covariates. Generalised linear mixed models and multiple mediation analysis methods were used in data analyses. RESULTS: Among 7082 students (mean age 14.9 years), 28.8% reported exposure to EC advertising. Exposure was associated with being uncertain about the harm of EC use, being tolerant towards ECs, believing the tobacco industry is respectable, and being susceptible to EC use; the magnitudes of these associations increased with the number of types of advertising exposed (0, 1, and ≥ 2) (all p-values < 0.01). These attitudinal factors were in turn associated with EC use susceptibility (all p-values < 0.001). The perception that tobacco companies make youth smoke was not associated with the advertising exposure or EC use susceptibility. Of the total effects of EC advertising on use susceptibility, only 16.6% were mediated by attitudinal factors: perceived harm (3.1%), attitudes towards ECs (8.2%), and attitudes towards the tobacco industry (4.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Even exposure to low intensity EC advertising was associated with susceptibility to EC use in adolescents who had never used cigarettes or ECs. The association was weakly mediated by tolerant attitudes towards ECs and the tobacco industry. The government should reinforce the regulations on EC advertising to protect adolescent health.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111018, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888591

RESUMO

Few multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to distinguish the acute effects of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the years of life lost (YLL) from different subtypes of stroke. We aimed to differentiate the associations between NO2 exposure and YLL from major pathological types of stroke in China, and estimate the relevant economic loss. A time-series study was conducted to explore the associations between short-term NO2 exposure and YLL from ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke from 2013 to 2017 in 48 Chinese cities. Daily NO2 data and stroke mortality counts for each city were obtained from the National Urban Air Quality Real-time Publishing Platform and Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Generalized additive models were applied to estimate the cumulative effects of NO2 in each city, and meta-analysis was used to combine the city-specific estimates. The relevant economic loss was estimated using the method of the value per statistical life year (VSLY). A 10 µg/m3 increase in ambient NO2 concentration on the present day and previous day (lag 0-1) would lead to relatively higher increments in percentage change of YLL from ischaemic stroke (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.46%, 1.19%) than haemorrhagic stroke (0.46%, 95% CI: 0.09%, 0.84%). The association was significantly stronger in the low-education population than high-education population for ischaemic stroke. Furthermore, significantly higher association was found in South China than those in North China for both subtypes of stroke. Economic loss due to excess YLL from ischaemic stroke related to NO2 exposure was higher than that for haemorrhagic stroke. Our study indicated higher association and economic loss of ischaemic than haemorrhagic stroke related to NO2 exposure in China, which informed priorities for type-specific stroke prevention strategies related to NO2 pollution and vulnerable population protection.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(19)2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977474

RESUMO

AlGaInAs quantum well (QW) lasers have great potential in the application fields of optical communications and eye-safety lidars, owing to the advantages of good gain performance. A large amount of experimental evidence indicated that carrier dynamic affects the resonant frequency and modulation response performance of QW lasers. However, the mechanism of carrier dynamic in AlGaInAs QW structure is still ambiguous for complicated artificial multilayers. In this paper, the carrier dynamic of AlGaInAs QW structure was investigated by temperature-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) in the range of 14 to 300 K. Two relaxation times (a fast component and a slow one) have a major impact on the PL emission spectra of the AlGaInAs QW below 200 K. The carriers prefer a fast decay channel in the low temperature regime, whereas the slow one a higher temperature. An unconventional temperature dependence of carrier relaxation is observed in both decay processes. The carriers' lifetime decreases with the temperature increasing till 45 K and then increases with temperature up to 250 K. It is quite different from that in the bulk semiconductor. The mechanism of temperature-dependent carrier relaxation at temperatures above 45 K is a combination of dark state occupation and a nonradiative recombination process.

12.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896084

RESUMO

Detection of amplification of the MYCN gene is essential for determining optimal treatment and estimating prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma (NB). DNA FISH with neuroblastoma tissues or patient-derived bone marrow cells is the standard clinical practice for the detection of MYCN amplification. As tumor cells may often be unavailable, we developed a method to detect MYCN amplification in the plasma of patients with neuroblastoma. Taking single-copy NAGK DNA as reference, we used real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine the MYCN/NAGK ratio in the plasma of 115 patients diagnosed with NB. An increased MYCN/NAGK ratio in the plasma was consistent with MYCN amplification as assessed by DNA FISH. The AUC for a MYCN/NAGK ratio equal to 6.965 was 0.943, with 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Beyond the threshold of 6.965, the MYCN/NAGK ratio correlated with a heavier tumor burden. Event-free and overall survival of two years were significantly shortened in stage 4 patients with a MYCN/NAGK ratio higher than 6.965. Plasma MYCN/NAGK ratios increased in patients with progressive disease and relapse. Thus, we conclude that the determination of the plasma MYCN/NAGK ratio by qPCR is a noninvasive and reproducible method to measure MYCN amplification in patients with NB.

13.
Environ Toxicol ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946155

RESUMO

Cardiovascular-related diseases continue to be a leading cause of death globally. Among ischemic-induced cardiac diseases, myocardial infarction (MI) is reported to be of an alarming value. Despite numerous improvements in the medical intrusions, still this armamentarium fails to be effective in managing the illness without setbacks. Ferruginol (FGL) is a major polyphenols and terpenoids with numerous pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Following, this work was aimed to explore the cardio protective effect of FGL (50 mg/kg) in isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO)-induced MI in experimental rats. After treatment with FGL in ISO-induced MI in rats, noticeable changes were observed in the experimental rats. Injection of ISO to rats resulted in the augmented cardiac weight, serum cardiac markers (creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin T, and Cardiac troponin I), lipid peroxidation end products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and lipid hydroperoxides), reduced endogenous antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione), reduced ATPase activity, and escalated pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-κB) levels. Interestingly, the FGL supplementation to the ISO-treated rats revealed the diminished heart weight, reduced cardiac markers, and lipid peroxidation. FGL also possessed the improved antioxidants status and diminished pro-inflammatory mediator levels. The outcomes of histological analysis also evidenced the cardio protective role of FGL. Treatment with FGL reduced the cardiac damage biomarkers maintained to near normal levels in ISO-induced rats. These study findings disclose the prospective capability of FGL in the treatment of MI in the future.

14.
Environ Int ; 145: 106096, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both inhalable particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) are regulated in various countries mainly due to their adverse health effects. However, there is increasing evidence that PM2.5 might be responsible for these effects and coarse particles (PMc) plays little role in adverse health effects, if so, it might be not necessary to monitor PM10. METHODS: In this study, we conducted a time-series analysis using a generalized additive model to explore the effects of PM2.5, PMc, and PM10 on mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 96 Chinese cities during 2013-2016. The mortality number and attributable fraction were further estimated using the national air quality standard and WHO's guideline as the reference. RESULTS: We observed significant effects of PM2.5 on IHD and COPD mortality; each 10 ug/m3 increase in lag01 PM2.5 was associated with a 0.26% (95% CI: 0.17%, 0.34%) increase in IHD mortality and a 0.19% (95% CI: 0.09%, 0.29%) increase in COPD mortality. We also found significant effects of PMc and PM10 on mortality from IHD and COPD, but the magnitudes of effects were weaker than those of PM2.5. The results were robust when adjusting for co-pollutants and altering model parameters. We further estimated that about 1.27% (95% CI: 0.29%, 2.30%) of IHD mortality and 1.25% (95% CI: 0.08%, 2.46%) of COPD mortality could be attributable to PM2.5 exposure using WHO's guideline (25 ug/m3) as a reference, corresponding to 15,337 (95% CI: 3,375, 27,842) mortalities from IHD and 5,653 (95% CI: 379, 11,152) COPD mortalities in the 96 cities. Across all of China, almost fifty thousand cases of IHD mortality and twenty thousand cases of COPD mortality might be avoidable if the PM2.5 concentration declined to the WHO guideline. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that short-term exposure to PM2.5 could be an important risk factor of mortality from IHD and COPD, and substantial cardiopulmonary mortality could be avoidable by reducing daily PM2.5 concentrations. It is nonnegligible to consider the role of PMc in triggering in cardiopulmonary mortality. And it could be necessary to continue monitoring PM10 in the study regions due to the adverse effects of PMc.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 163: 2068-2083, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961184

RESUMO

A psychrophilic strain Cryobacterium sp. LW097 was isolated from the subglacial sediments and discovered to show considerable ß-galactosidases activity at low temperatures. To provide access to genes predicted to encode cold-adapted glycoside hydrolases with biotechnological relevance, we have sequenced the genome of Cryobacterium sp. LW097. Annotation with CAZy database revealed four ß-galactosidase genes, bgal322, bgal435, bgal436, and bgal2567 belonging to the GH-42 family and GH-35 family. All the four ß-galactosidases recombinantly expressed retained a high level of relative activity at 5 °C and showed different optimum temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 40 °C. The enzyme kinetics proved that Bgal322, Bgal436, and Bgal2567 had lower Km to both oNPG and lactose at 5 °C, further proving their adaption to low temperature. Substrate specificity analysis showed that these four ß-galactosidases owned different preferences. The novel GH-42 ß-galactosidases Bgal435 showed ß-D-glucosidase activity (33.67 ± 0.28%) in addition to ß-D-galactosidase activity. Bgal322 preferred ß-D-(1,4)-galactobiose, whereas the other three preferred lactulose. Bgal435 showed the highest kcat value of 68.2 ± 1.7 s -1 at 5 °C toward lactose among these four enzymes. The exquisite substrate specificity of Bgal436 in milk made it a potential candidate for applications in milk lactulose quantification.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961370

RESUMO

Corticosteroids are commonly used as first-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD); however, they are effective in only approximately one-half of patients. This study prospectively evaluated the use of ruxolitinib combined with 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone in the initial treatment of aGVHD. A total of 32 patients were enrolled. aGVHD involved the skin (53.1%), gastrointestinal tract (68.8%), and liver (6.0%). The complete response rate at day +28 was 96.9%. The 1-year and 2-year cumulative incidence rates of chronic GVHD were 9.4% and 13.8%, respectively. The 1- year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 8.7%, and the Kaplan-Meier curve estimated 1-year overall survival after transplantation at 73.4%. This prospective study suggests that patients with aGVHD show a high response rate to ruxolitinib (5 mg/day) combined with 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone. This novel regimen was seen to spare steroid exposure, alleviate toxicity, and improve long-term survival.

17.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888081

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We report that GhWRKY21, a WRKY transcription factor, plays essential roles in regulating the intensity of the drought-induced ABA signalling pathway by facilitating the expression of GhHAB in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important plant hormones in response to abiotic stress. However, activation of the ABA signalling pathway often leads to growth inhibition. The mechanisms that regulate the intensity of ABA signals are poorly understood. Here, we isolated and analysed the cotton group IId WRKY transcription factor (TF) gene GhWRKY21. Functional analysis indicated that GhWRKY21 plays a negative role in the drought response of cotton. Silencing of GhWRKY21 in cotton dramatically increased drought tolerance, whereas ectopic GhWRKY21 overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana decreased drought tolerance. Furthermore, the GhWRKY21-mediated drought tolerance was ABA dependent. To clarify the mechanism underlying the GhWRKY21-mediated regulation of drought tolerance, 17 clade-A-type type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) genes, which are negative regulators of ABA signalling, were identified in cotton. Notably, GhWRKY21 interacted specifically with the W-box element within the promoter of GhHAB and regulated its expression. Silencing of GhHAB in cotton yielded a phenotype similar to that of GhWRKY21-silenced cotton. These results suggest that GhWRKY21 regulates the intensity of ABA signals by facilitating the expression of GhHAB. In summary, these findings dramatically improve our understanding of the function of WRKY TFs and provide insights into the mechanism of ABA-mediated drought tolerance.

18.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 1997-2004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921997

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction. Pathogenic mechanisms underlying COPD remain largely unknown. Objective: The current study was designed to explore serum concentration of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in stable COPD patients and the potential effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on HIF-1α protein expression. Methods: Serum HIF-1α was quantified by ELISA in 102 stable COPD patients before and after 2-week orally taken LBP (100 mL/time, twice daily, 5-15 mg/mL). Correlation of serum LBP and lung function (FEV1%) or blood gas (PO2 and PCO2) was also analyzed. As a control, 105 healthy subjects were also enrolled into this study. Results: Serum concentration of HIF-1α was significantly higher in the stable COPD patients (37.34 ± 7.20 pg/mL) than that in the healthy subjects (29.55 ± 9.66 pg/mL, P<0.001). Oral administration of LBP (5 mg/mL, 100 mL, twice daily for 2 weeks) not only relieved COPD symptoms but also significantly reduced serum HIF-1α concentration (36.94 ± 9.23 vs 30.49 ± 6.42 pg/mL, P<0.05). In addition, level of serum HIF-1α concentration was significantly correlated with PCO2 (r = 0.283, P<0.001), but negatively and significantly correlated with PO2 (r = -0.490, P=0.005) or FEV1%(r = -0.420, P=0.018). Conclusion: These findings suggested that activation of HIF-1 signaling pathway may be involved in the pathophysiology of COPD and that stabilization of serum HIF-1α concentration by LBP might benefit the stable COPD patients.

19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 475, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsporidians are opportunistic pathogens with a wide range of hosts, including invertebrates, vertebrates and even humans. Microsporidians possess a highly specialized invasion structure, the polar tube. When spores encounter an appropriate environmental stimulation, the polar tube rapidly everts out of the spore, forming a 50-500 µm hollow tube that serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into host cells. The polar tube is mainly composed of polar tube proteins (PTPs). So far, five major polar tube proteins have been isolated from microsporidians. Nosema bombycis, the first identified microsporidian, infects the economically important insect silkworm and causes heavy financial loss to the sericulture industry annually. RESULTS: A novel polar tube protein of N. bombycis (NbPTP6) was identified. NbPTP6 was rich in histidine (H) and serine (S), which contained a signal peptide of 16 amino acids at the N-terminus. NbPTP6 also had 6 potential O-glycosylation sites and 1 potential N-glycosylation site. The sequence alignment analysis revealed that NbPTP6 was homologous with uncharacterized proteins from other microsporidians (Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellem and N. ceranae). Additionally, the NbPTP6 gene was expressed in mature N. bombycis spores. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) result showed that NbPTP6 is localized on the whole polar tube of the germinated spores. Moreover, IFA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assays results revealed that NbPTP6 had cell-binding ability. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, we have confirmed that NbPTP6 is a novel microsporidian polar tube protein. This protein could adhere with the host cell surface, so we speculated it might play an important role in the process of microsporidian infection.

20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(8): e343-e351, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most previous assessments of the hazardous effects attributable to fine particulate matter (PM2·5) exposure have used ambient PM2·5 as an exposure metric, resulting in substantial bias in effect estimates. We did a study to examine the association between cause-specific mortality and the time-weighted average of PM2·5 exposure after accounting for indoor exposure in 267 cities in China. METHODS: We did a nationwide study, using Laser Egg air quality monitors in 36 cities to obtain data for indoor PM2·5 concentrations from 18 484 anonymised households between Nov 1, 2015 and July 2, 2018. We developed and validated a nationwide indoor PM2·5 prediction model for a further 302 cities by retrieving raw records of hourly concentrations from residents' air sensors; the model was used to predict indoor PM2·5 during 2013 to 2018. Daily ambient PM2·5 concentration data were estimated by averaging hourly ambient PM2·5 concentrations obtained from China's National Urban Air Quality Real-time Publishing Platform. Daily numbers of deaths from all non-accidental causes were obtained from 324 cities from the Disease Surveillance Point System of China between Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2017, and calculated for 267 cities that had an average daily mortality above three, and data for PM2·5 concentrations and meteorological information for at least 1 year between 2013 and 2017. We used distributed lag non-linear models to estimate city-specific associations between cause-specific mortality and reconstructed PM2·5 exposure by considering indoor PM2·5 exposure. We combined the city-specific effect estimates at the national level using a random effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: 13 972 records of daily indoor PM2·5 concentrations for 36 cities, extracted from 47 459 183 raw records from the sensors were included for modelling indoor PM2·5 levels. The nationwide indoor PM2·5 concentration was 40 µg/m3 (SD 21) between 2013 and 2017, which was approximately 20% lower than the ambient PM2·5 concentration of 50 µg/m3 (42). An increase of 10 µg/m3 in time-averaged PM2·5 exposure concentrations was associated with increased daily mortality estimates of 0·44% (95% CI 0·33-0·54) for total non-accidental causes, 0·50% (0·37-0·63) for cardiovascular diseases, 0·46% (0·28-0·63) for coronary heart disease, 0·49% (0·32-0·66) for stroke, 0·59% (0·39-0·79) for respiratory diseases, and 0·69% (0·45-0·92) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respectively. Compared with previous estimations based on ambient PM2·5, our estimates approximately doubled the size of the effects related to PM2·5. INTERPRETATION: This nationwide study revealed a higher mortality risk attributed to time-averaged indoor and ambient PM2·5 exposure compared with the risk associated with ambient PM2·5 exposure alone, which indicates that caution should be exercised when using ambient PM2·5 as a surrogate for PM2·5 exposure. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Youth Program) and the Fundamental Research Project of Beihang University.

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