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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 500, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840244

RESUMO

As a highly salt-resistant mangrove, Avicennia marina can thrive in the hypersaline water. The leaves of Avicennia marina play a crucial role in salinity stress adaptability by secreting salt. Although the functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in leaves remain unknown, they have emerged as regulators in leaf development, aging and salt response. In this study, we employed transcriptomic data of both short-term and long-term salt treated leaves to identify salt-associated lncRNAs of leaf tissue. As a result, 687 short-term and 797 long-term salt-associated lncRNAs were identified. Notably, both short-term and long-term salt-associated lncRNAs exhibited slightly longer lengths and larger exons, but smaller introns compared with salt-non-associated lncRNAs. Furthermore, salt-associated lncRNAs also displayed higher tissue-specificity than salt-non-associated lncRNAs. Most of the salt-associated lncRNAs were common to short- and long-term salt treatments. And about one fifth of the downregulated salt-associated lncRNAs identified both in two terms were leaf tissue-specific lncRNAs. Besides, these leaf-specific lncRNAs were found to be involved in the oxidation-reduction and photosynthesis processes, as well as several metabolic processes, suggesting the noticeable functions of salt-associated lncRNAs in regulating salt responses of Avicennia marina leaves.


Assuntos
Avicennia , Folhas de Planta , RNA Longo não Codificante , RNA de Plantas , Avicennia/genética , Avicennia/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
2.
Exp Ther Med ; 28(1): 292, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827468

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe neurological complication following spinal fracture, which has long posed a challenge for clinicians. Microglia play a dual role in the pathophysiological process after SCI, both beneficial and detrimental. The underlying mechanisms of microglial actions following SCI require further exploration. The present study combined three different machine learning algorithms, namely weighted gene co-expression network analysis, random forest analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis, to screen for differentially expressed genes in the GSE96055 microglia dataset after SCI. It then used protein-protein interaction networks and gene set enrichment analysis with single genes to investigate the key genes and signaling pathways involved in microglial function following SCI. The results indicated that microglia not only participate in neuroinflammation but also serve a significant role in the clearance mechanism of apoptotic cells following SCI. Notably, bioinformatics analysis and lipopolysaccharide + UNC569 (a MerTK-specific inhibitor) stimulation of BV2 cell experiments showed that the expression levels of Anxa2, Myo1e and Spp1 in microglia were significantly upregulated following SCI, thus potentially involved in regulating the clearance mechanism of apoptotic cells. The present study suggested that Anxa2, Myo1e and Spp1 may serve as potential targets for the future treatment of SCI and provided a theoretical basis for the development of new methods and drugs for treating SCI.

3.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 242, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silicosis represents a paramount occupational health hazard globally, with its incidence, morbidity, and mortality on an upward trajectory, posing substantial clinical dilemmas due to limited effective treatment options available. Trigonelline (Trig), a plant alkaloid extracted mainly from coffee and fenugreek, have diverse biological properties such as protecting dermal fibroblasts against ultraviolet radiation and has the potential to inhibit collagen synthesis. However, it's unclear whether Trig inhibits fibroblast activation to attenuate silicosis-induced pulmonary fibrosis is unclear. METHODS: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Trig in the context of silicosis-related pulmonary fibrosis, a mouse model of silicosis was utilized. The investigation seeks to elucidated Trig's impact on the progression of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by evaluating protein expression, mRNA levels and employing Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome, and Sirius Red staining. Subsequently, we explored the mechanism underlying of its functions. RESULTS: In vivo experiment, Trig has been demonstrated the significant efficacy in mitigating SiO2-induced silicosis and BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as evidenced by improved histochemical staining and reduced fibrotic marker expressions. Additionally, we showed that the differentiation of fibroblast to myofibroblast was imped in Trig + SiO2 group. In terms of mechanism, we obtained in vitro evidence that Trig inhibited fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation by repressing TGF-ß/Smad signaling according to the in vitro evidence. Notably, our finding indicated that Trig seemed to be safe in mice and fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: In summary, Trig attenuated the severity of silicosis-related pulmonary fibrosis by alleviating the differentiation of myofibroblasts, indicating the development of novel therapeutic approaches for silicosis fibrosis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Diferenciação Celular , Fibroblastos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos , Fibrose Pulmonar , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose , Animais , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Camundongos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicose/patologia , Silicose/metabolismo , Silicose/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826136

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a family of "forever chemicals" including PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate). These toxic chemicals do not break down in the environment nor in our bodies. In the human body, PFOS and PFOA (perfluoroctanoic acid) have a half-life (T1/2) of about 4-5 years so low daily consumption of these chemicals can accumulate in the human body to a harmful level over a long period. Although the use of PFOS in consumer products was banned in the U.S. in 2022/2023, this forever chemical remains detectable in our tap water and food products. Every American tested has a high level of PFAS in their blood (https://cleanwater.org/pfas-forever-chemicals). In this report, we used a Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) model with primary Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established functional tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier that mimicked the BTB in vivo. Treatment of Sertoli cells with PFOS was found to perturb the TJ-barrier, which was the result of cytoskeletal disruption across the cell cytoplasm, disrupting actin and microtubule polymerization. These changes thus affected the proper localization of BTB-associated proteins at the BTB. Using RNA-Seq transcriptome profiling, bioinformatics analysis, and pertinent biochemical and cell biology techniques, it was discovered that PFOS-induced Sertoli cell toxicity through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; also known as stress-activated protein kinase, SAPK) and its phosphorylated/active form p-JNK signaling pathway. More importantly, KB-R7943 mesylate (KB), a JNK/p-JNK activator, was capable of blocking PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury, supporting the notion that PFOS-induced cell injury can possibly be therapeutically managed.

5.
Food Chem ; 455: 139860, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823137

RESUMO

The current trend is the promotion of antioxidants that are beneficial for both health and the environment. Candida utilis have garnered considerable attention due to their commendable attributes such as non-toxicity and the ability to thrive in waste. Therefore, Candida utilis was used as raw material to isolate and identify new antioxidant peptides by employing methods such as ultrafiltration, DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidant mechanism of peptides was investigated by molecular docking. The properties of antioxidant peptides were evaluated using a variety of computational tools. This study resulted in the identification of two novel antioxidant peptides. According to the molecular docking results, the antioxidant mechanism of Candida utilis peptides operates by obstructing the entry to the myeloperoxidase activity cavity. The (-) CDOCKER energy of antioxidant peptides was 6.2 and 6.1 kcal/mol, respectively. Additionally, computer predictions indicated that antioxidant peptides exhibited non-toxicity and poor solubility.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Aneurysm wall enhancement (AWE) on high-resolution contrast-enhanced vessel wall MRI (VWMRI) is an emerging biomarker for intracranial aneurysms (IAs) stability. Quantification methods of AWE in the literature, however, are variable. We aimed to determine the optimal post-contrast timing to quantify AWE in both saccular and fusiform IAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with unruptured IAs were prospectively recruited. VWMRI was acquired on 1 pre-contrast and 4 consecutive post-contrast phases (each phase was 9 min). Signal intensity values of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and aneurysm wall on pre- and 4 post-contrast phases were measured to determine the aneurysm wall enhancement index (WEI). AWE was also qualitatively analyzed on post-contrast images using previous grading criteria. The dynamic changes of AWE grade and WEI were analyzed for both saccular and fusiform IAs. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients with 42 IAs (27 saccular IAs and 15 fusiform IAs) were included. The changes in AWE grade occurred in 8 (30%) saccular IAs and 6 (40%) in fusiform IAs during the 4 post-contrast phases. The WEI of fusiform IAs decreased 22.0% over time after contrast enhancement (p = 0.009), while the WEI of saccular IAs kept constant during the 4 post-contrast phases (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: When performing quantitative analysis of AWE, acquiring post-contrast VWMRI immediately after contrast injection achieves the strongest AWE for fusiform IAs. While the AWE degree is stable for 36 min after contrast injection for saccular IAs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: The standardization of imaging protocols and analysis methods for AWE will be helpful for imaging surveillance and further treatment decisions of patients with unruptured IAs. KEY POINTS: Imaging protocols and measurements of intracranial aneurysm wall enhancement are reported heterogeneously. Aneurysm wall enhancement for fusiform intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is strongest immediately post-contrast, and stable for 36 min for saccular IAs. Future multi-center studies should investigate aneurysm wall enhancement as an emerging marker of aneurysm growth and rupture.

7.
Mol Pharm ; 21(6): 2922-2936, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751169

RESUMO

With the increased prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in the world, effective pharmacotherapy in clinical practice is still lacking. Previous studies have shown that dibenzazepine (DBZ), a Notch inhibitor, could alleviate NASH development in a mouse model. However, low bioavailability, poor water solubility, and extrahepatic side effects restrict its clinical application. To overcome these barriers, we developed a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive nanoparticle based on the conjugation of bilirubin to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains, taking into account the overaccumulation of hepatic ROS in the pathologic state of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The PEGylated bilirubin can self-assemble into nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and encapsulate insoluble DBZ into its hydrophobic cavity. DBZ nanoparticles (DBZ Nps) had good stability, rapidly released DBZ in response to H2O2, and effectively scavenged intracellular ROS of hepatocytes. After systemic administration, DBZ Nps could accumulate in the liver of the NASH mice, extend persistence in circulation, and improve the bioavailability of DBZ. Furthermore, DBZ Nps significantly improved glucose intolerance, relieved hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation, and ameliorated NASH-induced liver fibrosis. Additionally, DBZ Nps had no significant extrahepatic side effects. Taken together, our results highlight the potential of the ROS-sensitive DBZ nanoparticle as a promising therapeutic strategy for NASH.


Assuntos
Lipogênese , Fígado , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Bilirrubina , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzazepinas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768804

RESUMO

The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is renowned for its high zinc content, but the significant variation among individuals diminishes its value as a reliable source of zinc supplementation. The Zrt/Irt-like protein 1 (ZIP1), a pivotal zinc transporter that facilitates zinc uptake in various organisms, plays crucial roles in regulating zinc content. In the present study, polymorphisms of a ZIP1 gene in C. gigas (CgZIP1-II) were investigated, and their association with zinc content was evaluated through preliminary association analysis in 41 oysters and verification analysis in another 200 oysters. A total of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the exonic region of CgZIP1-II gene, with c.503A>G significantly associated with zinc content. Protein sequence and structure prediction showed that c.503A>G caused a p.Met110Val nonsynonymous mutation located in the metal-binding region of CgZIP1-II, which could influence its affinity for zinc ions, thereby modulating its zinc transport functionality. These results indicate the potential influence of CgZIP1-II polymorphisms on zinc content and provide candidate markers for selecting C. gigas with high zinc content.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions , Crassostrea , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zinco , Animais , Zinco/metabolismo , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/química
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 149: 109612, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705548

RESUMO

SH2 domain containing inositol polyphosphate5-phosphatase-2 (SHIP2) is a member of the 5-phosphatase family, acting as a vital negative regulator of immune response in vertebrates. In the present study, a SHIP2 homologue (designed as CgSHIP2) was identified from Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. There was a SH2 domain, an IPPc domain and a SAM domain in CgSHIP2. The mRNA transcripts of CgSHIP2 were widely expressed in all the tested tissues with the highest expression in haemolymph. The mRNA expressions of CgSHIP2 in haemocytes increased significantly at 6, 12, 48 and 72 h after Vibrio splendidus stimulation. The positive green signals of CgSHIP2 protein were mainly located in cytoplasm of haemocytes. After the expression of CgSHIP2 was inhibited by RNA interference, the mRNA transcripts of interleukin 17s (CgIL-17-1, CgIL-17-2, CgIL-17-3 and CgIL-17-6) in the haemocytes increased significantly at 24 h after V. splendidus stimulation, which were 8.15-fold (p < 0.001), 3.44-fold (p < 0.05), 2.15-fold (p < 0.01) and 4.63-fold (p < 0.05) compared with that in NC-RNAi group, respectively. Obvious branchial swelling and cilium shedding in gills were observed in CgSHIP2-RNAi group at 24 h after V. splendidus stimulation. The results suggested that CgSHIP2 played an important role in controlling inflammatory response induced by bacteria in oysters.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro , Vibrio , Animais , Crassostrea/imunologia , Crassostrea/genética , Vibrio/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Hemócitos/imunologia
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 150: 109620, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740229

RESUMO

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a dsRNA adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) editing enzyme that regulates the innate immune response against virus invasion. In the present study, a novel CgADAR1 was identified from the oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame (ORF) of CgADAR1 was of 3444 bp encoding a peptide of 1147 amino acid residues with two Zα domains, one dsRNA binding motif (DSRM) and one RNA adenosine deaminase domain (ADEAMc). The mRNA transcripts of CgADAR1 were detected in all the examined tissues, with higher expression levels in mantle and gill, which were 7.11-fold and 4.90-fold (p < 0.05) of that in labial palp, respectively. The mRNA transcripts of CgADAR1 in haemocytes were significantly induced at 24 h and 36 h after Poly (A: U) stimulation, which were 6.03-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.37-fold (p < 0.001) of that in control group, respectively. At 48 h after Poly (A:U) stimulation, the mRNA expression of CgRIG-Ⅰ, CgIRF8 and CgIFNLP significantly increased, which were 4.36-fold (p < 0.001), 1.82-fold (p < 0.05) and 1.92-fold (p < 0.05) of that in control group. After CgADAR1 expression was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi), the mRNA expression levels of CgMDA5, CgRIG-Ⅰ, CgTBK1, CgIRF8 and CgIFNLP were significantly increased, which were 11.88-fold, 11.51-fold, 2.22-fold, 2.85-fold and 2.52-fold of that in control group (p < 0.001), and the phosphorylation level of CgTBK1 was also significantly increased. These results suggested that CgADAR1 played a regulation role in the early stages of viral infection by inhibiting the synthesis of interferon-like protein.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Interferons , Animais , Crassostrea/imunologia , Crassostrea/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequência de Bases
11.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 72: 152321, 2024 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759563

RESUMO

Retroperitoneal Ewing sarcomas (RES) are very rare and mostly described in case reports. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinicopathology, molecular characteristics, biological behavior, and therapeutic information of 13 cases of primary RES with immunohistochemical staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and NGS sequencing detection techniques. The thirteen patients included eight males and five females with a mean age of 34 years. Morphologically, the tumors were comprised of small round or epithelial-like cells with vacuolated cytoplasm (6/13,46 %) arranged in diffuse, nested (8/13,62 %) and perivascular (7/13,54 %) patterns. Unusual morphologic patterns, such as meningioma-like swirling structures and sieve-like structures were relatively novel findings. Immunohistochemical studies showed CD99 (12/13; 92 %), CD56 (11/13; 85 %), NKX2.2 (9/13; 69 %), PAX7 (10/11;91 %) and CD117(6/9;67 %) to be positive.12 cases (92 %) demonstrated EWSR1 rearrangement and 3 cases displayed EWSR1::FLI1 fusion by FISH. ERCC4 splice-site variant, a novel pathogenic variant, was discovered for the first time via RNA sequencing. With a median follow-up duration of 14 months (6 to 79 months), 8/13 (62 %) patients died, while 5/13(38 %) survived. Three cases recurred, and five patients developed metastasis to the liver (2 cases), lung (2 cases) and bone (1 case). RES is an aggressive, high-grade tumor, prone to multiple recurrences and metastases, with distinctive morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features. ERCC4 splicing mutation, which is a novel pathogenic variant discovered for the first time, with possible significance for understanding the disease, as well as the development of targeted drugs.


Assuntos
Proteína Homeobox Nkx-2.2 , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais , Sarcoma de Ewing , Humanos , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Ewing/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/genética , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Rearranjo Gênico , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Criança , Proteínas Nucleares , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 279: 116502, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the known reproductive toxicity induced by triptolide (TP) exposure, the regulatory mechanism underlying testicular vacuolization injury caused by TP remains largely obscure. METHODS: Male mice were subjected to TP at doses of 15, 30, and 60 µg/kg for 35 consecutive days. Primary Sertoli cells were isolated from 20-day-old rat testes and exposed to TP at concentrations of 0, 40, 80, 160, 320, and 640 nM. A Biotin tracer assay was conducted to assess the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) assays were employed to investigate BTB function in primary Sertoli cells. Histological structures of the testes and epididymides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The expression and localization of relevant proteins or pathways were assessed through Western blotting or immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: TP exposure led to dose-dependent testicular injuries, characterized by a decreased organ coefficient, reduced sperm concentration, and the formation of vacuolization damage. Furthermore, TP exposure disrupted BTB integrity by reducing the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the testes without affecting basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES) proteins. Through the TER assay, we identified that a TP concentration of 160 nM was optimal for elucidating BTB function in primary Sertoli cells, correlating with reductions in TJ protein expression. Moreover, TP exposure induced changes in the distribution of the BTB and cytoskeleton-associated proteins in primary Sertoli cells. By activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, TP exposure disturbed the balance between mTORC1 and mTORC2, ultimately compromising BTB integrity in Sertoli cells. CONCLUSION: This investigation sheds light on the impacts of TP exposure on testes, elucidating the mechanism by which TP exposure leads to testicular vacuolization injury and offering valuable insights into comprehending the toxic effects of TP exposure on testes.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematotesticular , Citoesqueleto , Diterpenos , Compostos de Epóxi , Fenantrenos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Células de Sertoli , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Testículo , Masculino , Animais , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Sertoli/patologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Camundongos , Barreira Hematotesticular/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematotesticular/patologia , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
World J Stem Cells ; 16(4): 389-409, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OP) has become a major public health problem worldwide. Most OP treatments are based on the inhibition of bone resorption, and it is necessary to identify additional treatments aimed at enhancing osteogenesis. In the bone marrow (BM) niche, bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are exposed to a hypoxic environment. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha (HIF-2α) is involved in BMSC osteogenic differentiation, but the molecular mechanism involved has not been determined. AIM: To investigate the effect of HIF-2α on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs and the hematopoietic function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the BM niche on the progression of OP. METHODS: Mice with BMSC-specific HIF-2α knockout (Prx1-Cre;Hif-2αfl/fl mice) were used for in vivo experiments. Bone quantification was performed on mice of two genotypes with three interventions: Bilateral ovariectomy, semilethal irradiation, and dexamethasone treatment. Moreover, the hematopoietic function of HSCs in the BM niche was compared between the two mouse genotypes. In vitro, the HIF-2α agonist roxadustat and the HIF-2α inhibitor PT2399 were used to investigate the function of HIF-2α in BMSC osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Finally, we investigated the effect of HIF-2α on BMSCs via treatment with the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) agonist MHY1485 and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. RESULTS: The quantitative index determined by microcomputed tomography indicated that the femoral bone density of Prx1-Cre;Hif-2αfl/fl mice was lower than that of Hif-2αfl/fl mice under the three intervention conditions. In vitro, Hif-2αfl/fl mouse BMSCs were cultured and treated with the HIF-2α agonist roxadustat, and after 7 d of BMSC adipogenic differentiation, the oil red O staining intensity and mRNA expression levels of adipogenesis-related genes in BMSCs treated with roxadustat were decreased; in addition, after 14 d of osteogenic differentiation, BMSCs treated with roxadustat exhibited increased expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The opposite effects were shown for mouse BMSCs treated with the HIF-2α inhibitor PT2399. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used to confirm that HIF-2α regulated BMSC osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation by inhibiting the mTOR pathway. Consequently, there was no significant difference in the hematopoietic function of HSCs between Prx1-Cre;Hif-2αfl/fl and Hif-2αfl/fl mice. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that inhibition of HIF-2α decreases bone mass by inhibiting the osteogenic differentiation and increasing the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs through inhibition of mTOR signaling in the BM niche.

14.
Sleep Med ; 119: 296-311, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723575

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is the most prevalent sleep and respiratory disorder. This syndrome can induce severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, and intermittent hypoxia is a pivotal contributor to this damage. Vascular pathology is closely associated with the impairment of target organs, marking a focal point in current research. Vascular lesions are the fundamental pathophysiological basis of multiorgan ailments and indicate a shared pathogenic mechanism among common cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions, suggesting their importance as a public health concern. Increasing evidence shows a strong correlation between OSAHS and vascular lesions. Previous studies predominantly focused on the pathophysiological alterations in OSAHS itself, such as intermittent hypoxia and fragmented sleep, leading to vascular disruptions. This review aims to delve deeper into the vascular lesions affected by OSAHS by examining the microscopic pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Emphasis has been placed on examining how OSAHS induces vascular lesions through disruptions in the endothelial barrier, metabolic dysregulation, cellular phenotype alterations, neuroendocrine irregularities, programmed cell death, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and epigenetic modifications. This review examines the epidemiology and associated risk factors for OSAHS and vascular diseases and subsequently describes the existing evidence on vascular lesions induced by OSAHS in the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, retinal, renal and reproductive systems. A detailed account of the current research on the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating vascular lesions caused by OSAHS is provided, culminating in a discussion of research advancements in therapeutic modalities to mitigate OSAHS-related vascular lesions and the implications of these treatment strategies.

15.
Biol Psychiatry Glob Open Sci ; 4(4): 100317, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711865

RESUMO

Schizotypy refers to a latent personality organization that reflects liability to schizophrenia. Because schizotypy is a multidimensional construct, people with schizotypy vary in behavioral and neurobiological features. In this article, we selectively review the neuropsychological and neurobiological profiles of people with schizotypy, with a focus on negative schizotypy. Empirical evidence is presented for alterations of neuropsychological performance in negative schizotypy. We also cover the Research Domain Criteria domains of positive valence, social process, and sensorimotor systems. Moreover, we systematically summarize the neurobiological correlates of negative schizotypy at the structural, resting-state, and task-based neural levels, as well as the neurochemical level. The convergence and inconsistency of the evidence are critically reviewed. Regarding theoretical and clinical implications, we argue that negative schizotypy represents a useful organizational framework for studying neuropsychology and neurobiology across different psychiatric disorders.


This perspective paper provides empirical evidence to show that schizotypy, and especially negative schizotypy, are associated with alterations of positive valence, social process, and sensorimotor systems domains within the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). This perspective paper also systematically summarizes the neurobiological correlates of negative schizotypy at the structural, resting-state, and task-based neural levels, as well as the neurochemical level. We argue that negative schizotypy represents a useful organizational framework for studying neuropsychology and neurobiology across different psychiatric disorders.

16.
bioRxiv ; 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746287

RESUMO

Viral infection induces production of type I interferons and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that play key roles in inhibiting viral infection. Here, we show that the ISG guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5) inhibits N-linked glycosylation of key proteins in multiple viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. GBP5 binds to accessory subunits of the host oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex and blocks its interaction with the spike protein, which results in misfolding and retention of spike protein in the endoplasmic reticulum likely due to decreased N-glycan transfer, and reduces the assembly and release of infectious virions. Consistent with these observations, pharmacological inhibition of the OST complex with NGI-1 potently inhibits glycosylation of other viral proteins, including MERS-CoV spike protein, HIV-1 gp160, and IAV hemagglutinin, and prevents the production of infectious virions. Our results identify a novel strategy by which ISGs restrict virus infection and provide a rationale for targeting glycosylation as a broad antiviral therapeutic strategy.

17.
J Org Chem ; 89(10): 7047-7057, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669210

RESUMO

An efficient method for the construction of C-P(V) and C-P(III) bonds via the iron-catalyzed phosphorylation of alcohols under ligand-free conditions is disclosed. This strategy represents a straightforward process to prepare a series of phosphine oxides and phosphine compounds in good to excellent yields from the readily available alcohols and P-H compounds. A plausible mechanism is also proposed. We anticipate that this mode of transforming simple alcohols would apply in chemical synthesis widely.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642610

RESUMO

The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is rich in taurine, which is crucial for its adaptation to the fluctuating intertidal environment and presents significant potential in improving taurine nutrition and boosting immunity in humans. Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a key enzyme involved in the initial step of taurine biosynthesis and plays a crucial role in regulating taurine content in the body. In the present study, polymorphisms of CDO gene in C. gigas (CgCDO) and their association with taurine content were evaluated in 198 individuals. A total of 24 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were identified in the exonic region of CgCDO gene by direct sequencing. Among these SNPs, c.279G>A and c.287C>A were found to be significantly associated with taurine content, with the GG and AA genotype at the two loci exhibiting enhanced taurine accumulation (p < 0.05). Haplotype analysis revealed that the 279GG/287AA haplotype had the highest taurine content of 29.24 mg/g, while the 279AA/287CC haplotype showed the lowest taurine content of 21.19 mg/g. These results indicated that the SNPs of CgCDO gene could influence the taurine content in C. gigas and have potential applications in the selective breeding of high-taurine varieties.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Cisteína Dioxigenase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Taurina , Taurina/metabolismo , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Crassostrea/enzimologia , Animais , Cisteína Dioxigenase/genética , Cisteína Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Haplótipos
19.
J Clin Anesth ; 95: 111474, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608531

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Propofol is a commonly utilized anesthetic for painless colonoscopy, but its usage is occasionally limited due to its potential side effects, including cardiopulmonary suppression and injection pain. To address this limitation, the novel compound ciprofol has been proposed as a possible alternative for propofol. This study sought to determine whether there are any differences in the safety and efficacy of propofol and ciprofol for painless colonoscopy. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Single-centre, class A tertiary hospital, November 2021 to November 2022. PATIENTS: Adult, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I to II and body mass index of 18 to 30 kg m-2 patients scheduled to undergo colonoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: Consecutive patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive sedation for colonoscopy with ciprofol (group C) or propofol (group P). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was the success rate of colonoscopy. The secondary outcomes were onset time of sedation, operation time, recovery time and discharge time, patients and endoscopists satisfaction, side effects (e.g. injection pain, myoclonus, drowsiness, dizziness, procedure recall, nausea and vomiting) and incidence rate of cardiopulmonary adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: No significant difference was found in the success rate of colonoscopy between the two groups (ciprofol 96.3% vs. propofol 97.6%; mean difference - 1.2%, 95% CI: -6.5% to 4.0%, P = 0.650). However, group C showed prolonged sedation (63.4 vs. 54.8 s, P < 0.001) and fully alert times (9 vs 8 min, P = 0.013), as well as reduced incidences of injection pain (0 vs. 40.2%, P < 0.001), respiratory depression (2.4% vs. 13.4%, P = 0.021) and hypotension (65.9% vs. 80.5%, P = 0.034). Patients satisfaction was also higher in Group C (10 vs 9, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofol can be used independently for colonoscopy. When comparing the sedation efficacy of ciprofol and propofol, a 0.4 mg kg-1 dose of ciprofol proved to be equal to a 2.0 mg kg-1 dose of propofol, with fewer side effects and greater patient satisfaction during the procedure.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Propofol , Humanos , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/efeitos adversos , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Colonoscopia/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Satisfação do Paciente , Idoso , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Duração da Cirurgia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos
20.
Opt Express ; 32(6): 10669-10678, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571272

RESUMO

Many applications involve the phenomenon of a material absorbing electromagnetic radiation. By exploiting wave interference, the efficiency of absorption can be significantly enhanced. Here, we propose Friedrich-Wintgen bound states in the continuum (F-W BICs) based on borophene metamaterials to realize coherent perfect absorption with a dual-band absorption peak in commercially important communication bands. Metamaterials consist of borophene gratings and a borophene sheet that can simultaneously support a Fabry-Perot plasmon resonance and a guided plasmon mode. The formation and dynamic modulation of the F-W BIC can be achieved by adjusting the width or carrier density of the borophene grating, while the strong coupling leads to the anti-crossover behavior of the absorption spectrum. Due to the weak angular dispersion originating from the intrinsic flat-band characteristic of the deep sub-wavelength periodic structure, the proposed plasmonic system exhibits almost no change in wavelength and absorption at large incident angles (within 70 degrees). In addition, we employ the temporal coupled-mode theory including near- and far-field coupling to obtain strong critical coupling, successfully achieve coherent perfect absorption, and can realize the absorption switch by changing the phase difference between the two coherent beams. Our findings can offer theoretical support for absorber design and all-optical tuning.

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