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2.
Opt Express ; 28(1): 205-215, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118951

RESUMO

The room-temperature strong plasmon-exciton coupling is first investigated in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide-resonator system with WS2 monolayer. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulated results exhibit that the Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity is realized by the MIM plasmonic waveguide with two separated metal bars. When the F-P resonance is tuned to overlap with the A-exciton absorption peak of WS2 monolayer, the strong plasmon-exciton coupling is obtained at visible wavelengths. As a result, the spectral splitting response confirmed by the coupled-mode theory (CMT) appears in the transmission spectrum. Intriguingly, the switching response is handily witnessed by tuning the orientation of WS2 monolayer along the cavity, and the coupling strength is dynamically tuned by changing the position of the WS2 monolayer. Simultaneously, the anticrossing behavior with the Rabi splitting up to 109 meV is achieved by small changes in the length of the F-P cavity and the refractive index of dielectric in the cavity, respectively. The underlying physics is further revealed by the coupled oscillator model (COM). The proposed strong plasmon-exciton coupling can find utility in highly integrated plasmonic circuits for optical switching.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(7): 770-776, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glomus tumors (GTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplastic lesions derived from cells of the glomus body. GTs rarely occurs in the visceral organs, where there may be few or no glomus bodies, and the majority of GTs are benign, rarely demonstrating aggressive or malignant behavior and histological features. CASE SUMMARY: We report a patient with malignant GTs of the intestinal ileum with multiorgan metastases who was admitted due to moderate anemia. Capsule endoscopy revealed a bleeding mass in the intestinal ileum, and the patient underwent segmental ileal resection through laparoscopic surgery. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnoses were consistent with malignant GT. Long-term follow-up showed that the GT had metastasized to multiple organs such as the colon, brain, and possibly the lung. CONCLUSION: This case was characterized by the highest degree of malignancy and by multiorgan metastases, and it was the first case of intestinal GT uncovered by capsule endoscopy.

4.
J Neurol ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify to resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) connectivity alterations in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) imaging was performed to measure the resting-state CBF in 23 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis at the peak stage of the disease and 32 healthy subjects. CBF was normalized to reduce variations among subjects. CBF was compared between the groups, and the correlations between the CBF alterations and clinical parameters were assessed. Differences in CBF connectivity in specific brain regions were also compared between groups. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy subjects, the patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis exhibited increased CBF in the left insula (L_insula), left superior temporal lobe (L_STL), L_hippocampus, L_pallidum, bilateral putamen (Bi_putamen), and Bi_caudate, and decreased CBF in the bilateral precuneus (Bi_Pc) and bilateral occipital lobe (Bi_OL) (P < 0.05, FEW corrected). Compared with healthy subjects, the patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis exhibited increased negative CBF connectivity between the Bi_Pc, Bi_OL and L_TL, L_insula (P < 0.05, FEW corrected). Anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients with behavioral changes exhibited higher CBF in the L_insula and lower CBF in the R_Pc, Bi_calcarine, Bi_cuneus, and Bi_lingual than patients without behavioral changes and health controls. The ROC curve shows changed CBF in the L_insula, and R_Pc, Bi_calcarine, Bi_cuneus, and Bi_lingual served as a predictor of behavioral changes in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis may exhibit both regional CBF abnormalities and deficits in CBF connectivity, which may underlie the clinical symptoms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

5.
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol ; 55(1): 71-87, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207344

RESUMO

Studies on cell polarity proteins and planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins date back to almost 40 years ago in Drosophila and C. elegans when these proteins were shown to be crucial to support apico-basal polarity and also directional alignment of polarity cells across the plane of an epithelium during morphogenesis. In adult mammals, cell polarity and PCP are most notable in cochlear hair cells. However, the role of these two groups of proteins to support spermatogenesis was not explored until a decade earlier when several proteins that confer cell polarity and PCP proteins were identified in the rat testis. Since then, there are several reports appearing in the literature to examine the role of both cell polarity and PCP in supporting spermatogenesis. Herein, we provide an overview regarding the role of cell polarity and PCP proteins in the testis, evaluating these findings in light of studies in other mammalian epithelial cells/tissues. Our goal is to provide a timely evaluation of these findings, and provide some thought provoking remarks to guide future studies based on an evolving concept in the field.

6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1457-1462, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155116

RESUMO

A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming Bacillus strain, 17-SMS-01T, isolated from spent mushroom substrate in the Fangshan District, Beijing, PR China, was initially identified as a Bacillus cereus group species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain 17-SMS-01T had the highest sequence similarities to Bacillus wiedmannii FSL W8-0169T (99.9 %), Bacillus albus N35-10-2T (99.9 %), Bacillus luti TD41T (99.9 %) and Bacillus proteolyticus TD42T (99.9 %). However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values between strain 17-SMS-01T and the most closely related species were less than the previously proposed cut-off values of 96 % (ANI) and 70 % (DDH) for differentiating species within the genus, suggesting that this strain represents a novel Bacillus group species. The fatty acid profile of strain 17-SMS-01T, which showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Bacillus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (100%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, an unidentified aminophospholiped and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 35.0 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain 17-SMS-01T from the most closely related recognized species. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain 17-SMS-01T represents a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus fungorum sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain of the novel species is 17-SMS-01T (=MCCC 1K03483T=KCTC 33949T).

7.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 108: 103686, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205179

RESUMO

A robust immune response against invading pathogens greatly depends on the balance of metabolism, which could be vigorously modulated by insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway in vertebrates. However, knowledge on the IIS pathway, especially the function of insulin-like peptides (ILPs) in invertebrates remained largely unknown. In the present study, a novel ILP was identified from Eriocheir sinensisis (designated EsILP). The coding sequence of EsILP was of 216 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 71 amino acids containing an IlGF-like domain with four conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA transcripts of EsILP were found to be expressed dominantly in eyestalks and hepatopancreas, and EsILP protein was found to be distributed in the anterior median area of thoracic ganglion mass and the edges of hepatic tubules correspondingly. After Aeromonas hydrophila stimulation, EsILP transcripts were significantly increased at 3, 12 and 24 h post-stimulation in eyestalks and 6 and 48 h in hemocytes, respectively. In contrast, the expression level of EsILP decreased significantly in hepatopancreas from 6 h to 12 h after the stimulation. The glucose level in the hemolymph of crabs was significantly decreased from 6 to 12 h after the injection of recombinant EsILP. These results collectively demonstrated that the ancient ILP protein in E. sinensisis could negatively regulate glucose metabolism and participate in the immune response of the crabs against pathogen infection, which provided clues for the further investigation about the evolution and function of the IIS pathway in invertebrates.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208937

RESUMO

Background: The contribution of genetic copy number variations (CNVs) to allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify genetic CNVs related to AR in the Han Chinese population. Methods: A case/parent trio of patients of Han Chinese descent affected with AR was examined using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing. Select CNVs were also explored for AR association in a validation cohort of 696 diagnosed AR patients and 528 matched controls. AccuCopy™, a multiplex fluorescence competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, was used for genotyping of the CNV and was further validated with real-time PCR. Results: In the case/parent trio study, 67 CNVs were found in the Database of Genomic Variants and shared by patients within the family; 7 of these CNVs had a frequency higher than 0.05. A duplication at 11P15.5 was found involving three mucin-encoding genes (MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B) previously identified as candidate genes for asthma and other chronic inflammatory upper airway diseases. In the validation cohort, no CNVs for MUC2 or MUC5B were identified. However, in the case group, 36.21% of individuals had a duplication of MUC5AC, and 28.03% of controls had MUC5AC duplication (χ2 = 9.123; p = 0.0025). The association of MUC5AC copy number with AR was significant in a multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for age and sex (Padj = 0.0010; OR = 2.073; 95% CI, 1.625-2.805). Real-time PCR validation confirmed duplication of MUC5AC, and the CNV genotype detected with AccuCopy assay was validated for 58 (96.67%) individuals. Furthermore, individuals with a high MUC5AC copy number showed enhanced total blood eosinophil counts in the total sample group and the case group (Spearman's ρ: 0.162, p < 0.001; Spearman's ρ: 0.240, p < 0.001). Conclusions: MUC5AC copy number is associated with AR susceptibility. Additional validation and functional studies are warranted to elucidate the effect of MUC5AC CNV on gene expression and AR risk.

9.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 65: 105049, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203919

RESUMO

Rice protein hydrolysates (RPH) are incapable of film formation by self-crosslinking due to low molecular mass. Hence, we used chitosan (CS) as a modifier and developed rice protein hydrolysates/chitosan (RPH/CS) edible composite films by means of ultrasound. Results showed that ultrasound treatment decreased the particle size and the viscosity of film-forming solutions. The value of elongation at break of composite films was increased by 125% at 400 W compared with untreated film. The peroxide value of soybean oil was significantly reduced from 16.99 ± 0.78 meq/kg to 2.23 ± 0.09 meq/kg with the increase of ultrasonic power. Ultrasound treatment was efficient in keeping smooth on surface, and the films at ultrasound treatment of 200 W had better compatibility. Moreover, hydrogen bonds and covalent interactions were probably the main forces between RPH and CS and contributed to film formation under ultrasound treatment, which supported by analyses of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These results suggested that ultrasound was an effective method to improve the properties of edible composite films.

10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 29-40, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081325

RESUMO

To investigate the characteristics of ground level ozone (O3) for Henan Province, the ambient air quality monitoring data of 2015 and 2016 were analyzed. The result showed that the 8 h-max-O3 concentrations displayed a distinct seasonality, where the maximum and minimum values, averaging 140.41, 54.19 µg/m3, occurred in summer and winter, respectively. There is a significant correlation between meteorological factors and O3 concentration. The Voronoi neighborhood averaging analysis indicated that O3, temperature, and ultraviolet radiation in Henan province were decreased from northwest to southeast, while relative humidity and precipitation displayed the opposite trend. Besides meteorological factors, the chemical processes play an essential role in ozone formation. Reactions of NO, NO2 and O3 form a closed system, and the partitioning point of the OX-component (O3 + NO2) was at 40 and 80 µg/m3 for nitrogen oxide (NOX) in winter and summer, respectively, with NO2 dominating at higher NOx pollution and O3 being the major component at lower levels. The relationship between oxidant (OX = O3+NO2) and NOx concentrations were evaluated to understand the regional and local contribution of OX. It showed that high regional contribution occurred in the spring, whereas the highest local contribution lead to the summer peak of O3 observed in Zhengzhou. This present study reveals important environment impacts from the photochemical process and the meteorological conditions in the region with better understanding on the O3 characterization.

11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 167-175, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044463

RESUMO

Galectins belong to the family of carbohydrate-binding proteins and play major roles in the immune and inflammatory responses of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, one novel galectin-1 protein named AjGal-1 was identified from Apostichopus japonicas with an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding a polypeptide of 392 amino acids. The deduced amino acids sequence of AjGal-1 contained three carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) which shared 34-37% identity with that of other galectin proteins from echinodermata, fishes, and birds. In the phylogenetic tree, AjGal-1 was closely clustered with galectins from Mesocentrotus nudus and Paracentrotus lividus. The mRNA transcripts of AjGal-1 were ubiquitously expressed in all the detected tissues, including gut, longitudinal muscle, gonad, coelomocytes, respiratory tree, tentacle and body wall, with the highest expression level in coelomocytes. After Vibrio splendidus stimulation, the mRNA expression levels of AjGal-1 in coelomocytes were significantly increased at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.01) compared with that in control group, and went back to normal level at 72 h. The recombinant protein of AjGal-1 (rAjGal-1) could bind various PAMPs including d-galactose, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and mannose (Man), and exhibited the highest affinity to d-galactose. Meanwhile, rAjGal-1 could also bind and agglutinate different kinds of microorganisms, including gram-negative bacteria (V. splendidus and Escherichia coli), gram-positive bacteria (Micrococus leteus), and fungi (Pichia pastoris). rAjGal-1 also exhibited anti-microbial activity against V. splendidus and E. coli. All these results suggested that AjGal-1 could function as an important PRR with broad spectrum of microbial recognition and anti-microbial activity against the invading pathogen in A. japonicas.

12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 442-451, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084540

RESUMO

The homeostasis of immune cells during immune response is vital for hosts to defend against invaders. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is an important transcription factor in the unfolded protein response (UPR) to maintaining cellular homeostasis. In the present study, one ATF6 homologue was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated as CgATF6ß). The full length cDNA of CgATF6ß was of 2645 bp with a 1596 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 531 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of CgATF6ß was predicted to contain a transmembrane region, a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, a site 1 protease cleavage site, a site 2 protease cleavage site, and a Golgi localization signal. CgATF6ß mRNA was constitutively expressed in hemocytes, gill, mantle, gonad, hepatopancreas and labial palp, with a slightly higher expression level in muscle (2.45-fold of that in gill, p < 0.05). After oysters were challenged with Vibrio splendidus, the mRNA expression levels of CgATF6ß in hemocytes were significantly up-regulated at 3 h (2.68-fold of that in seawater group, p < 0.01) and peaked at 12 h (3.14-fold of that in seawater group, p < 0.01). The endogenic CgATF6ß protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm of oyster hemocytes, and it was significantly transported into the nuclei of hemocytes at 1.5 h after the challenge with V. splendidus. After an injection with CgATF6ß dsRNA, the mRNA expression of CgATF6ß was knocked down to 0.26-fold of that in dsGFP group (p < 0.01). In CgATF6ß dsRNA-injected oysters, the mRNA expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calnexin (CNX) and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in hemocytes were significantly decreased at 12 h after V. splendidus challenge, which were 0.65-fold (p < 0.01), 0.54-fold (p < 0.01) and 0.17-fold (p < 0.01) of that in dsGFP-injected oysters, while the apoptotic rate of hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (1.97-fold of that in dsGFP group, p < 0.05). Collectively, these results suggested that CgATF6ß was involved in apoptosis inhibition of oyster hemocytes upon V. splendidus challenge by regulating the expression of CgGRP78, CgCNX and CgBcl-2.

13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 594-602, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109614

RESUMO

The programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) is a newly defined transcriptional and translational inhibitor, which plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines in vertebrates species. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of PDCD4 from oyster Crassostrea gigas (designed as CgPDCD4) was identified to explore its possible involvement in immune response. The open reading frame of pdcd4 gene was of 1344 bp encoding a polypeptide of 447 amino acids with two conserved MA-3 domains. The deduced amino acid sequence of CgPDCD4 shared 60.18% similarity with PDCD4 from Mizuhopecten yessoensis. The mRNA transcripts of CgPDCD4 could be detected in all the tested tissues with a higher expression level in adductor muscle and hemocytes. The mRNA expression of CgPDCD4 in hemocytes was significantly down-regulated at 3 h and 6 h (0.61-fold and 0.42-fold of that in PBS group, p < 0.01, respectively) after LPS stimulation. In hemocytes, CgPDCD4 protein was found to be mainly located in the cytoplasm. After the mRNA expression of CgPDCD4 in hemocytes was knocked down (0.40-fold of that in EGFP-RNAi group) by CgPDCD4 dsRNA (dsCgPDCD4) injection, the CgIL17-5 transcripts were up-regulated (20.11-fold of that in PBS group, p < 0.01) post LPS stimulation, which was significantly higher than that in dsEGFP-injected oysters (7.06-fold of that in PBS group, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the nuclear translocation of CgRel (homologue of Rel/NF-κB) was significantly enhanced (about 1.36-fold of that in PBS group, p < 0.01), but it was similar as that in EGFP-RNAi group (about 1.52-fold of that in PBS group, p < 0.01) after LPS stimulation. All the results suggested that CgPDCD4 in oysters played the same role as PDCD4 of vertebrates in negatively regulating the production of interleukin in immune response, but the underpinning signal pathway was not conserved during evolution.

14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 49: 101971, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developed based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self Report (MAP-SR) was designed to address the conceptual and psychometric limitations of other instruments assessing negative symptoms. We sought to validate and extend the applicability of the MAP-SR in the Chinese context across the schizophrenia spectrum. METHODS: Three samples, including college students, individuals with social anhedonia and patients with schizophrenia, were recruited. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, factor structure, and convergent/discriminant validity of the MAP-SR were examined. The group differences between the three participant groups were examined. RESULTS: A four-factor structure of the MAP-SR was found consistently in all three groups of participants. The scale showed convergent/discriminant validity in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with social anhedonia, along with good reliability found in schizophrenia patients. The MAP-SR was also able to distinguish individuals with SocAnh and patients with SZ from matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The MAP-SR is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing negative symptoms in individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

15.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(4): 1191-1198, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors associated with central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). METHODS: A total of 553 patients with PTMC confirmed by histological examination, who underwent thyroidectomy and central neck dissection (CND), were enrolled. The clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features from the patients were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: PTMC patient age, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), tumor location, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), microcalcification and higher E values were correlated with the incidence of CLNM. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, HT, tumor location, ETE and Emax were related to the extent of CLNM. Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) classification tree model showed that patients with tumor in upper/lower third combined ETE had a high risk of CLNM. Furthermore, cN0 PTMC patients with age ≤ 45 years and ETE had more extensive CLNM. CONCLUSION: Our observations could be helpful for the assessment of prognostic factors of PTMC patients with CLNM.

16.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963357

RESUMO

Owing to overexploitation, wild resources of Astragalus mongolica, a Chinese herbal plant that is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China, have gradually become exhausted, and therefore, commercial cultivation is increasingly important to meet the growing demand for astragalus and reduce the pressure on wild populations. Nitrogen level is an important factor that affects the yield and quality of A. mongolica. However, uniform standards for fertilization among production areas have not yet been determined. In this study, the effect of nitrogen fertilizer treatment on the yield and quality of A. mongolica in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was explored using a control treatment (no added nitrogen, N0) and five different nutrient levels: 37.5 kg/ha (N1), 75 kg/ha (N2), 112.5 kg/ha (N3), 150 kg/ha (N4), and 187.5 kg/ha (N5). According to grey relational analysis, the optimal nitrogen fertilizer treatment was the N4 level followed by the N5 and N2 levels. Nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased the root biomass, plant height, root length, and root diameter. However, nitrogen fertilization had no significant effect on the content of Astragaloside IV and mullein isoflavone glucoside. The content of ononin and calycosin continually accumulated throughout the growing period. The results showed that the ononin and calycosin content under N4 and N2 is higher than other levels and there is not significantly different between different nitrogen fertilizer levels about them. The content of formononetin decreased gradually with the progression of the growing season. The optimal nitrogen fertilizer treatment for A. mongolica is recommended to be 150 kg/ha and the content of active compounds and yield were observed to reach the maximum in October.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 566: 79-89, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991367

RESUMO

In this paper, CuCo2O4 dandelion arrays grown on nickel foam (CuCo2O4/NF) was successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route with post-heat-treatment for emolying as a high-performance positive electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. Due to the unique tree-dimension porous (3D) microstructure and binder-free electrode architecture, the CuCo2O4/NF electrode deliveries a large specific capacitance of 2656.7 F g-1 at an areal current density of 1 mA cm-2. Moreover, it has an outstanding rate performance, as well as striking cycling stability. Additionally, a hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs) was fabricated using CuCo2O4 as positive electrode and corals-like N-doping porous carbon (N-CCs) as negative electrode. The device exhibited a broad potential window of 1.55 V and a high specific capacitance of 273.9 F g-1, which result in a largest energy density of 91.4 Wh kg-1 and a maximum power density of 13.4 kW kg-1. Finally, the assembled device manifests a preeminent electrochemical stability which maintained a 92.32% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. The practical application was visually validated by lighting a blue light-emitting diode.

18.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935825

RESUMO

Pectin is a major polysaccharide component that promotes plant growth and fiber elongation in cotton. In previous studies, the galacturonosyltransferase-like (GATL) gene family has been shown to be involved in pectin synthesis. However, few studies have been performed on cotton GATL genes. Here, a total of 33, 17, and 16 GATL genes were respectively identified in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium raimondii, and Gossypium arboreum. In multiple plant species, phylogenetic analysis divided GATL genes into five groups named GATL-a to GATL-e, and the number of groups was found to gradually change over evolution. Whole genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication played a significant role in the expansion of the GATL gene family in G. hirsutum. Selection pressure analyses revealed that GATL-a and GATL-b groups underwent a great positive selection pressure during evolution. Moreover, the expression patterns revealed that most of highly expressed GhGATL genes belong to GATL-a and GATL-b groups, which have more segmental duplications and larger positive selection value, suggesting that these genes may play an important role in the evolution of cotton plants. We overexpressed GhGATL2, GhGATL9, GhGATL12, and GhGATL15 in Arabidopsis and silenced the GhGATL15 gene in cotton through a virus induced gene silencing assay (VIGS). The transgenic and VIGS lines showed significant differences in stem diameter, epidermal hair length, stamen length, seed size, and fiber length than the control plant. In addition, the pectin content test proved that the pectin was significantly increased in the transgenic lines and reduced in VIGS plants, demonstrating that GhGATL genes have similar functions and act on the pectin synthesis to regulate plant growth and fiber elongation. In summary, we performed a comprehensive analysis of GhGATL genes in G. hirsutum including evolution, structure and function, in order to better understand GhGATL genes in cotton for further studies.

19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 138-146, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891811

RESUMO

Oyster Crassostrea gigas, is considered as a useful environmental indicator since it is widely distributed along the intertidal zone whereby it tends to accumulate cadmium and is always exposed to various pathogen agents. However, its molecular responses to both cadmium and pathogen stimulation remain unclear. In the present study, transcriptome data of hemocytes from oysters were analyzed to reveal specific molecular responses of oyster to cadmium or cadmium/bacteria stimulation. A total of 21591, 22872 and 20107 genes were detected in the BLANK, Cd24h and Cd/Bac24h group, respectively. Among them, there were 685 differentially expressed genes collected in the comparison of Cd24h versus BLANK. GO analysis of these genes found that sixteen terms into the Molecular Function category displayed transporter activities, and were all over-enrichment by cadmium exposure, whereas twelve terms into Biological Process category involved mainly in metabolic process of the various cellular components and two terms into Cellular Component category were all under-enrichment. The 330 immune responsive genes were shared by two gene lists of CdBac24h versus BLANK and CdBac24h versus Cd24h, and seven out of thirty terms in GO analysis were related to the immune process. Further annotation of these genes from the KEGG database revealed fourteen pathways, including two nervous system related pathways, arachidonic acid pathway, four immune pathways, MAPK cascade and other four cell signaling pathways, and two energy related pathways. Twenty-two differentially expressed genes were identified to responsive to both cadmium exposure and bacteria stimulation, but in different expression patterns, suggesting that bilateral responsive genes, such as alkaline phosphatase and sodium and chloride-dependent glycine transporter gene, could be candidate biomarkers for early warning of cadmium pollution. The present results collectively indicated that a profound neuro-endocrine-immune regulatory network was activated in response to cadmium and bacteria stimulation in oyster C. gigas, and the expression pattern of some cadmium responsive genes may be either reversed or strengthened by bacteria stimulation. The results provide knowledge on the transcriptomic response profile of oyster after short-term cadmium exposure and bacteria stimulation, which would be useful for future studies on stress response mechanism of mollusc, and some cadmium-bacteria responsive genes may be explored as potential biomarkers for monitoring marine pollution.

20.
J Mol Model ; 26(2): 26, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927620

RESUMO

The interactions between the template molecule paclitaxel (PTX) and seven functional monomers containing methacrylic acid (MA), acrolein (AC), 4-vinylbenzoic acid (4VA), acrylonitrile (AN), 2-vinylpyridine (2VP), 2,6-bisacrylamide pyridine (BAP) and methyl methacrylate (MM) were systematically investigated adopting the density functional theory (DFT) method. Moreover, the different binding sites on PTX and solvents embracing chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol, and acetonitrile were considered. The calculated solvent energies (ΔEsolvent) and template-monomer binding energies (ΔEb) suggest that the chloroform is the most suitable solvent for the molecular imprinting reaction of PTX among the studied five solvents. Furthermore, from the obtained ΔEb, we can find that the monomer 4VA combining with PTX in the form of the specific intermolecular hydrogen bonds would present the most stable structure among the investigated monomers. These results can provide valuable theoretical guidance for the efficient extraction of PTX by the molecular imprinting technique in experiments. Graphical abstracts.

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