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1.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 17(6): 1079-1085, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38895672

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with internal limiting membrane (ILM) and silicone oil or sterile air tamponade for the treatment of myopic foveoschisis (MF) in highly myopic eyes. METHODS: This retrospective study included 48 myopic eyes of 40 patients with MF and axial lengths (ALs) ranging from 26-32 mm treated between January 2020 and January 2022. All patients were underwent PPV combined with ILM peeling followed by sterile air or silicone oil tamponade and followed up at least 12mo. Based on the features on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the eyes were divided into the MF-only group (Group A, n=15 eyes), MF with central foveal detachment group (Group B, n=20 eyes), and MF with lamellar macular hole group (Group C, n=13 eyes). According to AL, eyes were further divided into three groups: Group D (26.01-28.00 mm, n=12 eyes), Group E (28.01-30.00 mm, n=26 eyes), and Group F (30.01-32.00 mm, n=10 eyes). The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness (CFT), and complications were recorded. RESULTS: The patients included 16 males and 24 females with the mean age of 56±9.82y. The BCVA and CFT improved in all groups after surgery (P<0.01), while there was no significant difference of the CFT in Group A, B, and C postoperatively (P>0.05). The intergroup differences of BCVA and CFT postoperatively were statistically significant in Group D, E, and F. Twenty eyes were injected with sterile air, and 28 eyes were injected with silicone oil for tamponade based on the AL. However, there was no statistically significant difference among Groups D, E, and F in terms of the results of sterile air or silicone oil tamponade. The mean recovery time was 5.9mo for MF patients subjected to silicone oil tamponade and 7.7mo for patients subjected to sterile air tamponade, and the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: PPV and ILM peeling combined with silicone oil or sterile air tamponade can achieve good results for MF in highly myopic eyes with ALs≤32 mm.

2.
Ann Hematol ; 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888616

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) has different epidemiology in Chinese vs. Western patients, but there are few studies of CLL/SLL in large populations of Chinese patients. ALPINE is a global phase 3 trial investigating Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors zanubrutinib vs. ibrutinib to treat relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL/SLL. Here we report results from the subgroup of Chinese patients. Adults with R/R CLL/SLL were randomized 1:1 to receive zanubrutinib (160 mg twice-daily) or ibrutinib (420 mg once-daily) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Data were analyzed descriptively. Ninety patients were randomized in China (zanubrutinib, n = 47; ibrutinib, n = 43). Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups, with fewer male patients in the zanubrutinib vs. ibrutinib group (55.3% vs. 69.8%). Median age was 60.5 years, 11% had del(17p) mutation, and 32% had tumor protein 53 (TP53) mutation. With median 25.3 months follow-up, ORR was 80.9% with zanubrutinib vs. 72.1% with ibrutinib. PFS was improved with zanubrutinib vs. ibrutinib (HR = 0.34 [95% CI, 0.15, 0.77]), and the HR for OS was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.14, 1.50). Rates of Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; 64.4% vs. 72.1%), AEs leading to discontinuation (6.4% vs. 14.0%), and serious TEAEs (35.6% vs. 51.2%) were lower with zanubrutinib vs. ibrutinib. Zanubrutinib demonstrated improved ORR, PFS, and OS vs. ibrutinib and a more favorable safety profile in patients with R/R CLL/SLL in China. These results are consistent with the full global population of ALPINE. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03734016, registered November 7, 2018.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 16: 1345918, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863783

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is neurodegenerative disease in middle-aged and elderly people with some pathological mechanisms including immune disorder, neuroinflammation, white matter injury and abnormal aggregation of alpha-synuclein, etc. New research suggests that white matter injury may be important in the development of PD, but how inflammation, the immune system, and white matter damage interact to harm dopamine neurons is not yet understood. Therefore, it is particularly important to delve into the crosstalk between immune cells in the central and peripheral nervous system based on the study of white matter damage in PD. This crosstalk could not only exacerbate the pathological process of PD but may also reveal new therapeutic targets. By understanding how immune cells penetrate through the blood-brain barrier and activate inflammatory responses within the central nervous system, we can better grasp the impact of structural destruction of white matter in PD and explore how this process can be modulated to mitigate or combat disease progression. Microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and peripheral immune cells (especially T cells) play a central role in its pathological process where these immune cells produce and respond to pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß) and interleukin-6(IL-6), and white matter injury causes microglia to become pro-inflammatory and release inflammatory mediators, which attract more immune cells to the damaged area, increasing the inflammatory response. Moreover, white matter damage also causes dysfunction of blood-brain barrier, allows peripheral immune cells and inflammatory factors to invade the brain further, and enhances microglia activation forming a vicious circle that intensifies neuroinflammation. And these factors collectively promote the neuroinflammatory environment and neurodegeneration changes of PD. Overall, these findings not only deepen our understanding of the complexity of PD, but also provide new targets for the development of therapeutic strategies focused on inflammation and immune regulation mechanisms. In summary, this review provided the theoretical basis for clarifying the pathogenesis of PD, summarized the association between white matter damage and the immune cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and then emphasized their potential specific mechanisms of achieving crosstalk with further aggravating the pathological process of PD.

4.
Environ Manage ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867057

RESUMO

The development of renewable energy has become an important means for the world to cope with climate change, ensure energy security, and protect the ecological environment. Using the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2013 to 2021, this study used the mediating effect model and the spatial Durbin model (SDM) to explore the mechanism and spatial effects of renewable energy development on China's regional carbon emission reduction. The results show that: (1) Renewable energy development can help to reduce carbon emission intensity. (2) The results of mechanism analysis show that renewable energy development reduces carbon intensity by improving energy structure, promoting industrial structure optimization, and industrial structure upgrading. (3) The development of renewable energy can not only reduce the local carbon intensity but also have a positive spillover effect on the carbon intensity of neighboring regions. (4) Further analysis shows that the long-term effect of renewable energy development on carbon emissions is greater than the short-term effect. At the same time, the heterogeneity analysis shows that compared with the Yellow River basin, the development of renewable energy has a significant carbon emission reduction effect in the Yangtze River Economic Belt region. Energy-rich areas fall into the "resource curse", which makes the carbon emission reduction effect of renewable energy development not significant. This paper has certain reference significance for promoting reasonable decomposition between regions and formulating renewable energy development policies.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870427

RESUMO

The structural transformation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has attracted increasing interests, which has not only produced various new structures but also served as a fantastic platform for MOF-based kinetic analysis. Multiple reaction conditions have been documented to cause structural transformation; nevertheless, central metal-induced topological alteration of MOFs is rare. Herein, we reported a structural transformation of a 2D layered Cd-MOF driven by Cd(II) ions. After being submerged in the aqueous solution of cadmium nitrate, the twofold interpenetrated 2D network of [Cd(hsb-2)(bdc)·5H2O]n [HSB-W10; bdc: 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; hsb-2:1,2-bis(4'-pyridylmethylamino)-ethane] was converted into a novel noninterpenetrated 2D network [Cd1.5(hsb-2)(bdc)1.5(H2O)2·H2O]n (HSB-W16). This partial dissolution-recrystallization process was investigated by integrating controlled experiments, 1H NMR spectra, and photographic tracking analysis. Furthermore, a novel strategy combining in situ multicomponent dye encapsulation and central metal-triggered structural transformation was developed for the fabrication of MOF materials with white-light emission. By adopting this strategy, different dye guest molecules were concurrently introduced into the HSB-W16 host matrix, leading to a range of white-light-emitting MOF composites. This work will enable detailed studies of solid-state transformations and demonstrate a promising application prospect for structural transformation.

6.
Cancer Med ; 13(11): e7330, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) have multiple concurrent physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to explore the relationship between anxiety, depression, and symptom burden in advanced CRC. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 cancer centers from geographically and economically diverse sites in China. A total of 454 patients with advanced CRC completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory. Multiple regression analysis was applied to explore the relationship between anxiety, depression and symptom burden. RESULTS: About one-third of the patients showed symptoms of anxiety or depression. Patients with anxiety or depression reported significantly higher symptom burden than those without (p < 0.001). Patients with anxiety or depression reported a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe (MS) symptom number than those without (p < 0.001). About 52% of the patients with anxiety or depression reported at least three MS symptoms. The prevalence of MS symptoms was ranging from 7.3% (shortness of breath) to 22% (disturbed sleep), and in patients with anxiety or depression was 2-10 times higher than in those without (p < 0.001). Disease stage (ß = -2.55, p = 0.003), anxiety (ß = 15.33, p < 0.001), and depression (ß = 13.63, p < 0.001) were associated with higher symptom burden. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression in patients with advanced cancer correlated with higher symptom burden. Findings may lead oncology professionals to pay more attention to unrecognized and untreated psychological symptoms in symptom management for advanced cancer patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Neoplasias Colorretais , Depressão , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Qualidade de Vida , Carga de Sintomas
7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(11)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38891404

RESUMO

The aim of this study is the fabrication of unprecedented neuroelectrodes, replete with exceptional biological and electrical attributes. Commencing with the synthesis of polyethylene glycol and polyethyleneimine-modified iron oxide nanoparticles, the grafting of Dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine was embarked upon to generate DMPC-SPION nanoparticles. Subsequently, the deposition of DMPC-SPIONs onto a nickel-chromium alloy electrode facilitated the inception of an innovative neuroelectrode-DMPC-SPION. A meticulous characterization of DMPC-SPIONs ensued, encompassing zeta potential, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. Evaluations pertaining to hemolysis and cytotoxicity were conducted to ascertain the biocompatibility and biosafety of DMPC-SPIONs. Ultimately, a comprehensive assessment of the biocompatibility, electrochemical properties, and electrophysiological signal acquisition capabilities of DMPC-SPION neuroelectrodes was undertaken. These findings conclusively affirm the exemplary biocompatibility, electrochemical capabilities, and outstanding capability in recording electrical signals of DMPC-SPION neuroelectrodes, with an astounding 91.4% augmentation in electrode charge and a noteworthy 13% decline in impedance, with peak potentials reaching as high as 171 µV and an impressive signal-to-noise ratio of 15.92. Intriguingly, the novel DMPC-SPION neuroelectrodes herald an innovative pathway towards injury repair as well as the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.

8.
Neurosci Bull ; 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896358

RESUMO

The kidneys are essential organs that help maintain homeostasis, and their function is regulated by the neural system. Despite the anatomical multi-synaptic connection between the central autonomic nuclei and the kidneys, it remains unclear whether there are any variations in neural connections between the nervous systems and the renal cortex and medulla in male and female mice. Here, we used the pseudorabies virus to map the central innervation network of the renal cortex and medulla in both sexes. The data revealed that specific brain regions displayed either a contralateral-bias or ipsilateral-bias pattern while kidney-innervating neurons distributed symmetrically in the midbrain and hindbrain. Sex differences were observed in the distribution of neurons connected to the left kidney, as well as those connected to the renal cortex and medulla. Our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the brain-kidney network in both males and females and may help shed light on gender differences in kidney function and disease susceptibility in humans.

9.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 551, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous, recurrent and aggressively invasive primary malignant brain tumor. The heterogeneity of GBM results in poor targeted therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to depict the cellular landscape of GBM and its peritumor from a single-cell perspective. Discovering new cell subtypes and biomarkers, and providing a theoretical basis for precision therapy. METHODS: We collected 8 tissue samples from 4 GBM patients to perform 10 × single-cell transcriptome sequencing. Quality control and filtering of data by Seurat package for clustering. Inferring copy number variations to identify malignant cells via the infercnv package. Functional enrichment analysis was performed by GSVA and clusterProfiler packages. STRING database and Cytoscape software were used to construct protein interaction networks. Inferring transcription factors by pySCENIC. Building cell differentiation trajectories via the monocle package. To infer intercellular communication networks by CellPhoneDB software. RESULTS: We observed that the tumor microenvironment (TME) varies among different locations and different GBM patients. We identified a proliferative cluster of oligodendrocytes with high expression of mitochondrial genes. We also identified two clusters of myeloid cells, one primarily located in the peritumor exhibiting an M1 phenotype with elevated TNFAIP8L3 expression, and another in the tumor and peritumor showing a proliferative tendency towards an M2 phenotype with increased DTL expression. We identified XIST, KCNH7, SYT1 and DIAPH3 as potential factors associated with the proliferation of malignant cells in GBM. CONCLUSIONS: These biomarkers and cell clusters we discovered may serve as targets for treatment. Targeted drugs developed against these biomarkers and cell clusters may enhance treatment efficacy, optimize immune therapy strategies, and improve the response rates of GBM patients to immunotherapy. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for the development of individualized treatment and precision medicine for GBM, which may be used to improve the survival of GBM patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Glioblastoma , Análise de Célula Única , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Agregação Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
10.
bioRxiv ; 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826190

RESUMO

Liquid-like protein condensates perform diverse physiological functions. Previous work showed that VASP, a processive actin polymerase, forms condensates that polymerize and bundle actin. To minimize their curvature, filaments accumulated at the inner condensate surface, ultimately deforming the condensate into a rod-like shape, filled with a bundle of parallel filaments. Here we show that this behavior does not require proteins with specific polymerase activity. Specifically, we found that condensates composed of Lamellipodin, a protein that binds actin but is not an actin polymerase, were also capable of polymerizing and bundling actin filaments. To probe the minimum requirements for condensate-mediated actin bundling, we developed an agent-based computational model. Guided by its predictions, we hypothesized that any condensate-forming protein that binds actin could bundle filaments through multivalent crosslinking. To test this idea, we added an actin-binding motif to Eps15, a condensate-forming protein that does not normally bind actin. The resulting chimera formed condensates that drove efficient actin polymerization and bundling. Collectively, these findings broaden the family of proteins that could organize cytoskeletal filaments to include any actin-binding protein that participates in protein condensation.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e2403961, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830614

RESUMO

In recent years, conjugated polymers have received widespread attention due to their characteristic advantages of light weight, favorable solution processability, and structural modifiability. Among various conjugated polymers, fluorinated ones have developed rapidly to achieve high-performance n-type or ambipolar polymeric semiconductors. The uniqueness of fluorinated conjugated polymers contains the high coplanarity of their structures, lower frontier molecular orbital energy levels, and strong nonbonding interactions. In this review, first the fluorinated building blocks, including fluorinated benzene and thiophene rings, fluorinated B←N bridged units, and fluoroalkyl side chains are summarized. Subsequently, different synthetic methods of fluorinated conjugated polymers are described, with a special focus on their respective advantages and disadvantages. Then, with these numerous fluorinated structures and appropriate synthetic methods bear in mind, the properties and applications of the fluorinated conjugated polymers, such as cyclopentadithiophene-, amide-, and imide-based polymers, and B←N embedded polymers, are systematically discussed. The introduction of fluorine atoms can further enhance the electron-deficiency of the backbone, influencing the charge carrier transport performance. The promising fluorinated conjugated polymers are applied widely in organic field-effect transistors, organic solar cells, organic thermoelectric devices, and other organic opto-electric devices. Finally, the outlook on the challenges and future development of fluorinated conjugated polymers is systematically discussed.

12.
Environ Int ; 189: 108783, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temperature affects influenza transmission; however, currently, limited evidence exists about its effect in China at the national and city levels as well as how temperature can be integrated into influenza interventions. METHODS: Meteorological, pollutant, and influenza data from 201 cities in mainland China between 2013 and 2018 were analyzed at both the city and national levels to investigate the relationship between temperature and influenza prevalence. We examined the impact of temperature on the time-varying reproduction number (Rt) using generalized additive quasi-Poisson regression models combined with the distributed lag nonlinear model. Threshold temperatures were determined for seven regions based on the early warning threshold of serious influenza outbreaks, set at Rt = 1.2. A multivariate random-effects meta-analysis was employed to assess region-specific associations. The excess risk (ER) index was defined to investigate the correlation between Rt and temperature, modified based on seasonal and regional characteristics. RESULTS: At the national level and in the central, northern, northwestern, and southern regions, temperature was found to be negatively correlated with relative risk, whereas the shapes of the data curves for the eastern, southwestern, and northeastern regions were not well defined. Low temperatures had an observable effect on influenza prevalence; however, the effects of high temperatures were not obvious. At an Rt of 1.2, the threshold temperatures for reaching a warning for serious influenza outbreaks were - 24.3 °C in the northeastern region, 16.6 °C in the northwestern region, and between 1℃ and 10 °C in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study findings revealed that temperature had a varying effect on influenza transmission trends (Rt) across different regions in China. By identifying region-specific temperature thresholds at Rt = 1.2, more effective early warning systems for influenza outbreaks could be tailored. These findings emphasize the significance of the region-specific adaptation of influenza prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Cidades , Influenza Humana , Temperatura , China/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 176: 116844, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823279

RESUMO

In contemporary times, tumors have emerged as the primary cause of mortality in the global population. Ongoing research has shed light on the significance of neurotransmitters in the regulation of tumors. It has been established that neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in tumor cell angiogenesis by triggering the transformation of stromal cells into tumor cells, modulating receptors on tumor stem cells, and even inducing immunosuppression. These actions ultimately foster the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Several major neurotransmitters have been found to exert modulatory effects on tumor cells, including the ability to restrict emergency hematopoiesis and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, thereby inhibiting malignant progression. The abnormal secretion of neurotransmitters is closely associated with tumor progression, suggesting that focusing on neurotransmitters may yield unexpected breakthroughs in tumor therapy. This article presents an analysis and outlook on the potential of targeting neurotransmitters in tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias , Neurotransmissores , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo
14.
Small ; : e2403448, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881353

RESUMO

Alcohol electrooxidation is pivotal for a sustainable energy economy. However, designing efficient electrocatalysts for this process is still a formidable challenge. Herein, palladium-selenium nanowires featuring distinct crystal phases: monoclinic Pd7Se2 and tetragonal Pd4.5Se for ethylene glycol electrooxidation reaction (EGOR) are synthesized. Notably, the supported monoclinic Pd7Se2 nanowires (m-Pd7Se2 NWs/C) exhibit superior EGOR activity, achieving a mass activity (MA) and specific activity (SA) of 10.4 A mgPd -1 (18.7 mA cm-2), which are 8.0 (6.7) and 10.4 (8.2) times versus the tetragonal Pd4.5Se and commercial Pd/C and surpass those reported in the literature. Furthermore, m-Pd7Se2 NWs/C displays robust catalytic activity for other alcohol electrooxidation. Comprehensive characterization and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the enhanced electrocatalytic performance is attributed to the increased formation of Pd0 on the high-index facets of the m-Pd7Se2 NWs, which lowers the energy barriers for the C─C bond dissociation in CHOHCHOH* and the CO* oxidation to CO2*. This study provides palladium-based alloy electrocatalysts exhibiting the highest mass activity reported to date for the electrooxidation of ethylene glycol, achieved through the crystalline phase engineering strategy.

15.
Int J Gen Med ; 17: 2527-2538, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841128

RESUMO

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that systemic inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers, along with derived indices, could serve as predictors for sarcopenia in cancer population. This study aimed to compare these predictors, focusing on the nutritional risk index (NRI) and evaluate its diagnostic value, for sarcopenic patients without cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study included 1674 participants. Sarcopenia is defined by skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Laboratory data reflected the values of systemic inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers, from which the derived indices were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ROC curve analysis, and the Youden index were utilized to assess the association between these markers and sarcopenia and determine the cutoff value for predicting sarcopenia. Results: Among all participants (1110 men and 564 women, mean age 61.97 ± 9.83 years), 398 individuals were diagnosed with sarcopenia, indicating a prevalence of 23.78% in China's middle-aged and elderly population without cancer. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between all biomarkers and derived indices with sarcopenia. Following adjustment for potential confounders, lower NRI values were significantly associated with a higher incidence of sarcopenia. For sarcopenia diagnosis, the area under the curve (AUC) for NRI was 0.769 ([95% CI, 0.742, 0.796], P < 0.001), with a cutoff value of 106.016, sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 66.1%. NRI demonstrated greater predictive advantage for sarcopenia incidence in men compared to women. Conclusion: A lower NRI value was associated with a higher prevalence of sarcopenia. NRI shows promise for early, rapid, and effective sarcopenia screening, particularly in China's middle-aged and elderly male population without cancer.

16.
Small ; : e2401767, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847563

RESUMO

Porous graphene, including 2D and 3D porous graphene, is widely researched recently. One of the most attractive features is the proper utilization of graphene defects, which combine the advantages of both graphene and porous materials, greatly enriching the applications of porous graphene in biology, chemistry, electronics, and other fields. In this review, the defects of graphene are first discussed to provide a comprehensive understanding of porous graphene. Then, the latest advancements in the preparation of 2D and 3D porous graphene are presented. The pros and cons of these preparation methods are discussed in detail, providing a direction for the fabrication of porous graphene. Moreover, various superior properties of porous graphene are described, laying the foundation for their promising applications. Owing to its abundant morphology, wide distribution of pore size, and remarkable properties benefited from porous structure, porous graphene can not only promote molecular diffusion and electron transfer but also expose more active sites. Consequently, a serious of applications containing gas sieving, liquid separation, sensors, and supercapacitors, are presented. Finally, the challenges confronted during preparation and characterization of porous graphene are discussed, offering guidance for the future development of porous graphene in fabrication, characterization, properties, and applications.

18.
Aging Cell ; : e14226, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808779

RESUMO

Dysregulation of growth hormone (GH) signaling consistently leads to increased lifespan in laboratory rodents, yet the precise mechanisms driving this extension remain unclear. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of the beneficial effects associated with GH deficiency could unveil novel therapeutic targets for promoting healthy aging and longevity. In our pursuit of identifying metabolites implicated in aging, we conducted an unbiased lipidomic analysis of serum samples from growth hormone-releasing hormone knockout (GHRH-KO) female mice and their littermate controls. Employing a targeted lipidomic approach, we specifically investigated ceramide levels in GHRH-KO mice, a well-established model of enhanced longevity. While younger GHRH-KO mice did not exhibit notable differences in serum lipids, older counterparts demonstrated significant reductions in over one-third of the evaluated lipids. In employing the same analysis in liver tissue, GHRH-KO mice showed pronounced downregulation of numerous ceramides and hexosylceramides, which have been shown to elicit many of the tissue defects that accompany aging (e.g., insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cell death). Additionally, gene expression analysis in the liver tissue of adult GHRH-KO mice identified substantial decreases in several ceramide synthesis genes, indicating that these alterations are, at least in part, attributed to GHRH-KO-induced transcriptional changes. These findings provide the first evidence of disrupted ceramide metabolism in a long-lived mammal. This study sheds light on the intricate connections between GH deficiency, ceramide levels, and the molecular mechanisms influencing lifespan extension.

19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47626, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond the direct effect of COVID-19 infection on young people, the wider impact of the pandemic on other infectious diseases remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess changes in the incidence and mortality of 42 notifiable infectious diseases during the pandemic among children and adolescents in China, compared with prepandemic levels. METHODS: The Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System of China was used to detect new cases and fatalities among individuals aged 5-22 years across 42 notifiable infectious diseases spanning from 2018 to 2021. These infectious diseases were categorized into 5 groups: respiratory, gastrointestinal and enterovirus, sexually transmitted and blood-borne, zoonotic, and vector-borne diseases. Each year (2018-2021) was segmented into 4 phases: phase 1 (January 1-22), phase 2 (January 23-April 7), phase 3 (April 8-August 31), and phase 4 (September 1-December 31) according to the varying intensities of pandemic restrictive measures in 2020. Generalized linear models were applied to assess the change in the incidence and mortality within each disease category, using 2018 and 2019 as the reference. RESULTS: A total of 4,898,260 incident cases and 3701 deaths were included. The overall incidence of notifiable infectious diseases decreased sharply during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) compared with prepandemic levels (2018 and 2019), and then rebounded in 2021, particularly in South China. Across the past 4 years, the number of deaths steadily decreased. The incidence of diseases rebounded differentially by the pandemic phase. For instance, although seasonal influenza dominated respiratory diseases in 2019, it showed a substantial decline during the pandemic (percent change in phase 2 2020: 0.21, 95% CI 0.09-0.50), which persisted until 2021 (percent change in phase 4 2021: 1.02, 95% CI 0.74-1.41). The incidence of gastrointestinal and enterovirus diseases decreased by 33.6% during 2020 but rebounded by 56.9% in 2021, mainly driven by hand, foot, and mouth disease (percent change in phase 3 2021: 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.41) and infectious diarrhea (percent change in phase 3 2020: 1.22, 95% CI 1.17-1.28). Sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases were restrained during the first year of 2021 but rebounded quickly in 2021, mainly driven by syphilis (percent change in phase 3 2020: 1.31, 95% CI 1.23-1.40) and gonorrhea (percent change in phase 3 2020: 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.16). Zoonotic diseases were not dampened by the pandemic but continued to increase across the study period, mainly due to brucellosis (percent change in phase 2 2020: 0.94, 95% CI 0.75-1.16). Vector-borne diseases showed a continuous decline during 2020, dominated by hemorrhagic fever (percent change in phase 2 2020: 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.87), but rebounded in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a marked decline in notifiable infectious diseases in Chinese children and adolescents. These effects were not sustained, with evidence of a rebound to prepandemic levels by late 2021. To effectively address the postpandemic resurgence of infectious diseases in children and adolescents, it will be essential to maintain disease surveillance and strengthen the implementation of various initiatives. These include extending immunization programs, prioritizing the management of sexually transmitted infections, continuing feasible nonpharmaceutical intervention projects, and effectively managing imported infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pandemias , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Mol Plant ; 17(6): 955-971, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745413

RESUMO

Circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have been rarely found in fungi, and the evolutionary and ecological relationships among ssDNA viruses infecting fungi and other organisms remain unclear. In this study, a novel circular ssDNA virus, tentatively named Diaporthe sojae circular DNA virus 1 (DsCDV1), was identified in the phytopathogenic fungus Diaporthe sojae isolated from pear trees. DsCDV1 has a monopartite genome (3185 nt in size) encapsidated in isometric virions (21-26 nm in diameter). The genome comprises seven putative open reading frames encoding a discrete replicase (Rep) split by an intergenic region, a putative capsid protein (CP), several proteins of unknown function (P1-P4), and a long intergenic region. Notably, the two split parts of DsCDV1 Rep share high identities with the Reps of Geminiviridae and Genomoviridae, respectively, indicating an evolutionary linkage with both families. Phylogenetic analysis based on Rep or CP sequences placed DsCDV1 in a unique cluster, supporting the establishment of a new family, tentatively named Gegemycoviridae, intermediate to both families. DsCDV1 significantly attenuates fungal growth and nearly erases fungal virulence when transfected into the host fungus. Remarkably, DsCDV1 can systematically infect tobacco and pear seedlings, providing broad-spectrum resistance to fungal diseases. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that DsCDV1 P3 is systematically localized in the plasmodesmata, while its expression in trans-complementation experiments could restore systematic infection of a movement-deficient plant virus, suggesting that P3 is a movement protein. DsCDV1 exhibits unique molecular and biological traits not observed in other ssDNA viruses, serving as a link between fungal and plant ssDNA viruses and presenting an evolutionary connection between ssDNA viruses and fungi. These findings contribute to expanding our understanding of ssDNA virus diversity and evolution, offering potential biocontrol applications for managing crucial plant diseases.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples , Micovírus , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Micovírus/genética , Micovírus/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Ascomicetos/virologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Vírus de DNA/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma Viral , Pyrus/microbiologia , Pyrus/virologia , Nicotiana/virologia , Nicotiana/microbiologia
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