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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142323, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182196

RESUMO

Controlling anthropogenic mercury emissions is an ongoing effort and the effect of atmospheric mercury mitigation is expected to be impacted by accelerating climate change. The lockdown measures to restrict the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the following unfavorable meteorology in Beijing provided a natural experiment to examine how air mercury responds to strict control measures when the climate becomes humid and warm. Based on a high-time resolution emission inventory and generalized additive model, we found that air mercury concentration responded almost linearly to the changes in mercury emissions when excluding the impact of other factors. Existing pollution control and additional lockdown measures reduced mercury emissions by 16.7 and 12.5 kg/d during lockdown, respectively, which correspondingly reduced the concentrations of atmospheric mercury by 0.10 and 0.07 ng/m3. Emission reductions from cement clinker production contributed to the largest decrease in atmospheric mercury, implying potential mitigation effects in this sector since it is currently the number one emitter in China. However, changes in meteorology raised atmospheric mercury by 0.41 ng/m3. The increases in relative humidity (9.5%) and temperature (1.2 °C) significantly offset the effect of emission reduction by 0.17 and 0.09 ng/m3, respectively, which highlights the challenge of air mercury control in humid and warm weather and the significance of understanding mercury behavior in the atmosphere and at atmospheric interfaces, especially the impact from relative humidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Mercúrio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Betacoronavirus , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Meteorologia
2.
J R Soc Interface ; 17(172): 20200639, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202177

RESUMO

Interactions among individuals in natural populations often occur in a dynamically changing environment. Understanding the role of environmental variation in population dynamics has long been a central topic in theoretical ecology and population biology. However, the key question of how individuals, in the middle of challenging social dilemmas (e.g. the 'tragedy of the commons'), modulate their behaviours to adapt to the fluctuation of the environment has not yet been addressed satisfactorily. Using evolutionary game theory, we develop a framework of stochastic games that incorporates the adaptive mechanism of reinforcement learning to investigate whether cooperative behaviours can evolve in the ever-changing group interaction environment. When the action choices of players are just slightly influenced by past reinforcements, we construct an analytical condition to determine whether cooperation can be favoured over defection. Intuitively, this condition reveals why and how the environment can mediate cooperative dilemmas. Under our model architecture, we also compare this learning mechanism with two non-learning decision rules, and we find that learning significantly improves the propensity for cooperation in weak social dilemmas, and, in sharp contrast, hinders cooperation in strong social dilemmas. Our results suggest that in complex social-ecological dilemmas, learning enables the adaptation of individuals to varying environments.

3.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(6): 4716-4724, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173955

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common disorder characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. The current techniques detect real­time BMD precisely but do not provide adequate information to predict early bone loss. If bone loss could be diagnosed and predicted early, severe osteoporosis and unexpected fractures could be prevented, allowing for an improved quality of life for individuals. In the present study, an ovariectomized rat model of bone loss was established and the serum levels of 78 potential cytokines were determined using a protein array. The BMD of ovariectomized rats was dynamically measured by micro­CT and the early stage of bone loss was defined at the fourth week after surgery. The expression of several serum protein cytokines was indicated to be altered in the ovariectomized rats during an 8­week time­course of bone loss. Linear regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of C­C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) and C­X­C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) were significantly associated with a reduction in BMD. The significance of these two factors in indicating bone mass reduction was further verified by analyzing serum samples from 24 patients with BMD using ELISA and performing a linear regression analysis. The serum levels of CCL2 and CXCL1 were inversely correlated with the bone mass. Therefore, the cytokines CCL2 and CXCL1 may be potential novel predictors of early bone loss and may be clinically relevant for the early diagnosis and prevention of osteoporosis.

4.
Int Heart J ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191341

RESUMO

Dickkopp-3 (DKK3) has been identified to play a protection role against atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the relationship between serum DKK3 levels and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the association of serum DKK3 with coronary stenosis in an asymptomatic Chinese population. A total of 550 Chinese adults aged 40-60 years and without symptoms or histories of cardiovascular diseases were randomly selected to undergo coronary computed tomography angiography. We defined ≥ 50% luminal narrowing as significant coronary stenosis and measured serum DKK3 levels by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fifty-nine participants had significant coronary stenosis and 223 had < 50% coronary stenosis. Proportions of significant coronary stenosis were 13.7%, 11.4%, and 7.1% in DKK3 tertiles 1-3, respectively (Ptrend = 0.0427). In the univariable multinomial logistic regression model, a decreasing DKK3 tertile was associated with significant coronary stenosis with borderline significance (OR: 1.40; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.98-1.99, P = 0.0642). In the multivariable regression model, participants in the lowest DKK3 tertile were associated with a 1.42-fold increased risk of significant coronary stenosis than those in the highest DKK3 tertile (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.10-5.33; P = 0.0279) after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, associations between DKK3 and significant coronary stenosis were consistent among subgroups. However, no significant association was found between serum DKK3 levels and < 50% coronary stenosis. Therefore, we have added to the existing evidence that serum DKK3 is inversely associated with the risk of significant coronary stenosis in asymptomatic middle-aged Chinese.

5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113654, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157415

RESUMO

The relation of acute fluctuations of air pollution to hospital admission for bronchiectasis remained uncertain, and large-scale studies were needed. We collected daily concentrations of particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and daily hospitalizations for bronchiectasis for 21 cities across Guangdong Province from 2013 through 2017. We examined their association using two-stage time-series analysis. Our analysis was stratified by specific sub-diagnosis, sex and age group to assess potential effect modifications. Relative risks of hospitalization for bronchiectasis were 1.060 (95%CI 1.014-1.108) for PM10 at lag0-6, 1.067 (95%CI 1.020-1.116) for PM2.5 at lag0-6, 1.038 (95%CI 1.005-1.073) for PMcoarse at lag0-6, 1.058 (95%CI 1.015-1.103) for SO2 at lag0-4, 1.057 (95%CI 1.030-1.084) for NO2 at lag0 and 1.055 (95%CI 1.025-1.085) for CO at lag0-6 per interquartile range increase of air pollution. Specifically, acute fluctuations of air pollution might be a risk factor for bronchiectasis patients with lower respiratory infection but not with hemoptysis. Patients aged ≥65 years, and female patients appeared to be particularly susceptible to air pollution. Acute fluctuations of air pollution, particularly PM may increase the risk of hospital admission for bronchiectasis exacerbations, especially for the patients complicated with lower respiratory infection. This study strengthens the importance of reducing adverse impact on respiratory health of air pollution to protect vulnerable populations.

6.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102064, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207306

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells expressing Cas9 protein are valuable for the pathogenic mechanism study and drug discovery. These cells can be efficiently induced to differentiate into disease cell models with specific mutations through adding designed sgRNAs. Here, we generated a human gene-editable iPS cell line by gene editing method that Cas9 gene driven by Tet-on operator was perfectly integrated into the human AAVS1 safe harbor locus. The established Cas9 expression iPS cell line named as WMUi013-A can express endogenous pluripotent markers, has the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers, and possesses a normal karyotype.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8641-8658, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177823

RESUMO

Background: Although photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamics therapy (PDT) have both made excellent progress in tumor therapy, the effectiveness of using PTT or PDT alone is dissatisfactory due to the limitations of the penetration depth in PTT and the hypoxic microenvironment of tumors for PDT. Combination phototherapy has currently become a burgeoning cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: In this work, a mitochondria-targeting liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC)-based oxygen delivery system was developed for the synergistic PDT/photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer through image guiding. Results: Importantly, these nanoparticles (NPs) can effectively and accurately accumulate in the target tumor via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Conclusion: This approach offers a novel technique to achieve outstanding antitumor efficacy by an unprecedented design with tumor mitochondria targeting, oxygen delivery, and synergistic PDT/PTT with dual-imaging guidance.

8.
Gene ; : 145303, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181256

RESUMO

Comparative genomic analysis within Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) populations has greatly enriched our knowledge regarding rice domestication and the divergence of the indica and japonica subspecies, while study on genomic regions associated with improvement within the indica subspecies is still limited. Here, through combined investigation of 2,429 indica cultivar genomes from public sequencing projects, we depict the improvement of modern indica rice in China. We identify three subgroups within indica populations: two geographically distinct, historical subgroups indica I (Ind_I) and indica III (Ind_III) and a modern subgroup indica II (Ind_II). The modern indica subgroup Ind_II shows admixture of the other two subgroups and enrichment of alleles that had been low-frequency in the other two subgroups. The Chinese indica cultivars exhibit a strong subgroup component change from Ind_I to Ind_II in the 1980s. Through haplotype-based comparative analysis, we detect 187 regions associated with separation of Ind_II compared to Ind_I or Ind_III. Within those regions we find strong representation of beneficial agricultural production-related alleles in Ind_II and a positive correlation between grain yield and number of differentiated haplotypes. Phenotypic features of long and slender grain, small tiller angle and decreased flowering time were detected for Ind_II. Through haplotype-based comparative analysis between rice subpopulations and subspecies, we find differentiated haplotypes not only from indica itself but also from japonica and aus, suggesting that introgression from other rice sub-populations has substantially contributed to modern indica rice breeds. These results help clarify the evolutionary landscape of modern indica rice in China and provide useful targets for future improvement.

9.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(4): e20200092, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001132

RESUMO

Gynostemma yixingense, an important medicinal member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is an endemic herbaceous species distributed in East China. It is morphologically similar to the plants in the same genus, which resulted in some confusion in identification and application. Meanwhile, there are still some controversies in taxonomy. Herein, the complete chloroplast genome sequence of G. yixingense was obtained by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and compared to other chloroplast genome sequences of congeneric species. The complete chloroplast genome of G. yixingense is 157,910 bp in length with 36.94% GC content and contains a large single-copy (LSC) region of 86,791 bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,635 bp and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,242 bp. The whole genome contains 133 unique genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, eight rRNA genes and one pseudogene. In addition, 74 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, most of which were A/T rich. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that G. yixingense had the closest relationship to G. laxiflorum. The result of this study provided an important theoretical basis for chloroplast genome and phylogenetic analysis of G. yixingense.

10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3527-3538, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124325

RESUMO

Surface ozone (O3) has become the primary air pollutant in Guangzhou. Due to the influences of topography, meteorological conditions, and differences in precursor emissions, there are also large differences in the characteristics, formation mechanisms, and influencing factors of ozone in different areas of the same city. Based on the ground measurement data for October 2015 at four air quality monitoring stations that represent different types of regions in Guangzhou [urban area:Guangzhou Monitoring Center (GMC); upwind suburbs:Huadu Normal School (HNS); downwind suburbs:Panyu Middle School (PMS); Mountain area:Maofengshan (MFS)] and the WRF simulated meteorological data, the changing characteristics, influencing factors, and sensitivity of O3 were studied at each station. The results showed that the diurnal variation of O3 and NOx exhibit unimodal and bimodal characteristics (except for NOx at the MFS station). The peak ozone concentration appeared on Saturday at the GMC, HNS, and MFS stations, and on Thursday at the PMS station. The ozone concentration at the MFS station was the highest (98.61 µg·m-3), whereas that at the GMC station was the lowest (44.83 µg·m-3). The NOx inflection point intervals for O3 at different sites were:GMC:55-90 µg·m-3; PMS:30-60 µg·m-3; MFS:10-20 µg·m-3. The temperature inflection point intervals affecting the rate of O3 formation at different sites were:GMC:28-30℃; HNS:26-28℃; PMS:24-26℃; however, this was not obvious at the MFS station. The relative humidity inflection point intervals were:GMC:55%-65% ; HNS and PMS:60%-70% ; MFS:80%-85%. The wind speed(WS) of the light wind type was proportional to the O3 concentration. The O3 concentration at the PMS site was the highest in the northwest wind direction, and the O3 concentration at the MFS site was the highest in the other wind directions. By analyzing the multivariate linear fitting of impact factors on the O3 concentration, the main controlling factors at each site were:GMC:WS and T; PMS and HNS:T and RH; MFS:RH and WS. The ozone sensitivity at each site was as follows:GMC and HNS had a VOCs-limited regime, MFS had a NOx-limited regime, and PMS had a transition regime.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano
11.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089595

RESUMO

As the most abundant and genetically diverse biological entities, viruses significantly influence ecological, biogeographical and evolutionary processes in the ocean. However, the biogeography of marine viruses and the drivers shaping viral community are unclear. Here, the biogeographic patterns of T4-like viruses and the relative impacts of deterministic (environmental selection) and dispersal (spatial distance) processes were investigated in the northern South China Sea. The dominant viral operational taxonomic units were affiliated with previously defined Marine, Estuary, Lake and Paddy Groups. A clear viral biogeographic pattern was observed along the environmental gradient from the estuary to open sea. Marine Groups I and IV had a wide geographical distribution, whereas Marine Groups II, III and V were abundant in lower-salinity continental or eutrophic environments. A significant distance-decay pattern was noted for the T4-like viral community, especially for those infecting cyanobacteria. Both deterministic and dispersal processes influenced viral community assembly, although environmental selection (e.g. temperature, salinity, bacterial abundance and community, etc.) had a greater impact than spatial distance. Network analysis confirmed the strong association between viral and bacterial community composition, and suggested a diverse ecological relationship (e.g. lysis, co-infection or mutualistic) between and within viruses and their potential bacterial hosts.

12.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074074

RESUMO

Zinnia elegans (syn. Zinnia violacea), known as common zinnia, is one of the most spectacular ornamental plants in the family Asteraceae. Zinnia plants are widely cultivated in China for their impressive range in flower colours and profuse bloom over a long period. In April 2019, Zinnia plants grown in Ningbo Botanical Garden (29°56'57″N, 121°36'20″E) were found to have many circular necrotic lesions. In the early infection stage, the lesions appeared as small circular specks which developed later into large spots (15 to 32 mm diameter). Typical symptoms appeared to be grayish white centers with a chlorotic edges and disease incidence reached approximately 80% of plants in the affected field. Moreover, the growth of Zinnia plants was seriously affected by the disease. To identify the causative pathogen associated with the disease, 10 symptomatic leaves were collected from ten different Zinnia plants. Leaf tissues were cut from the lesion margins, surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 seconds and rinsed three times in sterile distilled water. The leaf tissues were then dipped into 10% sodium hypochlorite for 2-3 minutes, washed three times in distilled water and dried on a sterile filter paper. After drying, the surface-sterilized leaf discs were transferred to potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates and incubated at 28°C for 2 to 3 days under the 12 h photoperiod. A total of ten pure fungal isolates were obtained and all the isolates displayed the same colony structure. Afterwards, three pure strains were randomly selected (F1, F3 and F5) for further study. The fungal colonies showed gray to brownish aerial mycelia with pink-colored masses of conidia. Conidia were one-celled, hyaline, cylindrical to subcylindrical, spindle-shaped with obtuse ends, measuring from 15.6 to 17.3 × 4.6 to 5.1 µm with both ends rounded. These morphological characteristics were consistent with the description of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex (Weir et al. 2012). The identity of a representative isolate, F3, was confirmed by a multilocus approach. Genomic DAN of isolate F3 was extracted and partial sequences of actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) , glutamine synthatase (GS), beta-tubulin (TUB2) and calmodulin (CAL) were amplified and sequenced as previously described (Weir et al. 2012). These nucleotide sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession MN972436 to MN972440, and MT266559 to MT266561; all sequences in FASTA format are shown (Supplementary S1). BLAST analysis of ITS, ACT, CHS, GAPDH and GS sequences from the F3 isolate revealed similarity to C. gloeosporioides voucher strain ZH01 with 100%, 100%,99%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively. SOD, TUB2 and CAL sequences showed similarity to C. siamense with 100%, 100% and 100% identity, respectively. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum Likelihood method (ML) using JTT model implemented in the MEGA 7. Results inferred from the concatenated sequences (ACT, CHS, GAPDH, ITS, SOD, GS, TUB2 and CAL) placed the isolate F3 within the C. siamense cluster (Supplementary S2). To confirm pathogenicity of the fungus, Koch's postulates were conducted by spraying 20 Zinnia plants (60-day-old) with a 1 × 106 conidia/ml suspension. Plants were maintained in the growth chamber at 25°C and 85% relative humidity. After 10 to 15 days, symptoms were observed on all inoculated leaves and resembled those observed in the field, whereas the control plants remained asymptomatic. Here, C. siamense was isolated only from the infected Zinnia leaves and identified by morphological and gene sequencing analyses. C. siamense has been reported in many crops in China (Yang et al. 2019; Chen et al. 2019; Wang et al. 2019). However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of anthracnose caused by C. siamense on Zinnia elegans in China. References Chen, X., Wang, T., Guo, H., Zhu, P. K., and Xu, L. 2019. First report of anthracnose of Camellia sasanqua caused by Colletotrichum siamense in China. Plant Dis. 103:1423-1423. Wang, Y., Qin, H. Y., Liu, Y. X., Fan, S. T., Sun, D., Yang, Y. M., Li, C. Y., and Ai, J. 2019. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum siamense on Actinidia arguta in China. Plant Dis. 103:372-373. Weir, B. S., Johnston, P. R., and Damm, U. 2012. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex. Stud. Mycol. 73: 115-180. Yang, S., Wang, H. X., Yi, Y. J., and Tan, L. L. 2019. First report that Colletotrichum siamense causes leaf spots on Camellia japonica in China. Plant Dis. 103:2127-2127.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(42): 17892-17896, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044060

RESUMO

The exploitation of singlet fission (SF) in photovoltaic devices is restricted by the limited number of SF materials available and the conflicting requirement of intermolecular interactions to satisfy both efficient SF and subsequent triplet extraction. Intramolecular SF (iSF) represents an emerging alternative and may prove simpler to implement in devices. On account of the excellent chemical structure tunability and solution processability, conjugated polymers have emerged as promising candidates for iSF materials despite being largely underexplored. It remains a significant challenge to develop SF-capable conjugated polymers and achieve efficient dissociation of the formed triplet pairs simultaneously. In this contribution, we present a new iSF material in a para-azaquinodimethane-based quinoidal conjugated polymer. Using transient optical techniques, we show that an ultrafast iSF process dominates the deactivation of the excited state in such polymer, featuring ultrafast population (<1 ps) and stepwise dissociation of triplet pairs. Notably, these multiexciton states could further diffuse apart to produce long-lived free triplets (tens of µs) in strongly coupled aggregates in solid thin film. Such findings not only introduce a new iSF-active conjugated polymer to the rare SF material family but also shed unique insight into interchain interaction-promoted triplet pair dissociation in aggregates of conjugated polymers, thus openning new avenues for developing next-generation SF-based photovoltaic materials.

14.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; : MPMI06200163A, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048598

RESUMO

Here, we report a chromosome-level genome assembly of Talaromyces rugulosus (syn. Penicillium rugulosum) W13939 (six chromosomes; contig N50: 5.90 Mb), generated using a combination of PacBio long-read and Illumina paired-end data. T. rugulosus is not only a potent enzyme producer, but also a mycoparasite of Aspergillus flavus, which is a notorious plant pathogen and mycotoxin producer, making it a promising biocontrol agent. The T. rugulosus genome is rich in genes encoding proteases, carbohydrate-active enzymes, fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes, lectin, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes, reflecting its mycoparasitic life style and mycotoxigenic capability. This high-quality assembly of the T. rugulosus genome will be a valuable resource to assist us in the understanding of the molecular basis of mycoparasitism and facilitate the agricultural and biotechnological applications of Talaromyces spp.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118856

RESUMO

Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is the causal agent of wheat stripe rust that causes severe yield losses all over the world. As a macrocyclic heteroecious rust fungus, it is able to infect two unrelated host plants: wheat and barberry. Its urediniospores infect wheat and cause disease epidemic, while its basidiospores parasitize barberry to fulfill the sexual reproduction. This complex life cycle poses interesting questions on the different mechanisms of pathogenesis underlying the infection of the two different hosts. In the present study, transcriptomes of Pst during the initial infection of wheat and barberry leaves were qualitatively and quantitatively compared. As a result, 142 wheat-specific expressed genes (WEGs) were identified, which was far less than 2,677 barberry-specifically expressed genes (BEGs). A larger proportion of evolutionary conserved genes were observed in BEGs than that in WEGs, implying a longer history of the interaction between Pst and barberry. Additionally, Pst differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between wheat at 1 dpi/2 dpi and barberry at 3 dpi/ 4dpi were identified by quantitative analysis. Gene Ontology analysis of these DEGs and expression patterns of Pst pathogenic genes, including those encoding candidate secreted effectors, cell wall degrading enzymes, and nutrient transporters, demonstrated that urediniospores and basidiospores exploited distinct strategies to overcome host defense systems. These results represent the first analysis of the Pst transcriptome in barberry and contribute to a better understanding of the evolutionary processes and strategies of different types of rust spores during the infection process on different hosts.

16.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102021, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039804

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an inherited disease caused by the dystrophin gene mutation, is the most common muscular dystrophy in children and is clinically characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and severe cardiomyopathy. In this study, renal epithelial cells were obtained from urine samples of a DMD patient (4 years old) and his recessive carrier parent (35 years old). The cells were reprogrammed with non-integrating Sendai virus to generate three induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones for the patient and two clones for non-manifesting mutation carrier parent. The iPSC lines had normal karyotypes, iPSC morphology, pluripotency expression markers, and were capable of differentiating into the three germ layers.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22799, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As far as we know, several systematic review and meta-analysis have assessed the safety and efficacy of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in the patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA). But no study assesses the safety and efficacy of ESAs combined with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of our study is to assess the efficacy and safety of ESAs combination with TCM for patients with CIA and will provide a higher level of evidence for clinical applications. METHODS: This protocol adheres to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis protocol statement. The source of literature will be a structured search of the following 7 electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Wanfang Database. Records will be independently evaluated by 2 reviewers. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or third-party adjudication. Review Manager 5.3 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen Denmark) will be used to perform meta-analysis. For dichotomous variables, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals will be obtained by the Mantel-Haenszel method. For continuous data, mean difference with 95% confidence intervals will be used. P < 0.05 will be considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: This study will be performed to test the efficacy and safety of ESAs combined with TCM for CIA in patients with cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this study will be promoted mainly in 2 ways: publish in peer-reviewed journals in the fastest way; and promotion in domestic and foreign conferences. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080041.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Metanálise como Assunto , Anemia/etiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Eritropoetina/normas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and members of its homologous protein family mediate transmembrane signal transduction by binding to a specific ligand, which leads to regulated cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and metastasis. With the development and application of Genetically Engineered Antibodies (GEAs), Nanobodies (Nbs) constitute a new research hot spot in many diseases. A Nb is characterized by its low molecular weight, deep tissue penetration, good solubility and high antigen-binding affinity, the anti-EGFR Nbs are of significance for the diagnosis and treatment of EGFR-positive tumours.

Objective: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the information about the molecular structure of EGFR and its transmembrane signal transduction mechanism, and discuss anti-EGFR-Nbs influence on the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumours.

Methods: Data were obtained from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science., All patents are searched from the following websites: the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO®), the United States Patent Trademark Office (USPTO®) and Google Patents.

Results: EGFR is a key target for regulating transmembrane signaling. The anti-EGFR-Nbs for targeted drugs could effectively improve the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumours.

Conclusion: EGFR plays a role in transmembrane signal transduction. The Nbs, especially anti-EGFR-Nbs have shown effectiveness in the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumours. How to increase the affinity of Nb and reduce its immunogenicity remains a great challenges.

19.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 208, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report presents updated data and mid-term follow-up information to a former study introducing the novel technique of percutaneous-perventricular device closure of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients were added to the former series. There were 54 patients in total who had isolated doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defects and underwent percutaneous-perventricular device closure. Closure outcomes and possible complications were measured in the hospital and during the 2.5-year follow-up. RESULTS: Surgery was successful in 53 patients (98.1%). There was no death, residual shunt, new valve regurgitation or arrhythmia either perioperatively or during the entire follow-up period. Only one patient developed pericardial effusion and tamponade in the former series. The mean hospital stay was 3.2 ± 0.6 days (range, 3.0 to 6.0 days), and only one unsuccessful case needed blood transfusion (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The percutaneous-perventricular device closure of isolated doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defects appeared to be safe. Close monitoring for bleeding is essential postoperatively, especially in younger patients. This technique is generally safe with acceptable mid-term follow-up.

20.
Zool Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987453

RESUMO

Previous work based on molecular evidence has shown that most socially monogamous birds follow a genetic polyandrous mating system. However, our knowledge about avian mating systems is heavily biased toward the north temperate zone, with data on tropical birds remaining relatively scarce. This uneven distribution of both phylogenetic and spatial sampling has hampered our understanding and interpretation of results. In this study, we investigated the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in a tropical population of yellow-bellied prinias ( Prinia flaviventris) in Guangxi, southern China. A total of 129 individuals belonging to 24 nests were sampled, among which 12 out of 83 chicks (14.46%) in seven nests were found to be EPP offspring. In nests in which all nestlings were sampled, only five out of 56 chicks were EPP offspring, accounting for an unbiased EPP rate of 8.93%. This rate is below the average rate of EPP in the family Sylviidae. The possible causes of EPP in prinias and the occurrence of EPP in birds with high resource investment and intensive parental care are discussed. This study highlights the value of genome-wide markers in determining relatedness in a wild bird species without a reference genome.

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