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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114516, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487846

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the past five years, ethnopharmacy-based drugs have been increasingly used in clinical practice. It has been reported that hundreds of ethnopharmacy-based drugs can modulate autophagy to regulate physiological and pathological processes, and ethnomedicines also have certain therapeutic effects on illnesses, revealing the important roles of these medicines in regulating autophagy and treating diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study reviews the regulatory effects of natural products on autophagy in recent years, and discusses their pharmacological effects and clinical applications in the process of diseases. It provides a preliminary literature basis and reference for the research of plant drugs in the regulation of autophagy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review in the fields of relationship between autophagy and ethnomedicine in treating diseases from PubMed electronic database was performed. Information was obtained from documentary sources. RESULTS: We recorded some illnesses associated with autophagy, then classified them into different categories reasonably. Based on the uses of these substances in different researches of diseases, a total of 80 active ingredients or compound preparations of natural drugs were searched. The autophagy mechanisms of these substances in the treatments of divers diseases have been summarized for the first time, we also looked forward to the clinical application of some of them. CONCLUSIONS: Autophagy plays a key function in lots of illnesses, the regulation of autophagy has become one of the important means to prevent and treat these diseases. About 80 compounds and preparations involved in this review have been proved to have therapeutic effects on related diseases through the mechanism of autophagy. Experiments in vivo and in vitro showed that these compounds and preparations could treat these diseases by regulating autophagy. The typical natural products curcumin and tripterine have powerful roles in regulating autophagy and show good and diversified curative effects.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(1): 53-58, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100427

RESUMO

There is an increasing recognition of the strong links between the gut microbiome and the brain, and there is persuasive evidence that the gut microbiome plays a role in a variety of physiological processes in the central nervous system. This review summarizes findings that gut microbial composition alterations are linked to hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as the possible mechanisms of action; the existing literature suggests that microbiota influence neurogenic processes, which can result in neurological disorders. We consider this evidence from the perspectives of neuroinflammation, microbial-derived metabolites, neurotrophins, and neurotransmitters. Based on the existing research, we propose that the administration of probiotics can normalize the gut microbiome. This could therefore also represent a promising treatment strategy to counteract neurological impairment.

3.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role and possible regulatory mechanisms of CYP2E1 in gliomas. METHODS: RNA-seq data and corresponding clinical information of glioma patients were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, and mRNA data of normal brain tissues were obtained by the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. The Wilcoxon test was performed to analyze the correlation between CYP2E1 expression and glioma subtypes. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, receiver operating characteristic curves, and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to evaluate the prognostic value of CYP2E1 in glioma. Functional enrichment analyses and immune infiltration analyses were performed to investigate the potential function of CYP2E1 in gliomas. Moreover, we investigated the miRNA and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate CYP2E1 expression. Finally, network pharmacology and molecular docking experiments were used to predict drugs that target CYP2E1. RESULTS: The downregulation of CYP2E1 expression may predict a poor prognosis for glioma patients. CYP2E1 expression decreased with increasing WHO grade (II-IV), and its level was correlated with clinical features, including age, 1p19q codeletion status, and IDH state in glioma tissues. Furthermore, CYP2E1 was involved in lipid metabolism and ferroptosis and related to the tumor immune microenvironment due to its strong correlation with the levels of infiltrating monocytes and Tregs. Moreover, variation in the total methylation level and copy number of CYP2E1 was moderately correlated with its mRNA expression (p < 0.05). CYP2E1 was predicted to be targeted by hsa-miR-527, whose expression was negatively related to CYP2E1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05). In addition, effective compounds that target CYP2E1, including 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, styrene, toluene, nicotine, m-xylene, p-xylene, and colchicine, were identified. CONCLUSION: The downregulation of CYP2E1, which affects lipid metabolism and the ferroptosis signaling pathway, promotes the progression of gliomas.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5846, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615868

RESUMO

Inadequate oxygenation is a major challenge in cell encapsulation, a therapy which holds potential to treat many diseases including type I diabetes. In such systems, cellular oxygen (O2) delivery is limited to slow passive diffusion from transplantation sites through the poorly O2-soluble encapsulating matrix, usually a hydrogel. This constrains the maximum permitted distance between the encapsulated cells and host site to within a few hundred micrometers to ensure cellular function. Inspired by the natural gas-phase tracheal O2 delivery system of insects, we present herein the design of a biomimetic scaffold featuring internal continuous air channels endowed with 10,000-fold higher O2 diffusivity than hydrogels. We incorporate the scaffold into a bulk hydrogel containing cells, which facilitates rapid O2 transport through the whole system to cells several millimeters away from the device-host boundary. A computational model, validated by in vitro analysis, predicts that cells and islets maintain high viability even in a thick (6.6 mm) device. Finally, the therapeutic potential of the device is demonstrated through the correction of diabetes in immunocompetent mice using rat islets for over 6 months.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/química , Animais , Biomimética , Encapsulamento de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of miR-744 and its target genes in ISO protection against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced myocardial injury. METHODS: Rat cardiomyocytes H9c2 was used to establish an H/R model in vitro, and the level of miR-744 mRNA was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. CCK-8 and flow cytometry was used to detected cell viability and apoptosis. Myocardial injury markers CK-MB, cTnI, and LDH were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Starbase predicts miR-744 target and its potential binding site, and verifies the target by luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: After H/R induction, miR-744 mRNA level was remarkedly increased, cell viability was deceased, and apoptosis was increased (P < 0.05). Myocardial injury markers CK-MB, cTnI, and LDH expressions were also increased (P < 0.05). However, ISO pretreatment can significantly alleviate the decrease in cell viability induced by H/R, the increase of cell apoptosis, and the increase of myocardial injury markers, and it play a cardioprotective effect (P < 0.05). More importantly, elevated miR-744 remarkedly weakened the protective effect of ISO on H/R-induced myocardial injury, resulting in decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, and elevated concentration of myocardial injury indicators (P < 0.05). Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Sirtuins6 (SIRT6) is a potential target of miR-744 and decreased in H/R-induced myocardial injury, and ISO exposure can reverse its level (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new insights that ISO pretreatment can remarkedly regulate miR-744 and its downstream target SIRT6 to mitigate myocardial injury induced by H/R.

6.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635980

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI), a devastating neurological impairment, usually imposes a long-term psychological stress and high socioeconomic burden for the sufferers and their family. Recent researchers have paid arousing attention to white matter injury and the underlying mechanism following SCI. Ferroptosis has been revealed to be associated with diverse diseases including stroke, cancer, and kidney degeneration. Ferrostatin-1, a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis, has been illustrated to curb ferroptosis in neurons, subsequently improving functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and SCI. However, the role of ferroptosis in white matter injury and the therapeutic effect of ferrostatin-1 on SCI are still unknown. Here, our results indicated that ferroptosis played a pivotal role in the secondary white matter injury, and ferrostatin-1 could reduce iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and downregulate the ferroptosis-related genes and its products of IREB2 and PTGS2 to further inhibit ferroptosis in oligodendrocyte, finally reducing white matter injury and promoting functional recovery following SCI in rats. Meanwhile, the results demonstrated that ferrostatin-1 held the potential of inhibiting the activation of reactive astrocyte and microglia. Mechanically, the present study deciphers the potential mechanism of white matter damage, which enlarges the therapeutic effects of ferrostatin-1 on SCI and even in other central nervous system (CNS) diseases existing ferroptosis.

7.
Front Neurol ; 12: 738032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659096

RESUMO

Background: Primary trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) is known to reoccur following microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. However, the rates and contributing factors related to PTN recurrence remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore the postoperative recurrence rates and related influencing factors of patients with PTN after MVD. Additionally, recurrence rates after different treatments were compared to provide guidelines for clinicians. Methods: We conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses in accordance with the preferred reporting items of the PRISMA guidelines. We searched nine databases, namely, the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases, from establishment to July 13, 2020, selecting for studies about the long-term postoperative efficacy of MVD in the treatment of PTN. Factors associated with higher recurrence rates after MVD and long-term postoperative results of other treatments underwent formal meta-analysis, where odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The dose-response model was used to inspect the associations between several factors and higher recurrence rates. Results: Seventy-four studies (8,172 patients, 32 case series studies, and 42 non-randomized controlled trials) were analyzed in our research. Overall, 956 out of 8,172 patients relapsed, and the pooled recurrence rate was 0.096 (0.080-0.113). Influencing factors of relatively higher recurrence rates included atypical trigeminal neuralgia symptoms, lack of nerve groove, non-arterial compression, patients who were 50-60 years old, and longer disease duration. Dose-response analysis showed that the recurrence rate had a significant trend with the published year and the follow-up time. Simultaneously, the recurrence rate of MVD treatment was much lower than that of conventional drug treatment, gamma knife surgery, percutaneous balloon compression, and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. When the surgical technique was improved or combined with partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR), the postoperative recurrence rates were significantly reduced. Conclusions: Even for PTN patients who have a successful operation, ~10% of them will still relapse. This research identifies several factors that can affect the recurrence rate. Compared with other operations, MVD has a relatively lower recurrence rate. Our analysis suggests that improved surgical techniques and combining PSR and MVD will yield better results. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD42020159276.

8.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592889

RESUMO

Exosomes are emerging tools for transporting lipids, proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), or other biomarkers for clinical purposes. They have produced widespread concern in managing human diseases, including osteosarcoma (OS). This study focuses on the function of serum-derived exosomal miR-15a in the growth of OS cells and the mechanism of action. Differentially expressed genes between OS and normal samples were screened using two datasets GSE70367 and GSE65071. miR-15a was poorly expressed, whereas GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2) and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) were abundantly expressed in OS samples. miR-15a and its target mRNAs, including GATA2, were enriched in the p53 signaling pathway. miR-15a directly targets GATA2 mRNA to inhibit its expression, whereas GATA2 activates the transcription of MDM2, a negative regulator of p53. Overexpression of GATA2 and MDM2 promoted proliferation and cell cycle progression of MG-63 cells, whereas miR-15a blocked this axis and suppressed cell growth. miR-15a was identified as a major cargo of serum-derived exosomes, and exosomes conveying miR-15a were internalized by OS cells. This study demonstrated that miR-15a suppresses the GATA2/MDM2 axis to inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of OS cells in vitro through the p53 signaling pathway.

9.
Front Neurol ; 12: 685276, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646227

RESUMO

Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) scans are routine clinical procedures for monitoring people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Patient discomfort, timely scheduling, and financial burden motivate the need to accelerate MR scan time. We examined the clinical application of a deep learning (DL) model in restoring the image quality of accelerated routine clinical brain MR scans for PwMS. Methods: We acquired fast 3D T1w BRAVO and fast 3D T2w FLAIR MRI sequences (half the phase encodes and half the number of slices) in parallel to conventional parameters. Using a subset of the scans, we trained a DL model to generate images from fast scans with quality similar to the conventional scans and then applied the model to the remaining scans. We calculated clinically relevant T1w volumetrics (normalized whole brain, thalamic, gray matter, and white matter volume) for all scans and T2 lesion volume in a sub-analysis. We performed paired t-tests comparing conventional, fast, and fast with DL for these volumetrics, and fit repeated measures mixed-effects models to test for differences in correlations between volumetrics and clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Results: We found statistically significant but small differences between conventional and fast scans with DL for all T1w volumetrics. There was no difference in the extent to which the key T1w volumetrics correlated with clinically relevant PROs of MS symptom burden and neurological disability. Conclusion: A deep learning model that improves the image quality of the accelerated routine clinical brain MR scans has the potential to inform clinically relevant outcomes in MS.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19976, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620950

RESUMO

Inter-fractional tumor variance would lead to insufficient dosage or overdose in tumor region during lung cancer radiotherapy. However, previous works have not considered influence of inter-fractional tumor amplitude variance at treatment position due to lack of effective evaluation method during radiotherapy, especially for lung tumor within the lower lobe. Our objective was to investigate inter-fractional tumor baseline shift and amplitude variance due to respiratory motion with 4DCBCT simulation and guidance during stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for lung tumor. Subject included 19 patients with lung tumor within the lower lobe. 4DCBCT-simulated images at treatment position were acquired sequentially to determine internal tumor volume (ITV) and reference tumor motion at simulation process. Compared with reference tumor motion, 95 4DCBCT-guided images were acquired during each treatment to evaluate inter-fractional tumor baseline shift and amplitude variance, which were - 0.0 ± 1.3 mm and - 0.2 ± 1.4 mm in left-right(LR) direction, 0.9 ± 2.3 mm and 0.4 ± 2.9 mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction, 0.1 ± 1.5 mm and - 0.4 ± 2.0 mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction. ITV margin were 3.5 mm, 7.5 mm and 5.3 mm in LR, SI and AP directions with van Herk's (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52(5):1407-1422, 2002) formula. 4DCBCT simulation and guidance is a reliable method to evaluate inter-fractional tumor variance during SABR for lung tumor within the lower lobe. ITV margin of 3.5 mm, 7.5 mm and 5.3 mm in LR, SI and AP directions would ensure greater tumor coverage during SABR for lung tumor within the lower lobe.

12.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4003-4011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594139

RESUMO

Post COVID-19, differentiated regular management in place of strict lockdowns is more favored as a feasible option for balancing economic resumption and pandemic control. China's transition experience shows that this stage came not easily, during which regional sporadic outbreaks could re-emerge. Actually, it is an ongoing process of identifying loopholes and refining the management. Based on the IRGC risk governance framework, this article analyzes these challenges in community involvement posed by the transition. The systematic examination of the whole risk chain would be conducive to contain the virus spread, lessen the pressure of communities for the battle and enhance future responses for a possible resurgence. Unlike the emergency mode with mass mobilized, during regular control periods, community becomes the critical frontline for suppressing COVID-19 but with limited manpower and resources. Still, it can serve as a transformation platform to motivate atomized residents to take responsibility or contribute. Notably, the health governance of all people never ends. With the increased knowledge of COVID-19, the progress of pandemic control, and the needed adjustments for behavioral responses, different communities should come up with more suitable options instead of rigid management back to the old days.

13.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 1197-1207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616159

RESUMO

Background: Asthma belongs to chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are promising therapeutic targets for various diseases, including asthma. In this work, we aim to investigate the role of circular RNA Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (circERBB2) during progression of asthma. Methods: Human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were treated with platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) to mimic cell remodeling. The expression of circERBB2, microRNA-98-5p (miR-98-5p), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) was measured by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis were determined by cell counting-8 (CCK-8), transwell, and flow cytometry. Protein levels of PCNA, MMP-9, IGF1R were evaluated using Western blotting. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-6 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Luciferase reporter gene experiment was adopted to evaluate the targeting relationship between miR-98-5p with circERBB2 and IGF1R. Interaction between RNAs was determined by RNA pulldown and RIP assay. Results: The depletion of circERBB2 attenuated the proliferation, migration, and levels of inflammatory factors induced by PDGF-BB and cell apoptosis. CircERBB2 was identified to directly interact with miR-98-5p, and overexpression of miR-98-5p abolished the function of circERBB2 on PDGF-BB-stimulated ASMCs. IGF1R was identified as a target of miR-98-5p, and knockdown of IGF1R relieved the PDGF-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation and migration. Conclusion: Our work disclosed that knockdown of circERBB2 suppressed PDGF-BB-caused proliferation, migration and inflammatory response of ASMCs, through regulating miR-98-5p/IGF1R signaling, presented circERBB2 as a promising therapeutic target for asthma.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 750165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616302

RESUMO

Genus Sanguisorba (family: Rosaceae) comprises nearly 148 species, distributed widely across the temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Sanguisorba officinalis L. (S. officinalis) has been used as a hemostatic and scald treating medicine in China for a long time. Numerous studies have demonstrated that plant extracts or monomers from S. officinalis exhibit several pharmacological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-virus, anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects. The other species of genus Sanguisorba are also being studied by researchers worldwide. Sanguisorba minor Scop. (S. minor), as an edible wild plant, is a common ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, and its young shoots and leaves are often mixed with traditional vegetables and consumed as salad. Reports on genus Sanguisorba available in the current literature were collected from Google Scholar, Web of Science, Springer, and PubMed. The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org./tpl1.1/search?q=Sanguisorba), International Plant Name Index (https://www.ipni.org/?q=Sanguisorba) and Kew Botanical Garden (http://powo.science.kew.org/) were used for obtaining the scientific names and information on the subspecies and cultivars. In recent years, several in vivo and in vitro experiments have been conducted to reveal the active components and effective monomers of S. officinalis and S. minor. To date, more than 270 compounds have been isolated and identified so far from the species belonging to genus Sanguisorba. Numerous reports on the chemical constituents, pharmacologic effects, and toxicity of genus Sanguisorba are available in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current traditional applications of plants, which are supported by a large number of scientific experiments. Owing to these promising properties, this species is used in the treatment of various diseases, including influenza virus infection, inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes and leukopenia caused by bone marrow suppression. Moreover, the rich contents and biological effects of S. officinalis and S. minor facilitate these applications in dietary supplements and cosmetics. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in the traditional uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and clinical applications of genus Sanguisorba. The present comprehensive review may provide new insights for the future research on genus Sanguisorba.

15.
J AOAC Int ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol di glucoside (SDG) is a natural antioxidant generally extracted from flaxseed, which is one of the most important oil crops in China, the by-product of the flaxseed oil, i.e., flaxseed meal, still contains a lot of lignans. However, flaxseed meal is generally treated as waste, resulting in a huge waste of resources. OBJECTIVE: To establish an efficient and convenient method for extraction and purification of lignans from flaxseed meal. METHODS: First, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions of the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous two-phase system (UAATPS), and we obtained the purified extracts by macroporous resin purification (MRP). Second, the antioxidant ability of the extracts was studied in vitro. RESULTS: The best extraction conditions obtained were as follows: 9.0 wt% sodium hydroxide, 30.0 wt% isopropanol, extraction time 39 min, liquid-to-solid ratio of 52.0 mL/g, ultrasonic wave 560 W, and extraction temperature 40 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the purity of crude extracts (SDG-APTS-C) reached 21.5%. The desorption conditions of MRP were as follows: eluting 3 BV with ultrapure water, and then eluting with 25% ethanol at 2 BV/h to collect eluents. The purified extracts (SDG-ATPS-P) had a purity quotient of 73.9%, 52.4% higher than that of SDG-ATPS-C. Additionally, experiments conducted in this paper revealed that SDG-ATPS-C and SDG-ATPS-P could effectively remove DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl free radicals in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The method was validated for extracting SDG from flaxseed meal, thus achieving the reuse of flaxseed meal. HIGHLIGHTS: This research provides some references for the application of UAATPS combined with MRP in natural products.

16.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(11): 3098-3099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621986

RESUMO

Clerodendrum lindleyi Decne. ex Planch. is a Chinese medicinal plant in the Lingnan region of China. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. lindleyi was assembled and characterized from high-throughput sequencing data. The chloroplast genome is 151,678 bp in length, consisting of a large single-copy (LSC) and a small single-copy (SSC) regions of 83,043 bp and 17,311 bp, respectively, which are separated by a pair of 25,662 bp inverted repeat (IR) regions. The overall GC content of the genome is 38.18%. The genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 8 rRNA genes. A phylogenetic tree reconstructed by using 16 chloroplast genomes reveals that C. lindleyi is most closely related to C. trichotomum which together forms a group that is a sister to genus Caryopteris. The work reported here is the first complete chloroplast genome of C. lindleyi which will provide useful information to the evolutionary studies on the genus of Clerodendrum.

17.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 41(9): 347-354, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543128

RESUMO

Sinapic acid (SA) was reported to protect against inflammation in various types of diseases. However, the role of SA in rheumatoid arthritis remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the role of SA on rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model was established by collagen immunization [collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)]. Histological analysis of articular cartilage tissue was carried out by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 were determined through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Oxidative damage indexes such as superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde detection, glutathione detection, and catalase were determined by biochemical analysis. The protein levels of related genes were determined using Western blot. In CIA model, SA treatment attenuated paw swelling and clinical score of arthritis, attenuated articular cartilage tissues edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells, suppressed inflammatory cytokines release, and attenuated oxidative damage indexes. Mechanically, SA suppressed immune responses through inhibiting the IκB kinase (IKKs). SA attenuates rheumatoid arthritis through reducing inflammation and oxidative stress by downregulating IKKs.

18.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 708331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485295

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia is closely linked with hemorrhagic diseases, for which induction of thrombopoiesis shows promise as an effective treatment. Polyphenols widely exist in plants and manifest antioxidation and antitumour activities. In this study, we investigated the thrombopoietic effect and mechanism of 3,3',4'-trimethylellagic acid (TMEA, a polyphenol in Sanguisorba officinalis L.) using in silico prediction and experimental validation. A KEGG analysis indicated that PI3K/Akt signalling functioned as a crucial pathway. Furthermore, the virtual molecular docking results showed high-affinity binding (a docking score of 6.65) between TMEA and mTOR, suggesting that TMEA might target the mTOR protein to modulate signalling activity. After isolation of TMEA, in vitro and in vivo validation revealed that this compound could promote megakaryocyte differentiation/maturation and platelet formation. In addition, it enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and P70S6K and increased the expression of GATA-1 and NF-E2, which confirmed the mechanism prediction. In conclusion, our findings are the first to demonstrate that TMEA may provide a novel therapeutic strategy that relies on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway to facilitate megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet production.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(72): 9076-9079, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498633

RESUMO

The origin of switchable site selectivity during Pd-catalysed C-H alkenylation of heteroarenes has been examined through More O'Ferrall-Jencks, isotope effect, and DFT computational analyses, which indicate substitution of ionic thioether for pyridine dative ligands induces a change from selectivity-determining C-H cleavage to C-C bond formation, respectively.

20.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581486

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important food crop for at least half of the world's population. Due to improved living standards, the cultivation of high-quality rice for different purposes and markets has become a major goal. Rice quality is determined by the presence of many nutritional components, including seed storage proteins (SSPs), which are the second most abundant nutrient components of rice grains after starch. Rice SSP biosynthesis requires the participation of multiple organelles and is influenced by the external environment, making it challenging to understand the molecular details of SSP biosynthesis and improve rice protein quality. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge of rice SSP biosynthesis, including a detailed description of the key molecules involved in rice SSP biosynthetic processes and the major environmental factors affecting SSP biosynthesis. The effects of these factors on SSP accumulation and their contribution to rice quality are also discussed based on recent findings. This recent knowledge suggests not only new research directions for exploring rice SSP biosynthesis but also innovative strategies for breeding high-quality rice varieties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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