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1.
Inorg Chem ; 63(20): 9109-9118, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711379

RESUMO

Two two-dimensional (2D) layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, {[Yb(L)(H2O)2NO3]·2H2O}n (Yb-MOF) and [Er(L)(H2O)3Cl]n (Er-MOF) (H2L = 5-((6H-purin-6-yl)amino)isophthalic acid), were constructed by a solvothermal method and characterized. The catalytic performance study showed that the Yb-MOF could efficiently catalyze the oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides under 15 W light-emitting diode (LED) blue light irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and free-radical trapping experiments demonstrated that the photocatalytic reaction process involved •O2-, and the corresponding mechanism was proposed. Moreover, Er-MOF exhibited good catalytic efficiency and excellent substrate tolerance in the cycloaddition reaction of CO2, and the reaction conditions were mild. After 5 cycles, the catalytic activities of two MOFs did not significantly decrease, and the framework structures remained unchanged. Therefore, the Yb-MOF and Er-MOF were considered efficient and stable heterogeneous catalysts.

2.
ACS Nano ; 18(20): 12795-12807, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719733

RESUMO

Restructuring is an important phenomenon in catalytic reactions. Conversion-type materials with suitable redox potential may undergo in situ electrochemically driven restructurings and induce highly active catalytic sites in a working lithium-sulfur battery. Herein, driven by the electrochemical conversion reaction of BiVO4, a reversible catalytic cycle of Bi/amorphous Li3VO4 (a-Li3VO4) and Bi2S3/a-Li3VO4 heterojunctions is constructed, which targets the oxidation of Li2S and the conversion of polysulfide, respectively. The heterostructures and electrochemically driven size confinement provide abundant sites for shuttle restraining and sulfur conversion. Especially, the p-block Bi and Bi2S3 could dramatically reduce the conversion energy barriers of Li2S and polysulfide by virtue of the p-p orbital hybridization, promoting bidirectional reactions of the sulfur cathode. As a result, the corresponding sulfur cathode possesses a high reversible capacity of 7.5 mAh cm-2 after 120 cycles under a high sulfur loading of 10.3 mg cm-2 with a current density of 0.38 mA cm-2. This study furnishes a feasible scheme to obtain highly effective catalysts for bidirectional sulfur redox by utilizing the electrochemically induced restructuring.

3.
Onco Targets Ther ; 17: 371-381, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765057

RESUMO

Objective: MCM5 is a DNA licensing factor involved in cell proliferation and has been previously established as an excellent biomarker in a number of malignancies. Nevertheless, the role of MCM5 in GBM has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the potential roles of MCM5 in the treatment of GBM and to elucidate its underlying mechanism, which is beneficial for developing new therapeutic strategies and predicting prognosis. Methods: Firstly, we obtained transcriptomic and proteomic data from the TCGA and CPTAC databases on glioma patients. Employing the DeSeq2 R package, we then identified genes with joint differential expression in GBM tissues subjected to chemotherapy. To develop a prognostic risk score model, we performed univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. In vitro knockdown and overexpression of MCM5 were used to further investigate the biological functions of GBM cells. Additionally, we also delved into the upstream regulation of MCM5, revealing associations with several transcription factors. Finally, we investigated differences in immune cell infiltration and drug sensitivity across diverse risk groups identified in the prognostic risk model. Results: In this study, the chemotherapy-treated GBM samples exhibited consistent alterations in 46 upregulated and 94 downregulated genes at both the mRNA and protein levels. Notably, MCM5 emerged as a gene with prognostic significance as well as potential therapeutic relevance. In vitro experiments subsequently validated the role of increased MCM5 expression in promoting GBM cell proliferation and resistance to TMZ. Correlations with transcription factors such as CREB1, CTCF, NFYB, NRF1, PBX1, TEAD1, and USF1 were discovered during upstream regulatory analysis, enriching our understanding of MCM5 regulatory mechanisms. The study additionally delves into immune cell infiltration and drug sensitivity, providing valuable insights for personalized treatment approaches. Conclusion: This study identifies MCM5 as a key player in GBM, demonstrating its prognostic significance and potential therapeutic relevance by elucidating its role in promoting cell proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy.

4.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 15(2): 641-667, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756632

RESUMO

Background: Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is a prevalent gastrointestinal malignant disease with high mortality rate, and identification of novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets is urgently needed. Although neurexophilin 4 (NXPH4) has been investigated in several tumors, its role in COAD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic value and potential functions of NXPH4 in COAD. Methods: The expression of NXPH4 in COAD were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The prognostic value of NXPH4 was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis. To investigate the possible mechanism underlying the role of NXPH4 in COAD, Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were employed. The correlation between NXPH4 expression and immune cell infiltration levels was examined thorough single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA). Furthermore, the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network that may be involved in NXPH4 in COAD was predicted and constructed through a variety of databases. Results: NXPH4 expression was significantly higher in COAD tissue compared with normal colon tissues. Meanwhile, high expression of NXPH4 was associated with poor prognosis in COAD patients. GO-KEGG and GSEA analyses indicated that NXPH4 was associated with glycolysis and hypoxia pathway, and may promote COAD progression and metastasis by modulating metabolic reprogramming. ssGSEA analysis demonstrated that NXPH4 expression also associated with immune infiltration. Furthermore, we identified various microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as upstream regulators of NXPH4 in COAD. Conclusions: The present study revealed that high expression of NXPH4 is associated with tumor progression, metabolic reprogramming, and immune infiltration. These findings suggest that NXPH4 could serve as a reliable prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target in COAD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726498

RESUMO

Background: Thumb carpometacarpal joint (CMC) osteoarthritis is the most symptomatic hand arthritis but the long-term healthcare burden for managing this condition is unknown. We sought to compare total healthcare cost and utilisation for operative and nonoperative treatments of thumb CMC arthritis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal analysis using a large nationwide insurance claims database. A total of 18,705 patients underwent CMC arthroplasty (trapeziectomy with or without ligament reconstruction tendon interposition) or steroid injections between 1 October 2015 and 31 December 2018. Primary outcomes, healthcare utilisation and costs were measured from 1 year pre-intervention to 3 years post-intervention. Generalised linear mixed effect models adjusted for potentially confounding factors such as the Elixhauser comorbidity score with propensity score matching were applied to evaluate the association between the primary outcomes and treatment type. Results: A total of 13,646 patients underwent treatment through steroid injections, and 5,059 patients underwent CMC arthroplasty. At 1 year preoperatively, the surgery group required $635 more healthcare costs (95% CI [594.28, 675.27]; p < 0.001) and consumed 42% more healthcare utilisation (95% CI [1.38, 1.46]; p < 0.0001) than the steroid injection group. At 3 years postoperatively, the surgery group required $846 less healthcare costs (95% CI [-883.07, -808.51], p < 0.0001) and had 51% less utilisation (95% CI [0.49, 0.53]; p < 0.0001) annually. Cumulatively over 3 years, the surgical group on average was $4,204 costlier than its counterpart secondary to surgical costs. Conclusions: CMC arthritis treatment incurs high healthcare cost and utilisation independent of other medical comorbidities. At 3 years postoperatively, the annual healthcare cost and utilisation for surgical patients were less than those for patients who underwent conservative management, but this difference was insufficient to offset the initial surgical cost. Level of Evidence: Level III (Therapeutic).

7.
Geroscience ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727873

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) microstates are used to study cognitive processes and brain disease-related changes. However, dysfunctional patterns of microstate dynamics in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain uncertain. To investigate microstate changes in AD using EEG and assess their association with cognitive function and pathological changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We enrolled 56 patients with AD and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent various neuropsychological assessments and resting-state EEG recordings. Patients with AD also underwent CSF examinations to assess biomarkers related to the disease. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between changes in microstate patterns and CSF biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to assess the potential of these microstate patterns as diagnostic predictors for AD. Compared with HC, patients with AD exhibited longer durations of microstates C and D, along with a decreased occurrence of microstate B. These microstate pattern changes were associated with Stroop Color Word Test and Activities of Daily Living scale scores (all P < 0.05). Mean duration, occurrences of microstate B, and mean occurrence were correlated with CSF Aß 1-42 levels, while duration of microstate C was correlated with CSF Aß 1-40 levels in AD (all P < 0.05). EEG microstates are used to predict AD classification with moderate accuracy. Changes in EEG microstate patterns in patients with AD correlate with cognition and disease severity, relate to Aß deposition, and may be useful predictors for disease classification.

8.
Environ Entomol ; 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712725

RESUMO

Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a notorious pest of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae). E. scrobiculatus adults typically aggregate under leaves and in soil crevices at the base of A. altissima in the field. We hypothesize that the environmental factors and conspecific signals determine their aggregation behavior. To test this, we investigated adult numbers in light-exposed and shaded areas of the sample trees and conducted experiments in both field and lab settings. Results revealed that (i) greater adult distribution in shaded areas; (ii) significant influence of temperature and illumination on aggregation tendency in the field; (iii) no gender-based difference in aggregation degree and maximum aggregation between light and dark; (iv) the host plant triggering the aggregation tendency, negatively affected in the absence; (v) the aggregation tendency of E. scrobiculatus weakened with the temperature gradually changing to ordinary temperature; and (vi) mutual attraction and chemical attraction between males and females. Thus, the aggregation behavior was influenced by factors including temperature, light intensity, host plant, and conspecific signals, but light's role was not obvious in the lab.

9.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1215479, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715791

RESUMO

Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the digestive tract, with the potential to metastasize. Metastases to bone and soft tissue are more frequent in advanced cases, where targeted therapy is the standard treatment. However, around 10-15% of patients develop disease progression despite treatment. Studies have shown the efficacy of ablation in managing bone and soft tissue metastases (1, 2), but there are no reports of ablation for treating GIST bone or soft tissue metastases. Case presentation: In 2022, a 58-year-old man complaining of left back pain was admitted to Sichuan Cancer Hospital. He had undergone radical resection of the primary gastric GIST and vertebral metastases in 2014 and 2018, respectively. In 2019, rib metastases still occurred despite the use of targeted therapy. During the course of radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, he experienced persistent chest wall pain. In addition, new lesions occurred in the lungs and chest wall in 2022. After a thorough assessment, microwave ablation (MWA) was recommended in response to his demand for immediate pain relief. The large rib metastasis constricted the spleen, so we completed the ablation in two sessions to reduce the risk of complications. He had 17 months of follow-up until September 2023, during which time his discomfort was considerably reduced. Conclusion: For GIST patients with soft tissue and bone metastases, MWA may offer substantial immediate pain alleviation. When other treatment procedures fail to achieve adequate efficacy, it provides an option.

10.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115929, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718554

RESUMO

Multiple types of variations have been postulated to confer risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but majority of present GWAS solely focused on SNPs or small indels, and the impacts of structural variations (SVs) remain less understood. Nevertheless, accumulating evidence suggest that SVs may explain the association signals in certain GWAS hits. Here, we conducted pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of SNPs and SVs in populations from 1000 Genomes Project. Among the 299 psychiatric GWAS loci, 1213 SVs showed an LD of r2 > 0.1 with GWAS risk SNPs, and 66 of them were in moderate to strong LD (r2 > 0.6) with at least one GWAS risk SNP. Nine SVs were subject to further explorative analyses, including eQTL analysis in DLPFC, luciferase reporter gene assays, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome deletion and RT-qPCR. These assays highlighted several functional SVs showing regulatory effects on transcriptional activities, and some risk genes (e.g., BORCS7, GNL3) affected by the SVs were also annotated. Finally, mice overexpressing Borcs7 in the mPFC exhibited schizophrenia-like behaviors, such as abnormal prepulse inhibition and social dysfunction. These data suggest that SNPs association signals at GWAS loci might be driven by SVs, highlighting the necessities of considering such variants in future.

11.
J Nucl Med ; 65(Suppl 1): 72S-76S, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719236

RESUMO

Since the late 1950s, radiopharmaceuticals have been used for diagnosis and treatment in clinical nuclear medicine in China. Over the decades, China has successfully established a relatively sophisticated system for radiopharmaceutical production and management, supported by state-of-the-art facilities. With the rapid growth of the national economy, the radiopharmaceutical market in China is expanding at a remarkable pace. This burgeoning market has led to an escalating demand for clinical-stage radiopharmaceuticals, either produced domestically or imported. Despite this positive trajectory, the development and application of radiopharmaceuticals in China have been hindered by several challenges that persist, such as inadequate research, insufficient investment, limited availability of radionuclides, shortage of trained personnel in related fields, and imperfections in policies and regulations. In an exciting development, the regulation reforms implemented since 2015 have positively affected China's drug regulatory system. The introduction of the "Mid- and Long-Term Development Plan (2021-2035) for Medical Isotopes" created concurrently an opportune environment for the advancement of innovative radiopharmaceuticals. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the approval process for novel radiopharmaceuticals by the National Medical Products Administration and the status of radiopharmaceuticals in research and development in China. Preclinical development and clinical translation of radiopharmaceuticals are undergoing rapid evolution in China. As practitioners in the field in China, we provide several practical suggestions to stimulate open discussions and thoughtful consideration.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , China , Humanos
12.
HIV Med ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed healthcare service delivery. We examined the overall impact of COVID-19 on people living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with a special focus on the potential impact of COVID-19 on antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs). METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to enrol people living with HIV aged ≥19 years across BC into the STOP HIV/AIDS Program Evaluation study between January 2016 and September 2018. Participants completed surveys at baseline enrolment and 18 and 36 months later. Additional COVID-19 questions were added to the survey in October 2020. TIs were defined as >60 days late for antiretroviral therapy (ART) refill using data from the BC HIV Drug Treatment Program. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine trends in TIs over time and associations with reported health service access. RESULTS: Of 581 participants, 6.1%-7.7% experienced a TI during each 6-month period between March 2019 and August 2021. The frequency of TIs did not statistically increase during the COVID-19 epidemic. Among the 188 participants who completed the COVID-19 questionnaire, 32.8% reported difficulty accessing healthcare during COVID-19, 9.7% reported avoiding continuing a healthcare service due to COVID-19-related concerns, and 74.6% reported using virtual healthcare services since March 2020. In multivariable analysis, the odds of a TI in any 6-month period were not significantly different from March to August 2019. None of the reported challenges to healthcare services were associated with TIs. CONCLUSIONS: Although some participants reported challenges to accessing services or avoidance of services due to COVID-19, TIs were not more likely during COVID-19 than before.

13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3796, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714706

RESUMO

The metabolic implications in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a metabolomics study on a moderately aging Chinese Han cohort (n = 1397; mean age 66 years). Conjugated bile acids, branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and glutamate-related features exhibited strong correlations with cognitive impairment, clinical stage, and brain amyloid-ß deposition (n = 421). These features demonstrated synergistic performances across clinical stages and subpopulations and enhanced the differentiation of AD stages beyond demographics and Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE-ε4). We validated their performances in eight data sets (total n = 7685) obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project (ROSMAP). Importantly, identified features are linked to blood ammonia homeostasis. We further confirmed the elevated ammonia level through AD development (n = 1060). Our findings highlight AD as a metabolic disease and emphasize the metabolite-mediated ammonia disturbance in AD and its potential as a signature and therapeutic target for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amônia , Metabolômica , Fenótipo , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Amônia/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3834, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714741

RESUMO

Sleep disorders increase the risk and mortality of heart disease, but the brain-heart interaction has not yet been fully elucidated. Cuproptosis is a copper-dependent type of cell death activated by the excessive accumulation of intracellular copper. Here, we showed that 16 weeks of sleep fragmentation (SF) resulted in elevated copper levels in the male mouse heart and exacerbated myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury with increased myocardial cuproptosis and apoptosis. Mechanistically, we found that SF promotes sympathetic overactivity, increases the germination of myocardial sympathetic nerve terminals, and increases the level of norepinephrine in cardiac tissue, thereby inhibits VPS35 expression and leads to impaired ATP7A related copper transport and copper overload in cardiomyocytes. Copper overload further leads to exacerbated cuproptosis and apoptosis, and these effects can be rescued by excision of the sympathetic nerve or administration of copper chelating agent. Our study elucidates one of the molecular mechanisms by which sleep disorders aggravate myocardial injury and suggests possible targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Cobre , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos , Privação do Sono , Animais , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Masculino , Cobre/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Camundongos , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/complicações , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/genética , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 155, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the increasing attention to glycemic variability (GV) and its potential implications for cardiovascular outcomes. This study aimed to explore the impact of acute GV on short-term outcomes in Chinese patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: This study enrolled 7510 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute STEMI from 274 centers in China. GV was assessed using the coefficient of variation of blood glucose levels. Patients were categorized into three groups according to GV tertiles (GV1, GV2, and GV3). The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause death, and the secondary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Cox regression analyses were conducted to determine the independent correlation between GV and the outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 7136 patients with STEMI were included. During 30-days follow-up, there was a significant increase in the incidence of all-cause death and MACEs with higher GV tertiles. The 30-days mortality rates were 7.4% for GV1, 8.7% for GV2 and 9.4% for GV3 (p = 0.004), while the MACEs incidence rates was 11.3%, 13.8% and 15.8% for the GV1, GV2 and GV3 groups respectively (p < 0.001). High GV levels during hospitalization were significantly associated with an increased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality and MACEs. When analyzed as a continuous variable, GV was independently associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.679, 95% confidence Interval [CI] 1.005-2.804) and MACEs (HR 2.064, 95% CI 1.386-3.074). Additionally, when analyzed as categorical variables, the GV3 group was found to predict an increased risk of MACEs, irrespective of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). CONCLUSION: Our study findings indicate that a high GV during hospitalization was significantly associated with an increased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality and MACE in Chinese patients with STEMI. Moreover, acute GV emerged as an independent predictor of increased MACEs risk, regardless of DM status.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Acad Radiol ; 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704283

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the quantitative index of signal intensity (SI) heterogeneity on T2-weighted (T2W) magnetic resonance images can predict the difficulty and efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard deviation (SD) of T2W image (T2WI) SI was used to quantify SI heterogeneity. The correlation between SD and the non-perfused volume ratio (NPVR) in 575 patients undergoing HIFU treatment was retrospectively analyzed, and the efficacy of SD in predicting NPVR was discussed. Three classifications were made based on the SD, and the ablation difficulty and ablation effect of different grades were compared. A total of 65 cases from another center were used as an external validation set to verify the classification performance of SD. RESULTS: The SD of SI was negatively correlated with NPVR (r = -0.460, p < 0.001). The predictive efficiency of SD for the ablation effect was higher than that of the scaled signal intensity (0.767 vs. 0.701, p = 0.006). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that SD was an independent predictor of ablation effect. Based on SD, the three classifications were divided into SD I: SD < 101.0, SD II: 101.0 ≤ SD < 138.7, and SD III: SD≥ 138.7. The treatment time, sonication time, treatment intensity, and total energy of SD I were lower than those of SD II and III (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The heterogeneity of T2WI SI of uterine fibroids is negatively correlated with NPVR. The SD of SI can be used to predict the ablation difficulty and ablation effect of HIFU.

17.
Cell Rep ; 43(5): 114173, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700984

RESUMO

Mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are associated with severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Loss of PTEN leads to hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which functions in two distinct protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. The downstream signaling mechanisms that contribute to PTEN mutant phenotypes are not well delineated. Here, we show that pluripotent stem cell-derived PTEN mutant human neurons, neural precursors, and cortical organoids recapitulate disease-relevant phenotypes, including hypertrophy, electrical hyperactivity, enhanced proliferation, and structural overgrowth. PTEN loss leads to simultaneous hyperactivation of mTORC1 and mTORC2. We dissect the contribution of mTORC1 and mTORC2 by generating double mutants of PTEN and RPTOR or RICTOR, respectively. Our results reveal that the synergistic hyperactivation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 is essential for the PTEN mutant human neural phenotypes. Together, our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie PTEN-related neural disorders and highlight novel therapeutic targets.

18.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717559

RESUMO

Systemic inflammatory stimulus is a risk factor for the incidence of ischemic stroke and contributes to poorer clinical outcomes. Solute carrier 15A3 (SLC15A3) is a peptide/histidine transporter that is implicated in regulating inflammatory responses. However, whether SLC15A3 affects the progression of ischemic stroke associated with systemic inflammation is unclear. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mice with LPS administration (LPS/tMCAO) were prepared as an in vivo model, and LPS-induced BV2 cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) exposure were utilized as an in vitro model. We found that SLC15A3 was highly expressed in the ischemic penumbra of LPS/tMCAO mice, and its inhibition reduced infarct area, attenuated neurological deficit, recovered motor function, and mitigated apoptotic neurons. Knockdown of SLC15A3 suppressed the proinflammatory M1-type markers and promoted the levels of M2-associated genes. The in vitro results confirmed that SLC15A3 overexpression promoted microglia polarizing towards M1 subtypes, while SLC15A3 inhibition exerted an opposite effect. In addition, we demonstrated that the p65 signaling pathway and HIF1α were activated by LPS/OGD. Luciferase reporter assay showed that inhibiting p65 using its specific inhibitor BAY 11-7082 or silencing HIF1α using siRNAs reduced the transcriptional activity of SLC15A3 in LPS/OGD-induced BV2 cells. Results in NIH 3T3 cells also confirmed that p65 and HIF1α directly bound to the SLC15A3 promoter to activate SLC15A3 transcription. In conclusion, this work shows that SLC15A3, transcriptionally activated by p65 and HIF1α, contributes to poor outcomes in ischemic stroke associated with systemic inflammation by promoting microglial cells polarizing towards M1 types.

19.
Med ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predictive biomarkers and models of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been extensively studied in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, evidence for many biomarkers remains inconclusive, and the opaqueness of machine learning models hinders practicality. We aimed to provide compelling evidence for biomarkers and develop a transparent decision tree model. METHODS: We consolidated data from 3,288 ICI-treated patients with NSCLC across real-world multicenter, public cohorts and the Choice-01 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03856411). Over 50 features were examined for predicting durable clinical benefits (DCBs) from ICIs. Noteworthy biomarkers were identified to establish a decision tree model. Additionally, we explored the tumor microenvironment and peripheral CD8+ programmed death-1 (PD-1)+ T cell receptor (TCR) profiles. FINDINGS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified tumor histology, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, tumor mutational burden, line, and regimen of ICI treatment as significant factors. Mutation subtypes of EGFR, KRAS, KEAP1, STK11, and disruptive TP53 mutations were associated with DCB. The decision tree (DT10) model, using the ten clinicopathological and genomic markers, showed superior performance in predicting DCB in the training set (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82) and consistently outperformed other models in test sets. DT10-predicted-DCB patients manifested longer survival, an enriched inflamed tumor immune phenotype (67%), and higher peripheral TCR diversity, whereas the DT10-predicted-NDB (non-durable benefit) group showed an enriched desert immune phenotype (86%) and higher peripheral TCR clonality. CONCLUSIONS: The model effectively predicted DCB after front-/subsequent-line ICI treatment, with or without chemotherapy, for squamous and non-squamous lung cancer, offering clinicians valuable insights into efficacy prediction using cost-effective variables. FUNDING: This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China.

20.
Anal Methods ; 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770747

RESUMO

In addition to traditional characterisation methods of hydrophobic interaction (HIC) and reverse phase (RP) chromatography, an anion exchange chromatography (AIEX) was developed to analyse and purify antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). Since different drug antibody ratio (DAR) species may impact biological activity, therapeutic index, PK parameters or even potential immunogenicity, homogenous ADC DAR demands have been significantly increasing. To accelerate linker designs, drug screening and ADC DAR purification for in vitro and in vivo studies, we built the analytical toolbox including HIC, RP, AIEX, icIEF, SEC, and MS for downstream ADC DAR purification using HIC and AIEX. The established analytical methods can quickly assess the quality of ADC DAR profiles and provide important information to select the proper ADC DAR purification method. Since drug-linker structures can significantly affect ADC physicochemical properties, and highly impact on selections of analytical methods, we applied both HIC and AIEX characterisation and purification platforms to achieve ADC DAR homogenous. Our experiments also implied that unlike HIC, AIEX could be used to separate DAR4 positional isomers.

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