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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142174, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916498

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effect of microwave torrefaction and ZSM-5 catalyst for hydrocarbon rich bio-oil production from microwave co-pyrolysis of cellulose and low density polyethylene (LDPE). FTIR analysis displayed remarkable reductions of active hydroxyl and ether groups in microwave torrefied cellulose (MTC), demonstrating that cellulose was less stable than MTC. GC/MS analysis indicated that the hydrocarbons content was ranged from 18.36% to 54.94% in the obtained bio-oils under different conditions, and the maximum hydrocarbons content (54.94%) which also contained the highest aromatic hydrocarbons (19.49%) was obtained from MTC catalytic co-pyrolysis. Microwave-assisted Thermogravimetric analyzer (MW-TGA) analysis showed that MTC catalytic co-pyrolysis apparently shifted the major thermal degradation to a lower temperature area, an evident synergistic effect was observed during MTC catalytic co-pyrolysis. Kinetics study revealed that the activation energy was significantly reduced from 97.87 kJ/mol to 63.86 kJ/mol for co-pyrolysis and MTC catalytic co-pyrolysis, respectively.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(2): 1161-1168, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183457

RESUMO

Because some asthma patients have different types of inflammatory cells in their bodies, they cannot get relief with traditional drugs. However, the nano drug delivery system can realize efficient drug delivery, inflammatory cells and intracellular targeting, and the apoptosis of inflammatory cells. This article aims to comprehensively evaluate the effects of montelukast sodium combined with graphene oxide nanomaterials on improving the clinical symptoms and airway inflammation of children with bronchial asthma, with a view to further improving the clinical treatment of children with bronchial asthma. The results show that montelukast sodium can improve lung function in patients with asthma, and also has important effects such as anti-inflammatory and regulating immune function. After exposure to graphene oxide, the level of oxidative stress in mice increased with brightness and humidity, demonstrating the role of T oxidative stress in the development of asthma. In addition, nanocarriers assist co-loaded drugs to deepen and enrich the pulmonary inflammation site, further achieving effective mitochondrial targeted drug delivery, thereby enhancing the inhibitory effect of anti-apoptotic proteins, leading to inflammatory cell apoptosis.

3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127807, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763577

RESUMO

Human hair has been identified as a non-invasive alternative matrix for assessing the human exposure to specific organic contaminants. In the present study, a solvent-saving analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 3 hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), 12 phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), and 4 emerging PFRs (ePFRs) has been developed and validated for the first time. Hair sample preparation protocols include precleaning with Milli-Q water, digestion with HNO3/H2O2 (1:1, v/v), liquid-liquid extraction with hexane:dichloromethane (4:1, v/v), and fractionation and cleanup on a Florisil cartridge. The method was validated by using two levels of spiked hair samples of 3 replicates for each spiking group. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.12-22.4 ng/g for all analytes, average values of accuracies were ranging between 88 and 115%, 82-117%, 81-128%, and 81-95% for PBDEs, HBCDDs, PFRs, and ePFRs, respectively; and precision was also acceptable (RSD < 20%) for all analytes. Eventually, this method was applied to measure the levels of the targeted analytes in hair samples of e-waste dismantling workers (n = 14) from Qingyuan, South China. Median values ranged between 3.00 and 18.1 ng/g for PBDEs, 0.84-4.04 ng/g for HBCDDs, 2.13-131 ng/g PFRs, and 1.49-29.4 ng/g for ePFRs, respectively. PFRs/ePFRs constitute the major compounds in human hair samples, implying the wide use of PFRs/ePFRs as replacements of PBDEs and HBCDDs, as well the potential high human exposure risks of PFRs/ePFRs. Overall, this work will allow to a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to multiple groups of FRs using hair as a non-invasive bioindicator.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cabelo/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Fósforo/análise
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113115, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891812

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ancient Egyptian texts only offer glimpses into their conceptual understandings of the inner-body and illness manifestation. Explanations of how prescribed materia medica were believed to work are rare and obscure, often resulting in modern approximations for ancient terminology such as 'ra-ib'-an ancient Egyptian classification predominantly translated as 'stomach'-leading to misunderstandings of historical texts, and therefore their use of pharmacology. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the ra-ib and the explanatory models of illness from the Egyptian perspective, and to explore the link between these and the prescribed selection of materia medica. To then compare the conceptual mechanics of these treatment strategies with those of another non-Western tradition-namely Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)-to provide further insight into potential conceptual frameworks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case study of a unit of Ancient Egyptian texts focusing on the ra-ib. Totalling 34 prescriptions, the first stage lexicographically analysed the texts using cognitive linguistic and translation theories to produce our new understanding. This enabled our comparison of the mechanics of materia medica usage within these texts with those found in TCM outlined by the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China 2015 for the relevant ingredients. RESULTS: the study demonstrated that-rather than denoting the organ 'stomach'-ra-ib instead constitutes a system running from the mouth, downward to the anus. This is best translated as 'inner thoroughfare', and changes the way in which we attempt to understand potential motivations in the selection of ingredients. By exploring common themes in the use of eleven securely translated ingredients from the Egyptian corpus and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China-representing a modern traditional system which understands the body via a series of interconnected systems-we were able to highlight certain themes which might be 'universal' to system-based traditions; this provided new insights into the Egyptian motivations for treatment selection. CONCLUSIONS: Having gained the ancient view of the body and illness, cultural comparisons are important for providing further potential insights and clarifications of a discontinued historical healing tradition. The new understanding of the ra-ib from our study greatly changes the way in which we understand the dynamics of Egyptian ethnopharmacological source material from this period.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113348, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896626

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The species Euphorbia umbellata (leitosinha) has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation the effect of E. umbellata latex extracts obtained with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol on the activation of the complement pathways and neutrophil chemotaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The latex was partitioned using Soxhlet apparatus and hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol as solvents. The classical and alternative pathway activity were performed by hemolytic assays with sensitized sheep or rabbit erythrocytes, respectively; the lectin pathway activity was quantified by ELISA, through the measurement of C4 molecules and the chemotaxis of human neutrophils was performed using 1% casein as the chemotactic inducer and Boyden's chamber. GC-Q-ToF and NMR analyses were applied to evaluate the chemical composition of E. umbellata latex extracts. RESULTS: All E. umbellata latex extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on the activation of the alternative pathway. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the classical pathway while chloroform extract activated this pathway. Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts inhibited lectin activation. All E. umbellata extracts inhibited casein-induced neutrophil chemotaxis. Terpenes and phenolic compounds have been suggested to be present in the E. umbellta latex extracts. CONCLUSION: The E. umbellata latex was able to modulate the functions of the immune system. Thus, it is possible to infer that the terpenes and phenolic compounds of the phytocomplex of E. umbellata latex can contribute for the activity on the complement pathways.

6.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 448, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reablement is a philosophy of change in long-term care (LTC). Assessing the knowledge and competence of LTC professionals who provide reablement services is vital in LTC research. This study aimed to develop a scale for the assessment of long-term care reablement literacy (LTCRL) and employ this scale to assess the performance of home care workers in Taiwan. METHODS: To develop this scale, we employed the modified Delphi technique based on the theoretical framework of health literacy and the content of service delivery in reablement. Home care workers from northern, central, and southern Taiwan were selected through purposive sampling (N = 119). Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire that included items related to basic demographic characteristics and questions to assess LTCRL. RESULTS: Based on the experts' consensus on the procedure of the modified Delphi technique, the LTCRL assessment sale consists of 29 questions on four aspects of knowledge acquisition: the abilities to access/obtain, understand, process/appraise, and apply/use. The results revealed that higher education levels and better Chinese language proficiency are associated with higher LTCRL outcomes among home care workers. CONCLUSIONS: The LTCRL assessment scale based on a modified Delphi technique is useful and feasible for evaluating LTCRL in home care workers who provide reablement services in Taiwan.

7.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100907, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217646

RESUMO

Early diagnosis has been proved to improve survival rate of lung cancer patients. The availability of blood-based screening could increase early lung cancer patient uptake. Our present study attempted to discover Chinese patients' plasma metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer. In this work, we use a pioneering interdisciplinary mechanism, which is firstly applied to lung cancer, to detect early lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers by combining metabolomics and machine learning methods. We collected total 110 lung cancer patients and 43 healthy individuals in our study. Levels of 61 plasma metabolites were from targeted metabolomic study using LC-MS/MS. A specific combination of six metabolic biomarkers note-worthily enabling the discrimination between stage I lung cancer patients and healthy individuals (AUC = 0.989, Sensitivity = 98.1%, Specificity = 100.0%). And the top 5 relative importance metabolic biomarkers developed by FCBF algorithm also could be potential screening biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. Naïve Bayes is recommended as an exploitable tool for early lung tumor prediction. This research will provide strong support for the feasibility of blood-based screening, and bring a more accurate, quick and integrated application tool for early lung cancer diagnostic. The proposed interdisciplinary method could be adapted to other cancer beyond lung cancer.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226959

RESUMO

Severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19 has resulted in many deaths worldwide. Here, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of the first 17 reported cases of death due to COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Demographics, initial symptoms, complications, chest computerized tomography (CT) images, treatments, and prognoses were collected and analyzed from the National Health Committee of China data. The first 17 reported deaths from COVID-19 were predominately in older men; 82.35% of patients were older than 65 years, and 76.47% were males. The most common initial symptoms were fever or fatigue (14 cases, 82.35%), respiratory symptoms, such as cough (12 cases, 70.59%), and neurological symptoms, such as headache (3 cases, 17.65%). The most common finding of chest CT was viral pneumonia (5 cases, 29.41%). Anti-infectives (11 cases, 64.71%) and mechanical ventilation (9 cases, 52.94%) were commonly used for treatment. Most of the patients (16 cases, 94.12%) died of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our findings show that advanced age and male gender are effective predictors of COVID-19 mortality, and suggest that early interventions to reduce the incidence of ARDS may improve prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia patients.

9.
Planta ; 252(6): 95, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130990

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The Arabidopsis transcription factor NAC103 is up-regulated and its encoding protein is stabilized by ABA treatment, which positively regulates several ABA-responsive downstream genes during seed germination and seedlings growth. The Arabidopsis transcription factor NAC103 was previously found to be involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA damage responses. In this study, we report the new biological function of NAC103 in abscisic acid (ABA) response during seed germination and seedling growth in Arabidopsis. The expression of NAC103 was up-regulated and the NAC103 protein was stabilized by ABA treatment. Both the loss-of-function mutants of NAC103, created by targeted gene-editing, and the over-expression plants of NAC103 have no obvious germination-related phenotype under normal growth conditions. However, under exogenous ABA treatment conditions, the NAC103 mutants were less sensitive to ABA during seed germination; in contrast, the NAC103 over-expression plants were more sensitive to ABA during seed germination and young seedling growth. Further, NAC103 regulated several ABA-responsive downstream genes including MYB78, MYB3, PLP3, AMY1, and RGL2. These results demonstrate that NAC103 positively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis.

10.
FASEB J ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184921

RESUMO

An unfavorable lifestyle disrupts the circadian rhythm, leading to metabolic dysfunction in adult humans and animals. Increasing evidence suggests that night-restricted feeding (NRF) can effectively prevent ectopic fat deposition caused by circadian rhythm disruption, and reduce the risk of metabolic diseases. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the prevention of obesity in adults by regulating dietary patterns, whereas limited attention has been paid to the effect of NRF on metabolism during growth and development. Here, we used weaning rabbits as models and found that NRF increased body weight gain without increasing feed intake, and promoted insulin-mediated protein synthesis through the mTOR/S6K pathway and muscle formation by upregulating MYOG. NRF improved the circadian clock, promoted PDH-regulated glycolysis and CPT1B-regulated fatty-acid ß-oxidation, and reduced fat content in the serum and muscles. In addition, NRF-induced body temperature oscillation might be partly responsible for the improvement in the circadian clock and insulin sensitivity. Time-restricted feeding could be used as a nondrug intervention to prevent obesity and accelerate growth in adolescents.

11.
Biomark Med ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185463

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a common digestive malignancy with a high-ranking morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is urgent to identify novel indicators and develop new strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment of GC. As a type of noncoding RNA, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have received increased attention in GC during recent years. To more comprehensively understand current research progress on circRNAs in GC, in this review, we introduce basic knowledge of circRNAs, summarize abnormally expressed circRNAs and discuss their functions and regulatory molecular mechanisms in GC. Then, we review potential applications of circRNAs for GC diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Finally, we conclude by highlighting major advancements of circRNAs in GC research, and we discuss existing challenges and possible future research directions of GC-associated circRNAs.

12.
Cell Metab ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186558

RESUMO

Lipid accumulation in podocytes is a major determinant of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and identification of potential therapeutic targets by mediating podocyte lipid metabolism has clinical importance. This study was to elucidate the role of JAML (junctional adhesion molecule-like protein) in the pathogenesis of DKD. We first confirmed the expression of JAML in podocytes and found that podocyte-specific deletion of Jaml ameliorated podocyte injury and proteinuria in two different models of diabetic mice. We further demonstrated a novel role of JAML in regulating podocyte lipid metabolism through SIRT1-mediated SREBP1 signaling. Similar results were also found in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Importantly, we observed a higher expression of JAML in glomeruli from subjects with DKD and other types of proteinuric kidney diseases, and the level of JAML was correlated with lipid accumulation and glomerular filtration rate, suggesting that JAML may be an attractive therapeutic target for proteinuric kidney disease.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179392

RESUMO

An intriguing strategy for copper-catalyzed hydroxymethylation of alkynes with CO2 and hydrosilane was developed. Switched on/off a proton source, e.g. tBuOH, direct hydroxymethylation and reductive hydroxymethylation could be triggered selectively, delivering a series of allylic alcohols and homobenzylic alcohols respectively, with high levels of Z/E, regio- and enantioselectivity. Such a selective synthesis is attributed to the differences in response of vinylcopper intermediate to proton and CO2 . The protonation of vinylcopper species is demonstrated to be prior to hydroxymethylation, thus allowing a diversion from direct alkyne hydroxymethylation to reductive hydroxymethylation in the presence of suitable proton.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143379, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168245

RESUMO

Tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) encapsulated dendritic fibrous silica KCC-1 was prepared via a microemulsion system with the simple reflux method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a structure-directing agent. The TPA impregnated on KCC-1 (ITPA-KCC-1) was also prepared for comparative. Various physicochemical techniques were used to characterize the synthesized materials and their activity evaluated in the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation from carbohydrates derivatives of fructose, glucose and cellulose. The effect of various factors such as catalyst to substrate ratio, different solvents and temperature were investigated on the formation of HMF. The resultant encapsulated catalyst was very active in fructose dehydration with the yield of 92% HMF and full conversion of fructose at 120 °C for 30 min under the microwave heating condition without any salt additive in the THF solvent system as well as 95% in MIBK solvent. The HMF yield was achieved by 58% and 16.2% from glucose and cellulose in the DMSO solvent, respectively. The TPA-KCC-1 can be separated easily after reaction from the reaction mixture and reused atleast five times without substantial loss in catalytic activity. This study provides an easy encapsulation method for TPA in dendritic fibrous silica KCC-1 as a heterogeneous catalyst, and it should have great application potential in other biomass valorization processes.

15.
Stat Med ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169416

RESUMO

A cross sectional population is defined as a population of living individuals at the sampling or observational time. Cross-sectionally sampled data with binary disease outcome are commonly analyzed in observational studies for identifying how covariates correlate with disease occurrence. It is generally understood that cross-sectional binary outcome is not as informative as longitudinally collected time-to-event data, but there is insufficient understanding as to whether bias can possibly exist in cross-sectional data and how the bias is related to the population risk of interest. As the progression of a disease typically involves both time and disease status, we consider how the binary disease outcome from the cross-sectional population is connected to birth-illness-death process in the target population. We argue that the distribution of cross-sectional binary outcome is different from the risk distribution from the target population and that bias would typically arise when using cross-sectional data to draw inference for population risk. In general, the cross-sectional risk probability is determined jointly by the population risk probability and the ratio of duration of diseased state to the duration of disease-free state. Through explicit formulas we conclude that bias can almost never be avoided from cross-sectional data. We present age-specific risk probability (ARP) and argue that models based on ARP offers a compromised but still biased approach to understand the population risk. An analysis based on Alzheimer's disease data is presented to illustrate the ARP model and possible critiques for the analysis results.

16.
Genomics ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166601

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most severe and serious deadliest cancer type worldwide. Centromeric proteins (CENPs) family are involved in centromere formation and kinetochore organization during mitosis and play an important role in cancers. Here, we analyzed all CENPs in a panel of PC tissues and non-tumor tissues by genomics profile. We identified that CENPF is significantly upregulated in PC and correlated with poor prognosis of patients. Furthermore, silencing CENPF significantly inhibited PC cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, meanwhile, in vivo growth of pancreatic cells. Moreover, the TNF pathway and longevity regulating pathways are two potential pathways, which were regulated by CENPF. These findings investigated the clinical and functional contribution of CENPF as a novel biomarker for PC.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124391, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160786

RESUMO

Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), frequently detected in human tissues or organs, can result in threat to human health by disturbing normal metabolism. However, their metabolism mechanisms and fates are largely unclear. Therefore, to better understand the impacts of SCCPs and their metabolites on the human health, the metabolic mechanism and kinetics of SCCPs by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) were explored using density functional theory employed 1-chlorodecane as a model SCCPs. The results show that 1-chlorodecane could be readily metabolized by CYPs, and the rate constant reaches up 42.3 s-1 in human body. Dechlorination of 1-chlorodecane is unlikely to occur and hydroxylation is dominated via H-abstraction pathways, especially from the intermediate C atom of 1-chlorodecane. The toxicity assessments suggest that the two metabolites, 10-chloro-decan-5-ol and 1-chlorodecanol could exhibit higher bioaccumulation, carcinogenicity and more serious damage on cardiovascular system after the metabolism of 1-chlorodecane. To our knowledge, this is the first study from the viewpoint of theoretical analysis to explore the metabolism of typical SCCPs in human body. It may provide deep insight into the metabolic transformation mechanism of SCCPs and cause the concerns about the adverse effects of their metabolites in human body.

18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 393, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the value of serum hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) level, an isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase, in evaluating the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with AP from January 2013 to December 2018 were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into the normal serum HBDH levels group (n-HBDH group) and the high serum HBDH levels group (h-HBDH group) according to the criteria HBDH ≥ 182 U/L after admission. The demographic parameters, laboratory data and the severity of AP in the two groups were compared. The receiver operating curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the efficacy of serum HBDH in predicting persistent organ failure and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). RESULTS: A total of 260 AP patients were enrolled, including 176 cases in the n-HBDH group and 84 cases in the h-HBDH group. The incidence of SIRS and organ failure in the h-HBDH group were significantly higher than those in n-HBDH group (both P < 0.001). In addition, the HBDH level was significantly decreased in 110 patients who were re-measured after AP treatment. The serum HBDH levels were positively correlated with Atlanta classification, Ranson score, and BISAP score (all P < 0.05). ROC analysis showed that a serum HBDH cut-off point of 195.0 U/L had optimal predictive value for the development of persistent organ failure (AUC = 0.778) and 166.5 U/L for the development of SIRS (AUC = 0.724). CONCLUSION: The elevated serum HBDH in early stage of AP is closely related to the adverse prognosis of AP patients, which can be used as a potential early biomarker for predicting the severity of AP.

19.
Toxicol In Vitro ; : 105053, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212168

RESUMO

Oakmoss and treemoss absolutes are the major natural extracts of concern as potential sources of skin sensitizers in cosmetics and personal care products (PCP). Two single constituents, atranol and chloroatranol, have been identified as primary culprits in both lichens, and industrial self-regulation has been proposed to limit their contents to less than 100 ppm. Nonetheless, evidence points to the presence of additional candidate skin sensitizers in these multicomponent extracts. These observations, along with a lack of data from non-animal alternative methods and the chemical variability of commercial absolutes, prompted further investigation of oakmoss absolute along with altranol-like compounds in these extracts. The major chemical constituents of a commercial sample were identified by two independent analytical techniques, GC-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS. The crude oakmoss extract and pure compounds were assayed with two in chemico methods (HTS-DCYA and DPRA) to gauge their chemical reactivity. Activation of inflammatory responses in vitro was also investigated by KeratinoSens™ and human cell line activation tests. Based on Weight of Evidence, orcinol, ethyl orsellinate, and usnic acid were classified as candidate sensitizers, along with both atranols and oakmoss extract.

20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 249, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence showed that regulating tumor microenvironment plays a vital role in improving antitumor efficiency. Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed in many cancer cell types, while its binding partner Programmed Death 1 (PD1) is expressed in activated T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Whereas, its dysregulation in the microenvironment is poorly understood. In the present study, we confirmed that evodiamine downregulates MUC1-C, resulting in modulating PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Cell viability was measured by MTT assays. Apoptosis, cell cycle and surface PD-L1 expression on NSCLC cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of MUC1-C and PD-L1 mRNA was measured by real time RT-PCR methods. Protein expression was examined in evodiamine-treated NSCLC cells using immunoblotting or immunofluorescence assays. The effects of evodiamine treatment on NSCLC sensitivity towards T cells were investigated using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat, apoptosis and IL-2 secretion assays. Female H1975 xenograft nude mice were used to assess the effect of evodiamine on tumorigenesis in vivo. Lewis lung carcinoma model was used to investigate the therapeutic effects of combination evodiamine and anti-PD-1 treatment. RESULTS: We showed that evodiamine significantly inhibited growth, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2 phase of NSCLC cells. Evodiamine suppressed IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression in H1975 and H1650. MUC1-C mRNA and protein expression were decreased by evodiamine in NSCLC cells as well. Evodiamine could downregulate the PD-L1 expression and diminish the apoptosis of T cells. It inhibited MUC1-C expression and potentiated CD8+ T cell effector function. Meanwhile, evodiamine showed good anti-tumor activity in H1975 tumor xenograft, which reduced tumor size. Evodiamine exhibited anti-tumor activity by elevation of CD8+ T cells in vivo in Lewis lung carcinoma model. Combination evodiamine and anti-PD-1 mAb treatment enhanced tumor growth control and survival of mice. CONCLUSIONS: Evodiamine can suppress NSCLC by elevating of CD8+ T cells and downregulating of the MUC1-C/PD-L1 axis. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism of action of evodiamine and indicate that evodiamine represents a potential targeted agent suitable to be combined with immunotherapeutic approaches to treat NSCLC cancer patients. MUC1-C overexpression is common in female, non-smoker, patients with advanced-stage adenocarcinoma.

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