Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.853
Filtrar
1.
Med Image Anal ; 94: 103150, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574545

RESUMO

Self-supervised representation learning can boost the performance of a pre-trained network on downstream tasks for which labeled data is limited. A popular method based on this paradigm, known as contrastive learning, works by constructing sets of positive and negative pairs from the data, and then pulling closer the representations of positive pairs while pushing apart those of negative pairs. Although contrastive learning has been shown to improve performance in various classification tasks, its application to image segmentation has been more limited. This stems in part from the difficulty of defining positive and negative pairs for dense feature maps without having access to pixel-wise annotations. In this work, we propose a novel self-supervised pre-training method that overcomes the challenges of contrastive learning in image segmentation. Our method leverages Information Invariant Clustering (IIC) as an unsupervised task to learn a local representation of images in the decoder of a segmentation network, but addresses three important drawbacks of this approach: (i) the difficulty of optimizing the loss based on mutual information maximization; (ii) the lack of clustering consistency for different random transformations of the same image; (iii) the poor correspondence of clusters obtained by IIC with region boundaries in the image. Toward this goal, we first introduce a regularized mutual information maximization objective that encourages the learned clusters to be balanced and consistent across different image transformations. We also propose a boundary-aware loss based on cross-correlation, which helps the learned clusters to be more representative of important regions in the image. Compared to contrastive learning applied in dense features, our method does not require computing positive and negative pairs and also enhances interpretability through the visualization of learned clusters. Comprehensive experiments involving four different medical image segmentation tasks reveal the high effectiveness of our self-supervised representation learning method. Our results show the proposed method to outperform by a large margin several state-of-the-art self-supervised and semi-supervised approaches for segmentation, reaching a performance close to full supervision with only a few labeled examples.

2.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585764

RESUMO

Cohesin is required for chromatin loop formation. However, its precise role in regulating gene transcription remains largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between cohesin and RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) using single-molecule mapping and live-cell imaging methods in human cells. Cohesin-mediated transcriptional loops were highly correlated with those of RNAPII and followed the direction of gene transcription. Depleting RAD21, a subunit of cohesin, resulted in the loss of long-range (>100 kb) loops between distal (super-)enhancers and promoters of cell-type-specific genes. By contrast, the short-range (<50 kb) loops were insensitive to RAD21 depletion and connected genes that are mostly housekeeping. This result explains why only a small fraction of genes are affected by the loss of long-range chromatin interactions due to cohesin depletion. Remarkably, RAD21 depletion appeared to up-regulate genes located in early initiation zones (EIZ) of DNA replication, and the EIZ signals were amplified drastically without RAD21. Our results revealed new mechanistic insights of cohesin's multifaceted roles in establishing transcriptional loops, preserving long-range chromatin interactions for cell-specific genes, and maintaining timely order of DNA replication.

3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2898, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575596

RESUMO

Selective molecular recognition is an important alternative to the energy-intensive industrial separation process. Porous coordination polymers (PCPs) offer designing platforms for gas separation because they possess precise controllability over structures at the molecular level. However, PCPs-based gas separations are dominantly achieved using strong adsorptive sites for thermodynamic recognition or pore-aperture control for size sieving, which suffer from insufficient selectivity or sluggish kinetics. Developing PCPs that work at high temperatures and feature both high uptake capacity and selectivity is urgently required but remains challenging. Herein, we report diffusion-rate sieving of propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) at 300 K by constructing a PCP material whose global and local dynamics cooperatively govern the adsorption process via the mechanisms of the gate opening for C3H6 and the diffusion regulation for C3H8, respectively, yielding substantial differences in both uptake capacity and adsorption kinetics. Dynamic separation of an equimolar C3H6/C3H8 mixture reveals outstanding sieving performance with a C3H6 purity of 99.7% and a separation factor of 318.

4.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal sepsis is a devastating inflammatory condition that remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Milk fat globule-EGF-factor VIII (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein that reduces inflammation, whereas extracellular cold-inducible RNA binding protein (eCIRP) worsens inflammation. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic potential of a novel MFG-E8-derived oligopeptide 3 (MOP3) designed to clear eCIRP and protect against inflammation, organ injury, and mortality in neonatal sepsis. METHODS: C57BL6 mouse pups were injected intraperitoneally with cecal slurry (CS) and treated with MOP3 (20 µg/g) or vehicle. 10 h after injection, blood, lungs, and intestines were collected for analyses, and in a 7-day experiment, pups were monitored for differences in mortality. RESULTS: MOP3 treatment protected septic pups from inflammation by reducing eCIRP, IL-6, TNFα, and LDH. MOP3 reduced lung and intestinal inflammation and injury as assessed by reductions in tissue mRNA levels of inflammatory markers, histopathologic injury, and apoptosis in lung and intestines. MOP3 also significantly improved 7-day overall survival for CS-septic mouse pups compared to vehicle (75% vs. 46%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Deriving from MFG-E8 and designed to clear eCIRP, MOP3 protects against sepsis-induced inflammation, organ injury, and mortality in a preclinical model of neonatal sepsis, implicating it as an exciting potential new therapeutic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1.

5.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(4): 354-358, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584096

RESUMO

Glufosinate-ammonium herbicides are the most widely used broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides in the world. Glufosinate-ammonium is a structural analogue of glutamate (Glu) which can irreversibly inhibit the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and Glu decarboxylase in plants, thereby blocking the synthesis of glutamine (Gln) from Glu and ammonia (Hoerlein, 1994). This causes the plants to die because of the nitrogen metabolism disorder and subsequent intracellular accumulation of ammonia. In humans, the characteristic features of glufosinate-ammonium herbicide poisoning include gastrointestinal symptoms and neurotoxicity (Watanabe and Sano, 1998). Currently, there are no antidotes for glufosinate-ammonium herbicide poisoning, and thus supportive care is the key treatment.


Assuntos
Amônia , Herbicidas , Humanos , Aminobutiratos/metabolismo , Convulsões
6.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28616, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586368

RESUMO

The incidence of skin-related neoplasms has generally increased in recent years. Melanoma arises from malignant mutations in melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis and is a fatal skin cancer that seriously threatens human health. Isoflavones are polyphenolic compounds widely present in legumes and have drawn scientists' attention, because they have good efficacy against a variety of cancers, including melanoma, without significant toxic side effects and resistance. In this review article, we summarize the research progress of isoflavones in melanoma, including anti-melanoma roles and mechanisms of isoflavones via inhibition of tyrosinase activity, melanogenesis, melanoma cell growth, invasion of melanoma cells, and induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells. This information is important for the prevention, clinical treatment, and prognosis and survival of melanoma.

7.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 86(4): 2016-2022, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576917

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent malignancy worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative spiral bacterium, has the ability to colonize and persist in the human gastric mucosa. Persistent H. pylori infection has been identified as a major risk factor for ~80% of GC cases. The interplay between H. pylori pathogenicity, genetic background, and environmental factors collectively contribute to GC transformation. Eradicating H. pylori infection is beneficial in reducing the recurrence of gastric cancer and residual cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in GC remain incompletely understood. Additionally, H. pylori reshapes the immune microenvironment within the stomach which may compromise immunotherapy efficacy in infected individuals. Clinical eradication of H. pylori infection still faces numerous challenges. In this review, the authors summarize recent research progress on elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying H. pylori infection in GC development. Notably, CagA protein-a carcinogenic virulence factor predominantly expressed by Asian strains of H. pylori-induces inflammation and excessive ROS production within gastric mucosa cells. Dysregulation of multiple pyroptosis signalling pathways can lead to malignant transformation of these cells. MiRNA-1290 plays a crucial role in GC initiation and progression while serving as an indicator for disease progression dynamics. Pyroptosis exhibits dual roles both promoting carcinogenesis and inhibiting tumour growth; thus it holds potential clinical applications for drug-resistant GC treatment strategies. Furthermore, pyroptosis may play a regulatory role within the immune system during gastric cancer development. Lastly, the authors provide an overview on current concepts regarding pyroptosis as well as insights into miRNA-1290's pathogenicity and clinical value within immune mechanisms associated with GC, aiming to serve as reference material for researchers.

8.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2024: 6346115, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566807

RESUMO

Vascular calcification (VC) has a high incidence in patients with chronic kidney disease, which is a worldwide public health problem and presents a heavy burden to society. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, the active subunit of HIF-1, has been reported to play a vital role in high phosphate-induced VC. However, the underlying mechanism is still undetermined, and effective treatment is unavailable. In the present study, human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were cultured under normal or high phosphate media conditions. HIF-1α small interfering RNA and overexpression plasmids were employed to regulate HIF-1α expression. Phosphonoformic acid was employed to restrain the function of type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 1 (Pit-1). The expression levels of HIF-1α, Pit-1, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and smooth muscle 22 alpha (SM22α) were evaluated, and the calcium contents were also examined. Cell growth was assessed using an MTT assay. High phosphate stimulation caused an upregulation in HIF-1α and Pit-1 expression levels and induced calcium depositions in HASMCs. Upregulation of Runx2 expression accompanied by downregulation of SM22α expression was observed in the high phosphate group. Following the suppression of HIF-1α expression, there was a concomitant attenuation in Pit-1 expression, calcium deposition, the alteration of phenotypic transition marker genes, and vice versa. The most serious calcium deposition was noted in HASMCs cultured under high phosphate conditions which were pretreated with a HIF-1α overexpression plasmid. However, when the biological functions of Pit-1 were restrained, the putative serious calcium deposition was not formed even in HASMCs transfected with a HIF-1α overexpression plasmid. The findings confirmed that HIF-1α regulated Pit-1 expression and exerted its pro-calcifying effect through Pit-1, which identified HIF-1α and Pit-1 as therapeutic targets for high phosphate-induced VC.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202402915, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569128

RESUMO

Sustainable carbon dots based on cellulose, particularly carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCCDs), were confined in an inorganic network resulting in CMCCDs@SiO2. This resulted in a material exhibiting long afterglow covering a time frame of several seconds also under air. Temperature-dependent emission spectra gave information on temperature-assisted delayed fluorescence (TADF) and room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) while photocurrent experiments provided a deeper understanding of charge availability in the dark period, and therefore, its availability on the photocatalyst surface. The photo-ATRP initiator, ethyl(bromo)phenyl acetate (EBPA), quenched the emission from the millisecond to the nanosecond time frame indicating participation of the triplet state in photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Both free radical and living radical polymerization based on photo-ATRP protocol worked successfully. Metal-free photo-ATRP resulted in chain extendable macroinitiators based on a reductive mechanism with either MMA or in combination with styrene. Addition of 9 ppm Cu2+ resulted in Mw/Mn of 1.4 while an increase to 72 ppm improved uniformity of the polymers; that is Mw/Mn=1.03. Complementary experiments with kerria laca confined materials, namely KCDs@SiO2, provided similar results. Deposition of Cu2+ (9 ppm) on the photocatalyst surface explains better uniformity of the polymers formed in the ATRP protocol.

10.
Opt Express ; 32(6): 8537-8554, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571111

RESUMO

A theoretical channel impulse response (CIR) model of short-range non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet communications (UVC) in noncoplanar geometry under the single-scatter condition is proposed. Simulation results obtained from the widely accepted Monte-Carlo (MC)-based channel model of NLOS UVC are provided to verify corresponding theoretical results obtained from the proposed theoretical single-scatter CIR model. Additionally, an outdoor experiment with a light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source is first designed to measure the channel step response of NLOS UVC and to further validate the proposed theoretical single-scatter CIR model. By varying the different parameters of the transmitter and the receiver, such as the baseline range, the inclination angle, the azimuth angle, the beam divergence angle, and the field-of-view angle, the results of the proposed theoretical single-scatter CIR model and the MC-based channel model are exhibited and further analyzed in detail. Results indicate that the computational time cost by the proposed theoretical single-scatter CIR model is decreased to less than 0.6% of the MC-based one with comparable accuracy in assessing the temporal characteristics of NLOS UVC channels. Additionally, theoretical results obtained from the proposed theoretical single-scatter CIR model manifest satisfactory agreement with corresponding experimental measurements.

11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1334949, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559692

RESUMO

Objective: The current controversy surrounding the association between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and albuminuria necessitates further investigation. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between FBG and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Methods: A cohort of complete data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants (1999-2020) was analyzed. Linear regression analyses and a generalized additive model explored the association between FBG and UACR. Furthermore, the stability of this relationship across different populations was assessed. Results: The study involved a total of 20,264 participants who were identified as U.S. citizens. By employing linear regression analysis, a statistically significant relationship was observed between elevated FBG levels and an increase in UACR (P<0.0001). Additionally, using a generalized additive model analysis, a U-shaped correlation between FBG and UACR was identified. Further examination using threshold effect analysis indicated a turning point for FBG at 5.44 mmol/L. A noteworthy finding in multiple populations is the consistent U-shaped association between FBG and UACR, except for individuals with serum uric acid levels ≥420 µmol/L and those who refrain from alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The general U.S. population has a U-shaped nonlinear relationship between FBG and UACR.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Albuminas , Jejum
12.
Cell Signal ; : 111154, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are covalently closed non-coding RNAs, are frequently dysregulated in cancer. However, their precise role in bladder cancer (BCa) remains largely unknown. METHODS: Expression of hsa_circ_0005320 in tissues and cell lines was detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Proliferation and colony forming capacity of BCa cells were assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8, ethynyl-labeled deoxyuridine, and colony formation assays. The cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Protein expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was examined using western blots. The binding of RNA and protein was validated using RNA immunoprecipitation. Additionally, xenograft tumor models were established to validate the function of hsa_circ_0005320 in vivo. RESULTS: We screened hsa_circ_0005320 from previous high-throughput sequencing and found that it was highly expressed in BCa tissues and associated with tumor differentiation and depth of invasion in BCa patients. Through functional experiments, we demonstrated that hsa_circ_0005320 promoted cell proliferation and regulated the cell cycle. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0005320 interacted with and upregulated the expression of IGF2BP3, which binds to and enhances the stability of CDK2 mRNA. Furthermore, knockdown of hsa_circ_0005320 resulted in a reduction in tumor burden in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings highlight the pro-oncogenic role of hsa_circ_0005320 in BCa through the IGF2BP3/CDK2 axis, providing valuable insights into the mechanism of circRNAs in tumor progression.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566011

RESUMO

The impact of variable valence A-sites on the redox property and reactivity of Ln2Ce2O7 compounds in soot particulate combustion has been investigated. It was observed that Yb2Ce2O7, Y2Ce2O7, and Gd2Ce2O7 formed a rare earth C-type phase, while Tb2Ce2O7 formed a solid solution phase. Both Tb2Ce2O7 and Yb2Ce2O7 possess dual valence state A-sites, resulting in significantly more surface vacancies. Additionally, the advantageous solid solution phase structure of Tb2Ce2O7 leads to even more surface vacancies than Yb2Ce2O7, which is crucial to generate active oxygen sites. Moreover, the introduction of NO into the reaction feed enhances combustion activity by producing active surface monodentate nitrates. A catalyst with higher numbers of surface vacancies exhibits improved NO oxidation ability and better NO2 utilization efficiency. Consequently, the Tb2Ce2O7 compound demonstrates not only the best soot combustion activity, but also an optimal NOx-assistance effect. Therefore, it is concluded that variable valence A-site is the intrinsic factor to improve the reactivity of Ln2Ce2O7 catalysts.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 174: 116549, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593701

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was involved in sympathetic activation in aging and the underlying mechanisms. Our hypothesis is TMAO reduces P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) and induces microglia-mediated inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), then leading to sympathetic activation in aging. This study involved 18 young adults and 16 old adults. Aging rats were established by injecting D-galactose (D-gal, 200 mg/kg/d) subcutaneously for 12 weeks. TMAO (120 mg/kg/d) or 1% 3, 3-dimethyl-l-butanol (DMB) was administrated via drinking water for 12 weeks to investigate their effects on neuroinflammation and sympathetic activation in aging rats. Plasma TMAO, NE and IL-1ß levels were higher in old adults than in young adults. In addition, standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals (SDNN) and standard deviation of the average of normal to normal intervals (SDANN) were lower in old adults and negatively correlated with TMAO, indicating sympathetic activation in old adults, which is associated with an increase in TMAO levels. Treatment of rats with D-gal showed increased senescence-associated protein levels and microglia-mediated inflammation, as well as decreased P2Y12R protein levels in PVN. Plasma TMAO, NE and IL-1ß levels were increased, accompanied by enhanced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). While TMAO treatment exacerbated the above phenomenon, DMB mitigated it. These findings suggest that TMAO contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity in aging by downregulating P2Y12R in microglia and increasing inflammation in the PVN. These results may provide promising new target for the prevention and treatment of aging and aging-related diseases.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 131448, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593901

RESUMO

Nowadays, various harmful indoor pollutants especially including bacteria and residual formaldehyde (HCHO) seriously threaten human health and reduce the quality of public life. Herein, a universal substrate-independence finishing approach for efficiently solving these hybrid indoor threats is demonstrated, in which amine-quinone network (AQN) was employed as reduction agent to guide in-situ growth of Ag@MnO2 particles, and also acted as an adhesion interlayer to firmly anchor nanoparticles onto diverse textiles, especially for cotton fabrics. In contrast with traditional hydrothermal or calcine methods, the highly reactive AQN ensures the efficient generation of functional nanoparticles under mild conditions without any additional catalysts. During the AQN-guided reduction, the doping of Ag atoms onto cellulose fiber surface optimized the crystallinity and oxygen vacancy of MnO2, providing cotton efficient antibacterial efficiency over 90 % after 30 min of contact, companying with encouraging UV-shielding and indoor HCHO purification properties. Besides, even after 30 cycles of standard washing, the Ag@MnO2-decorated textiles can effectively degrade HCHO while well-maintaining their inherent properties. In summary, the presented AQN-mediated strategy of efficiently guiding the deposition of functional particles on fibers has broad application prospects in the green and sustainable functionalization of textiles.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To revisit the association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD, defined as serum 25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml) and incident active tuberculosis (TB), after two potentially underpowered randomized trials showed statistically non-significant 13%-22% decrease in TB incidence in vitamin D supplementation groups. METHODS: We prospectively conducted an age/sex-matched case-control study that accounting for body-mass index (BMI), smoking, and other confounding factors to examine the association between VDD and active TB among non-HIV people in Taiwan (latitude 24°N), a high-income society which continues to have moderate TB burden. RESULTS: We enrolled 62 people with incident active TB and 248 people in control group. The TB case patients had a significantly higher proportion of VDD compared to the control group (51.6% vs 29.8%, p = 0.001). The 25(OH)D level was also significantly lower in TB patients compared to control group (21.25 ± 8.93 ng/ml vs 24.45 ± 8.36 ng/ml, p = 0.008). In multivariable analysis, VDD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.03, p = 0.002), lower BMI (aOR: 0.81, p < 0.001), liver cirrhosis (aOR: 8.99, p = 0.042), and smoking (aOR: 4.52, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for incident active TB. CONCLUSIONS: VDD is an independent risk factor for incident active TB. Future randomized trials examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on TB incidence should focus on people with a low BMI or other risk factors to maximize the statistical power.

17.
J Food Sci ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591324

RESUMO

It is crucial to clarify the stability of Kombucha in the manufacture and storage stages due to the extensive study on the fermented products of Kombucha and the increase in the use of bacterial cellulose (BC). This study aimed to evaluate the stability of Kombucha in different manufacturing and storage temperatures within a certain time period. The stability of microorganisms and BC in Kombucha was investigated through regular replacement with the tea media at 28 and 25°C for manufacture, and the storage temperature of Kombucha was at 25, 4, and -20°C. Morphological observations of the BC in Kombucha ended at 28 and 25°C for manufacture and storage were performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) before inoculation. The viable cell counts and AFM results showed that the stability of Kombucha during manufacture was better at 28°C than at 25°C, with higher microbial viability and BC productivity in the former at the time of manufacture, whereas 25°C was more favorable for the stability of Kombucha during storage. At the same temperature of 25°C, the manufacturing practice improved the microbial viability and BC stability compared with storage; the pH value of Kombucha was lower, and the dry weight of BC was higher during storage compared with manufacture. The maximum BC water holding capacity (97.16%) was maintained by storage at 4°C on day 63, and the maximum BC swelling rate (56.92%) was observed after storage at -20°C on day 7. The research was conducted to provide reference information for applying Kombucha and its BC in food and development in other industries.

18.
World J Gastrointest Surg ; 16(3): 893-906, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a major global health challenge that predominantly affects older people. Surgical management, despite advancements, requires careful consideration of preoperative patient status for optimal outcomes. AIM: To summarize existing evidence on the association of frailty with short-term postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases for observational studies in adult patients aged ≥ 18 years undergoing planned or elective colorectal surgery for primary carcinoma and/or secondary metastasis. Only studies that conducted frailty assessment using recognized frailty assessment tools and had a comparator group, comprising nonfrail patients, were included. Pooled effect sizes were reported as weighted mean difference or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were included. Compared with nonfrail patients, frailty was associated with an increased risk of mortality at 30 d (RR: 1.99, 95%CI: 1.47-2.69), at 90 d (RR: 4.76, 95%CI: 1.56-14.6) and at 1 year (RR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.74-12.0) of follow up. Frail patients had an increased risk of any complications (RR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.57-2.10) as well as major complications (Clavien-Dindo classification grade ≥ III) (RR: 2.87, 95%CI: 1.65-4.99) compared with the control group. The risk of reoperation (RR: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.07-1.31), readmission (RR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.36-2.12), need for blood transfusion (RR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.52-1.85), wound complications (RR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.11-1.99), delirium (RR: 4.60, 95%CI: 2.31-9.16), risk of prolonged hospitalization (RR: 2.09, 95%CI: 1.22-3.60) and discharge to a skilled nursing facility or rehabilitation center (RR: 3.19, 95%CI: 2.0-5.08) was all higher in frail patients. CONCLUSION: Frailty in colorectal cancer surgery patients was associated with more complications, longer hospital stays, higher reoperation risk, and increased mortality. Integrating frailty assessment appears crucial for tailored surgical management.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597654

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone, and its analogs have been found to enhance plant resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly drought, by activating the ABA signaling pathway. This study used a combination of structure-directed design and molecular docking screening methods to synthesize a novel series of opabactin (OP) analogs. Among them, compounds 4a-4d and 5a showed comparable or superior activity to OP in bioassays, including seed germination and seedling growth inhibition in A. thaliana and rice, stomatal closure, and drought resistance in wheat and soybean. Further transcriptome analysis revealed distinct mechanisms of action between compound 4c and iso-PhABA in enhancing drought tolerance in A. thaliana. These findings highlight the application prospect of 4c and its analogs in agricultural cultivation, particularly in drought resistance. Additionally, they provide new insights into the mechanisms by which different ABA receptor agonists enhance drought resistance.

20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1381949, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601202

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to explore the association between the Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and cardiometabolic multimorbidity in middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods: The data used in this study were obtained from a national cohort, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011-2018 wave). The CVAI was measured using previously validated biomarker estimation formulas, which included sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The presence of two or more of these cardiometabolic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) is considered as cardiometabolic multimorbidity. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine the association between CVAI and cardiometabolic multimorbidity, adjusting for a set of covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to show the strength of the associations. We also conducted a subgroup analysis between age and sex, as well as two sensitivity analyses. Receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) were used to test the predictive capabilities and cutoff value of the CVAI for cardiometabolic multimorbidity. Results: A total of 9028 participants were included in the final analysis, with a mean age of 59.3 years (standard deviation: 9.3) and women accounting for 53.7% of the sample population. In the fully-adjusted model, compared with participants in the Q1 of CVAI, the Q3 (HR = 2.203, 95% CI = 1.039 - 3.774) and Q4 of CVAI (HR = 3.547, 95% CI = 2.100 - 5.992) were associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity. There was no evidence of an interaction between the CVAI quartiles and sex or age in association with cardiometabolic multimorbidity (P >0.05). The results of both sensitivity analyses suggested that the association between CVAI and cardiometabolic multimorbidity was robust. In addition, the area under ROC and ideal cutoff value for CVAI prediction of cardiometabolic multimorbidity were 0.685 (95% CI = 0.649-0.722) and 121.388. Conclusion: The CVAI is a valid biomarker with good predictive capability for cardiometabolic multimorbidity and can be used by primary healthcare organizations in the future for early warning, prevention, and intervention with regard to cardiometabolic multimorbidity.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...