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1.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(3): 400-416, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660728

RESUMO

Considering the explosive growth of the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the scientific community is combatting increasing challenges to protect humans and wildlife from the potentially negative consequences of POPs. Herein, we characterize the main aspects and progress in the ecotoxicology of POPs in avian species since 2000. The majority of previous efforts has revealed the global occurrence of high levels of various POPs in birds. Laboratory research and epidemiological studies imply that POPs exert a broad-spectrum of side-effects on birds by interfering with their endocrine, immune and neural system, reproduction, and development, and growth. However, inconsistent results suggest that the potential effects of POP exposure on the physiological parameters in birds are multifactorial, involving a multitude of biological processes, species-specific differences, gender, age and types of compounds. Great progress has been achieved in identifying the species-specific sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds, which is attributed to different amino acid residues in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Besides the conventional concentration additivity, several studies have suggested that different classes of POPs possibly act synergistically or antagonistically based on their concentration. However, ecotoxicology information is still recorded in a scattered and inadequate manner, including lack of enough avian species, limited number of POPs investigated, and insufficient geographical representation, and thus our understanding of the effects of POPs on birds remains rudimentary, although mechanistic understanding of their mode of action is progressing. Particularly, research on what happens to wild bird populations and their ecosystems under POP stress is still unavailable. Thus, our aim is to predict and trace the effects POPs at different biological organization levels, especially from the molecular, cellular and individual levels to the population, community and ecosystem levels because of the limited and scattered information, as mentioned above.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Aves , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos
2.
Opt Express ; 29(3): 3221-3229, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770925

RESUMO

We investigated the frequency noise coupling mechanism of a 2 µm polarization-maintaining single frequency fiber laser (SFFL) theoretically and experimentally. The coupling of pump's relative intensity noise (RIN) to frequency noise of a single-frequency high-gain silica fiber laser is shown experimentally to be consistent with a theoretical model where thermal expansion and thermo-optic effect mediate the coupling. The measured and theoretical frequency noise of the 2 µm SFFL with three pump sources is compared. We find using a 1550 nm single frequency laser pump source produces the lowest frequency noise, less than 100 Hz/Hz at frequencies higher than 100 Hz.

3.
Org Lett ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780255

RESUMO

Asymmetric functionalization of inert C(sp3)-H bonds is a straightforward approach to realize versatile bond-forming events, allowing the precise assembly of molecular complexity with minimal functional manipulations. Here, we describe an asymmetric photocatalytic C(sp3)-H bond addition to α-substituted acrylates by using tetrabutylammonium decatungstate (TBADT) as a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) photocatalyst and chiral phosphoric acid as a chiral proton-transfer shuttle. This protocol is supposed to occur via a radical/ionic relay process, including a TBADT-mediated HAT to cleave the inert C(sp3)-H bond, a 1,4-radical addition, a back hydrogen abstraction, and an enantioselective protonation. A variety of inert C-H bond patterns and α-substituted acrylates are well tolerated to enable the rapid synthesis of enantioenriched α-stereogenic esters from simple raw materials.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 552429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717057

RESUMO

Isolated central nervous system involvement in multiple myeloma (CNS-MM) is rare and carries extremely poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CART) targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is demonstrated as a promising strategy in MM treatment, but the clinical safety and efficacy of BCMA-CART against isolated CNS-MM remain elusive. Here we report on a 56-year-old male with refractory isolated CNS-MM who received autologous BCMA-CART therapy and developed grade 4 neurological complications. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses showed significant expansion of CART cells and a substantially elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Intravenous methylprednisolone was administered and the symptoms resolved gradually. Unexpectedly, the level of IL-6 in the CSF was maintained for another 3 days even after the relief of the neurological symptoms. A partial response was achieved and sustained for 5.5 months. This is the first report describing a patient with isolated CNS-MM treated using BCMA-CART therapy. The results demonstrated that BCMA-CART cells administered intravenously trafficked into the CSF, eradicated tumor cells, and induced severe but reversible neurological adverse events. This single-patient report suggests that BCMA-CART therapy can be considered as an alternative option for isolated CNS-MM. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03196414.

5.
Chemosphere ; 275: 130011, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667774

RESUMO

Although global mercury (Hg) emission from chlor-alkali industry is decreasing, the legacy Hg may still have potential risks due to its environmental persistence. The objective of this work is to study the biogeochemical cycling and potential risk of Hg in the Ya-Er Lake, which was heavily contaminated by historical chlor-alkali production. Higher concentrations of total Hg (THg) in Ya-Er Lake water (16.8 ± 8.4 ng L-1) and sediment (547 ± 489 ng g-1) than other lake systems were observed, reflecting serious Hg pollution in this system. Diffusion rates of Hg at sediment-water interface and budget of Hg showed that release of legacy Hg in sediment (accounting for ∼80%) dominated THg in water, and about 80% methylmercury (MeHg) of total was diffused from sediment. Significant correlations between total organic carbon (TOC) derived from aquaculture and THg diffusion and MeHg concentrations in sediment suggest that TOC plays important roles in controlling legacy Hg release and MeHg production. The actual weekly intakes of Hg via consumption of cultured catfish and wild topmouth culter were higher than the established provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of MeHg. These results indicated that although the nearby chlor-alkali plant has been shut down for three decades, the release of legacy Hg stored in the sediment still adversely affects this ecosystem. Moreover, aquaculture could enhance MeHg production and control MeHg distribution in the polluted aquatic ecosystem, potentially posing a health risk to surrounding inhabitants through consumption of fish.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124832, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631450

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a biotransformation process for the production of (S)-1-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol, a key chiral intermediate of Plk1 inhibitor, and increase its productivity through medium engineering strategy. A fungus isolate Geotrichum silvicola ZJPH1811 was adopted as biocatalyst for 2'-(trifluoromethyl)acetophenone reduction, and gave the best performance with > 99.2% product ee. To improve the yield, choline acetate/cysteine (ChAc/Cys) was introduced as co-solvent in reaction system, which accelerated mass transfer and protected cells from substrate inhibition. Moreover, a synergistic effect of methylated-ß-cyclodextrin (MCD) and ChAc/Cys was found in the bioreduction, with further enhancement in substrate concentration and cell membrane permeability. Compared with buffer system, in the developed ChAc/Cys-MCD-containing system, substrate loading and product yield were increased by 6.7-fold and 2.4-fold respectively. This is the first report on (S)-1-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol production with G. silvicola, and provides valuable insight into the synergistic effect of DES and CDs in biocatalysis.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Álcool Feniletílico , Biocatálise , Geotrichum , Solventes
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(6): 2001-2012, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538166

RESUMO

This study investigated the regulatory relationship between important flavor compounds and microRNA (miRNA) in nine different tissues of tea plant by analyzing the related metabolites, small RNAs (sRNAs), degradome, and coexpression network. A total of 272 differential expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were obtained, including 198 conserved miRNAs and 74 novel miRNAs. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of miR159-GAMYB, miR167-ARF, and miR396-GRF pairs were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the target sites were verified by 5'RNA ligase-mediated RACE (5' RLM-RACE). Further coexpression analysis showed that the content of gallated catechins was significantly and negatively correlated with the expression of miR156, but positively correlated with the expression of miR166 and miR172. Additionally, the expression of miR169a, miR169l, and miR319h was shown to be positively correlated with the content of nongallated catechins and the experssion levels of ANRa, ANRb, and LARb. Moreover, important volatile compounds, such as linalool, geraniol, and 2-phenylethanol, were found to be highly positively correlated with the expression of miR171o, miRN71a, miRN71b, miRN71c, and miRN71d. Our data indicate that these miRNAs may play important roles in regulating the biosynthesis of flavor compounds in different tissues of tea plant.

8.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 109012, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611126

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) O78 and Salmonella typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) are two leading bacterial pathogens that cause significant economic loss in the poultry industry. O-antigen is an important immunogen of these two bacteria to induce host protective immune responses during infection. To develop a bivalent vaccine against APEC O78 and S. Typhimurium, the attenuated Salmonella ST01 (Δasd ΔrfbP Δcrp) was genetically constructed to deliver APEC O78 O-antigen polysaccharide (OPS), which stably expresses OPS with asd+ balanced-lethal system in vitro and in vivo. After oral immunization, the recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strain ST01 (pSS26-O78) provided insufficient protection against the APEC O78 challenge. Therefore, the regulated delayed attenuation strain ST02 (Δasd ΔrfbP ΔPcrp::TTaraC PBADcrp) was further constructed by regulating cyclic AMP receptor protein (crp) with araC PBAD cassette to better present the heterologous O-antigen to the host immune system. The innovative recombinant strain ST02 (pSS26-O78) stimulated robust antibody responses against APEC O78 and S. Typhimurium OPS, with serum titers over 1:800 for both IgG and IgA, thereby providing the complement-mediated bactericidal activity and stronger protection against APEC O78 and S. Typhimurium infection. Collectively, this study demonstrates a biologically-conjugated polysaccharide vaccine candidate that can enhance homologous protection against APEC O78 and S. Typhimurium.

9.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(1): 142-148, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474904

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical diagnostic application of invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test (iCPET) in patients with unexplained dyspnea. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted, covering patients with a chief complaint of exertional dyspnea between May 5, 2017 and October 1, 2020. Right cardiac catheterization examination was performed on patients whose cause had not been identified through routine examination, and further iCPET was performed on patients if no clear etiology was identified through right cardiac catheterization. According to the results and the diagnostic criteria of iCPET, patients showing no obvious abnormalities in the right cardiac catheterization examination were divided into four subgroups: exercise-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (eiPAH), exercise-induced heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (eiHFpEF), preload failure, and oxidative myopathy. By comparing the lab test, echocardiography, right heart catheter and iCPET peak exercise data of the subgroups, the disease distribution and exercise hemodynamic characteristics of patients with unexplained dyspnea examined by iCPET were described. Results: Of the 1 046 patients with exertional dyspnea, 771 were diagnosed with routine examination, while among the remaining 275 patients, 131 (47.6%) were diagnosed with right cardiac catheterization and 144 (52.4%) showed no clear etiology after routine examination and right cardiac catheterization. Of these 144 patients, 49 (34.0%) received iCPET with a median exercise time of 375 s. A total of 47 patients completed the examination, with a male-to-female ratio of 0.27∶1 and an average age of (47.9±14.4) years old. Among the 47 patients, 76.6% (36/47) aged between 20 and 59 and 78.7% (36/47) lived in urban areas. The preload failure group ( n=27) showed low right atrium pressure at peak exercise intensity. The eiHFpEF group ( n=9) showed high wedge pressure of pulmonary capillaries at peak of exercise intensity. The eiPAH group ( n=8) showed high average pulmonary artery pressure at peak exercise intensity. The oxidative myopathy group ( n=3) was characterized by impairment of tissue uptake and/or utilization of oxygen during exercise. According to the comparison among the three subgroups of the preload failure, eiHFpEF and eiPAH, the eiPAH group had the highest blood K + level in routine examination, while the preload failure group had the lowest blood K + level ( P=0.014). The iCPET of the three subgroups showed statistically significant ( P=0.001) difference in right atrial pressure increase during exercise. Among the three, the eiHFpEF group had the highest increase and the preload failure group had the lowest increase. Conclusion  In unexplained dyspnea patients showing no abnormal results in right cardiac catheterization examination, the main cause was preload failure, which manifested as low right atrial pressure at peak exercise intensity. The study showed that iCPET was of important value for dyspnea cases when the cause of the condition was not revealed with right cardiac catheterization.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Dispneia/etiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 142965, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498109

RESUMO

Providing enough food for the increasing global population is difficult due to water shortages, which can be partially resolved by regulating soil moisture. Soil moisture influences soluble nutrient uptake and microbial activity, which determine crop growth, but also affects greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Farming is increasingly contributing to GHG emission, but little is known about the effects of the vertical soil moisture distribution on GHG or maize (Zea mays L.) yield over the growth season. In this study, there were five irrigation treatments: no irrigation (NI), and irrigation of the top (0-30 cm) (TI), middle (30-60 cm) (MI), bottom (60-90 cm) (BI), and all (0-90 cm) (AI) soil layers. The results showed that TI, MI, BI, and AI increased CO2 (25-60%), CH4 (80-270%), and N2O (17-96%) emissions, and the global warming potential (25-63%), while also increasing grain yield (13-119%) and reducing GHG intensity by 12-27%. While higher soil moisture in the shallow soil layer increased grain yield and GHG emissions, GHG intensity was lowest. Subsurface irrigation or control of the "drip irrigation interval" improve grain yield and resource use efficiency with lower environmental costs contributing agricultural sustainable development.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516702
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 271: 113855, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485979

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scutellarin (Scu) is one of the main active ingredients of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz which has been used to treat cardiovascular disease including vascular dysfunction caused by diabetes. Scu also has a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells against hyperglycemia. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Scu on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury induced by high glucose (HG), especially the regulation of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HUVECs were exposed to HG to induce vascular endothelial cells injury in vitro. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The extent of cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst staining and flow cytometry. Mitophagy was assayed by fluorescent immunostaining, transmission electron microscope and immunoblot. Besides, virtual docking was conducted to validate the interaction of PINK1 protein and Scu. RESULTS: We found that Scu significantly increased cell viability in HG-treated HUVECs. Scu reduces the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome C (Cyt.c) to inhibit apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. Meanwhile, Scu improved the overload of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and SOD2 protein expression, and reversed the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Besides, Scu increased autophagic flux, improved the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 Ⅱ (LC3 II), Beclin 1 and autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg 5) and decreased the expression of Sequestosome1/P62 in HG-treated HUVECs. Furthermore, Scu improved the expressions of PINK1, Parkin, and Mitofusin2, which revealed the enhancement of mitophagy. Moreover, the beneficial effects of Scu on HG-induced low expression of Parkin, overproduction of ROS, and over expressions of P62, Cyt.c and Cleaved caspase-3 were weakened by PINK1 gene knockdown. Molecular docking suggested good interaction of Scu and PINK1 protein. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Scu may protect vascular endothelial cells against hyperglycemia-induced injury by up-regulating mitophagy via PINK1/Parkin signal pathway.

13.
Mol Oncol ; 15(4): 1234-1255, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512745

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can compete with endogenous RNAs to modulate the gene expression and contribute to oncogenesis and tumor metastasis. lncRNA NKX2-1-AS1 (NKX2-1 antisense RNA 1) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression and metastasis; however, the contribution of aberrant expression of NKX2-1-AS1 and the mechanism by which it functions as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in gastric cancer (GC) remains elusive. NKX2-1-AS1 expression was detected in paired tumor and nontumor tissues of 178 GC patients by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Using loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments, the biological functions of NKX2-1-AS1 were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Further, to assess that NKX2-1-AS1 regulates angiogenic processes, tube formation and co-culture assays were performed. RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, a dual-luciferase reporter assay, quantitative PCR, Western blot, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were performed to determine the potential molecular mechanism underlying this ceRNA. The results indicated that NKX2-1-AS1 expression was upregulated in GC cell lines and tumor tissues. Overexpression of NKX2-1-AS1 was significantly associated with tumor progression and enhanced angiogenesis. Functionally, NKX2-1-AS1 overexpression promoted GC cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis, while NKX2-1-AS1 knockdown restored these effects, both in vitro and in vivo. RIP and dual-luciferase assays revealed that the microRNA miR-145-5p is a direct target of NKX2-1-AS1 and that NKX2-1-AS1 serves as a ceRNA to sponge miRNA and regulate angiogenesis in GC. Moreover, serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) is an explicit target for miR-145-5p; besides, the NKX2-1-AS1/miR-145-5p axis induces the translation of SERPINE1, thus activating the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway to promote tumor progression and angiogenesis. NKX2-1-AS1 overexpression is associated with enhanced tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and poor prognosis in GC. Collectively, NKX2-1-AS1 functions as a ceRNA to miR-145-5p and promotes tumor progression and angiogenesis by activating the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway via SERPINE1.

14.
Oecologia ; 195(1): 199-212, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394130

RESUMO

Physiological integration of connected plants of the same clone, or ramets, often increases clonal fitness when ramets differ in resource supply. However, review of the literature found that no study has directly tested the hypothesis that integration can increase the ability of clones to compete against other species. To test this, we grew two-ramet clonal fragments of the stoloniferous, perennial herb Fragaria chiloensis in which none, one, or both of the ramets had neighbors of a naturally co-occurring, dominant grass, Bromus carinatus, and connections between ramets were either severed to prevent integration or left intact. We also grew four-ramet fragments in which all ramets had neighbors and connections were severed or intact. Severance decreased the final leaf mass and area of two-ramet fragments by 25% and their final total mass by 15% when just one ramet was grown with B. carinatus. Severance had no significant effect on the total mass of fragments when none or all of the ramets were grown with the grass. This provides the first direct evidence that physiological integration can increase the competitive ability of clonal plant species, though only when competition is spatially heterogeneous. Integration may thus enable plant clones to grow into plant communities and to compete within communities with fine-scale disturbance. However, integration may not increase the competitive ability of clonal plants within uniformly dense communities of taller species.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Poaceae , Biomassa
15.
Heart Vessels ; 36(4): 589-596, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392644

RESUMO

SCN5A gene encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 which is composed of a pore-forming α subunit of the channel. Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is one of the common post-translational modifications in proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate impact of N-linked glycosylation disruption on the Na+ channel, and the mechanism by which glycosylation regulates the current density and gating properties of the Na+ channel. The NaV1.5-Na+ channel isoform (α submit) derived from human was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells (Nav1.5-HEK cell). We applied the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to study the impact of N-linked glycosylation disruption in Nav1.5-HEK cell. Inhibition of the N-glycosylation with tunicamycin caused a significant increase of NaV1.5 channel current (INa) when applied for 24 h. Tunicamycin shifted the steady-state inactivation curve to the hyperpolarization direction, whereas the activation curve was unaffected. Recovery from inactivation was prolonged, while the fast phase (τfast) and the slow phase (τslow) of the current decay was unaffected by tunicamycin. INa was unaffected by tunicamycin in the present of a proteasome inhibitor MG132 [N-[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]-L-leucy-N-[(1S)-1-formyl-3-methylbutyl]-L-leucinamide], while it was significantly increased by tunicamycin in the presence of a lysosome inhibitor butyl methacrylate (BMA). These findings suggest that N-glycosylation disruption rescues the NaV1.5 channel possibly through the alteration of ubiquitin-proteasome activity, and changes gating properties of the NaV1.5 channel by modulating glycan milieu of the channel protein.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124834, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360186

RESUMO

Engineering nanoparticles (NPs) could act as accumulator and carrier of co-contaminants, affecting their fate and toxicity in environments. However, the effects of NPs on the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of co-contaminants through the food chain and the ensuing effects on higher predators are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) on the trophic transfer of phenanthrene (Phe) from prey Artemia salina to predator Scophthalmus maximus. We also evaluated the ensuing toxic performance of Phe in S. maximus after been transferred from A. salina in the presence and absence of nTiO2. The presence of nTiO2 significantly (p < 0.05) increased Phe accumulation in A. salina with higher bioconcentration factor (BCF) up to 90.9 than that of 38.6 in Phe exposure along. After trophic transfer, nTiO2 (1 mg/L) also promoted the bioaccumulation of Phe (1 µg/L) in predator S. maximus from 4.17 mg/kg to 7.85 mg/kg (dry weight). However, nTiO2 did not enhance the trophic transfer of Phe from A. salina to S. maximus since the biological magnification factor (BMF) decreased from 0.13 to 0.08. Nevertheless, the nTiO2-enhanced bioaccumulation of Phe did enhance Phe toxicity performance in predator S. maximus after trophic transfer, showing significant (p < 0.05) growth inhibition and changes of nutrient status in the predator, compared to those of the control. Further physio-biochemical investigations suggested that oxidative stress and inhibition of digestive functions might explain the growth inhibition in treatment with nTiO2 + Phe. This study demonstrates the first evidence that NP-enhanced bioaccumulation and toxic performance of co-existing pollutants across trophic transfer, which poses potential risks to marine ecosystems, and ultimately human health by seafood consumption.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123594, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795825

RESUMO

Black carbons (BCs) are ubiquitous in the natural environment and can significantly influence the environmental behavior of pollutants. This work examined the mediating effects of graphite, soot, and biochar on 1-naphthylamine (1-NA) oxidation under aerobic conditions. It was shown that the three BCs significantly promoted the oxidation of 1-NA in the dark, and the mediation efficiency of graphite was much greater than that of soot or biochar. The oxidation products were the coupling oligomers (dimers and trimers) and the oxygen-containing oligomers of 1-NA (di-OH-1-NA, OH-azo naphthalene, OH-trimers and amino-naphthoquinone derivatives etc.). The phenolic OH on BCs were identified as the active sites for 1-NA oxidation, which could stimulate O2 to produce reactive oxygen species through successive single electron transfer and then cause 1-NA oxidation. Moreover, the superior catalytic performance of graphite was also related to its high electrical conductivity. The synergies between the sp2-hybridized carbon surface and the active sites (such as phenolic OH and defects) facilitated the oxidation of 1-NA on graphite. Findings in this study not only are helpful for better understanding the reactivity of environmental BCs, but also provide new insights into the risk assessment of 1-NA in the natural environment.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 323: 124584, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373799

RESUMO

This research work studied the pyrolysis characteristics of main biomass components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) in the presence of the spent Li-ion battery cathode (BC) enriched in transition-metals (e.g., Ni, Co). The BC with a good thermostability even at > 700 °C could be used as a catalyst for biomass conversion. The addition methods of BC to biomass such as one-step (directly mixing) and two-step (impregnation-drying) were comparatively studied. The two-step method had a better catalytic effect in biomass pyrolysis, contributing to the reduction of decomposition temperature and activation energy. Significantly, the two-step method had a strong catalytic effect in reducing the content of cellulose-derived sugars and increasing the content of ketones via dehydration and decarboxylation. In addition, the BC used by the two-step method had a high potential for biomass pyrolysis or gasification in promoting the catalytic cracking (i.e. H-transfer) of lignin-derived phenols (tar surrogates) to hydrocarbons and aliphatics (e.g., ketones).


Assuntos
Lítio , Pirólise , Biomassa , Catálise , Lignina
19.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255893

RESUMO

Lavender and its products have excellent flavor properties. However, most studies focus on the aroma profiles of lavender essential oil (LEO). The volatiles in lavender extracts (LEs), either in volatile compositions or their odor characteristics, have rarely been reported. In this study, the odor characteristics of LEs and LEO were comprehensively investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), coupled with sensory evaluation and principal chemical analysis (PCA). In addition, the extraction conditions of lavender extracts from inflorescences of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. were optimized. Under the optimal conditions of extraction, twice with 95% edible ethanol as the solvent, the LEs tended to contain the higher intensity of characteristic floral, herbal and clove-like odors as well as higher scores of overall assessment and higher amounts of linalool, linalool oxides I and II, linalyl acetate, lavandulyl acetate and total volatiles than LEO. PCA analysis showed that there were significant differences on the odor characteristics between LEO and LEs. The LEO, which was produced by steam distillation with a yield of 2.21%, had the lower intensity of floral, clove-like, medicine-like, pine-like and hay notes, a lower score of overall assessment and lower levels of linalool oxides I and II, linalyl acetate, lavandulyl acetate and total volatiles compared with LEs, whereas the relative contents of linalool and camphor in LEO were significantly higher than that in LEs. Furthermore, the earthy, green and watery odors were only found in LEO. Concerning the odor characteristics and volatile compositions, the LEs had better odor properties than LEO. These results provided a theoretical basis for the industrial preparation of lavender-related products.

20.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820980104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287670

RESUMO

Our study was designed to investigate the role of B4GalT1 in glioblastoma, in vitro and in vivo, to detect whether B4GalT1 knockdown could regulate the development of glioblastoma, and further observe the relationship between B4GalT1 knockdown and the apoptosis and autophagy of glioblastoma. To begin, we looked at TCGA and GEPIA systems to predict the potential function of B4GalT1. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to analyze the expression, or mRNA level, of B4GalT1 at different tissue or cell lines. Next, the occurrence and development of glioblastoma, in vitro and in vivo, was observed by using B4GalT1 knocked down by lentivirus. Finally, the apoptosis and autophagy of glioblastoma was observed in vitro and in vivo. Results show that B4GalT1 was a highly variable gene, and GEPIA and TCGA systems show B4GalT1 expression in GBM tumor tissue was higher than in normal tissue. Pair-wise gene correlation analysis revealed a probable relationship between B4GalT1 and autophagy related proteins. The B4GalT1 expression and mRNA level were increased in tumor cells, or U87 cells. B4GalT1 knocked down by lentivirus could inhibit glioblastoma development, in vitro and in vivo, by reducing tumor weight and volume, increasing survival, and weakening tumor cells proliferation, migration, invasion. B4GalT1 knockdown could increase apoptosis and autophagy of glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrates that B4GalT1 may be able to regulate apoptosis and autophagy of glioblastoma. Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, Beclin-1, and LC3 s may be the downstream target factors of B4GalT1 in apoptosis and autophagy, which may provide a new strategy to reduce glioblastoma development by regulating apoptosis and autophagy.

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