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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite extensive research into the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the presence of substantial biological and clinical heterogeneity among diagnosed individuals remains a major barrier. Commonly used case‒control designs assume homogeneity among subjects, which limits their ability to identify biological heterogeneity, while normative modeling pinpoints deviations from typical functional network development at individual level. METHODS: Using a world-wide multi-site database known as Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, we analyzed individuals with ASD and typically developed (TD) controls (total n = 1218) aged 5-40 years, generating individualized whole-brain network functional connectivity (FC) maps of age-related atypicality in ASD. We then used local polynomial regression to estimate a networkwise normative model of development and explored correlations between ASD symptoms and brain networks. RESULTS: We identified a subset exhibiting highly atypical individual-level FC, exceeding 2 standard deviation from the normative value. We also identified clinically relevant networks (mainly default mode network) at cohort level, since the outlier rates decreased with age in TD participants, but increased in those with autism. Moreover, deviations were linked to severity of repetitive behaviors and social communication symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with ASD exhibit distinct, highly individualized trajectories of brain functional network development. In addition, distinct developmental trajectories were observed among ASD and TD individuals, suggesting that it may be challenging to identify true differences in network characteristics by comparing young children with ASD to their TD peers. This study enhances understanding of the biological heterogeneity of the disorder and can inform precision medicine.

2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1148705, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327578

RESUMO

Objectives: The present study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence and incidence of new leprosy cases, as well as the diversity, distribution, and temporal transmission of Mycobacterium leprae strains at the county level in leprae-endemic provinces in Southwest China. Methods: A total of 219 new leprosy cases during two periods, 2018-2019 and 2020-2021, were compared. We genetically characterized 83 clinical isolates of M. leprae in Guizhou using variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The obtained genetic profiles and cluster consequences of M. leprae were compared between the two periods. Results: There was an 18.97% decrease in the number of counties and districts reporting cases. Considering the initial months (January-March) of virus emergence, the number of new cases in 2021 increased by 167% compared to 2020. The number of patients with a delay of >12 months before COVID-19 (63.56%) was significantly higher than that during COVID-19 (48.51%). Eighty-one clinical isolates (97.60%) were positive for all 17 VNTR types, whereas two (2.40%) clinical isolates were positive for 16 VNTR types. The (GTA)9, (TA)18, (TTC)21 and (TA)10 loci showed higher polymorphism than the other loci. The VNTR profile of these clinical isolates generated five clusters, among which the counties where the patients were located were adjacent or relatively close to each other. SNP typing revealed that all clinical isolates possessed the single SNP3K. Conclusion: COVID-19 may have a negative/imbalanced impact on the prevention and control measures of leprosy, which could be a considerable fact for official health departments. Isolates formed clusters among counties in Guizhou, indicating that the transmission chain remained during the epidemic and was less influenced by COVID-19 preventative policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hanseníase , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Pandemias , DNA Bacteriano/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Adv ; 10(9): eadh8689, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416840

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in cell-cell communication but are highly heterogeneous, and each vesicle has dimensions smaller than 200 nm with very limited amounts of cargos encapsulated. The technique of NanOstirBar (NOB)-EnabLed Single Particle Analysis (NOBEL-SPA) reported in the present work permits rapid inspection of single EV with high confidence by confocal fluorescence microscopy, thus enables colocalization assessment for selected protein and microRNA (miRNA) markers in the EVs produced by various cell lines, or present in clinical sera samples. EV subpopulations marked by the colocalization of unique protein and miRNA combinations were discovered to be able to detect early-stage (stage I or II) breast cancer (BC). NOBEL-SPA can be adapted to analyze other types of cargo molecules or other small submicron biological particles. Study of the sorting of specific cargos to heterogeneous vesicles under different physiological conditions can help discover distinct vesicle subpopulations valuable in clinical examination and therapeutics development and gain better understanding of their biogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Feminino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Linhagem Celular
4.
Cancer Res Commun ; 4(1): 170-181, 2024 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38259097

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EV) have emerged as critical effectors in the cross-talk between cancer and normal cells by transferring intracellular materials between adjacent or distant cells. Previous studies have begun to elucidate how cancer cells, by secreting EVs, adapt normal cells at a metastatic site to facilitate cancer cell metastasis. In this study, we utilized a high-content microscopic screening platform to investigate the mechanisms of EV uptake by primary lung fibroblasts. A selected library containing 90 FDA-approved anticancer drugs was screened for the effect on fibroblast uptake of EVs from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Among the drugs identified to inhibit EV uptake without exerting significant cytotoxicity, we validated the dose-dependent effect of Trametinib (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) and Copanlisib (a PI3K inhibitor). Trametinib suppressed macropinocytosis in lung fibroblasts and inhibited EV uptake with a higher potency comparing with Copanlisib. Gene knockdown and overexpression studies demonstrated that uptake of MDA-MB-231 EVs by lung fibroblasts required MEK2. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying lung fibroblast uptake of breast cancer cell-derived EVs, which could play a role in breast cancer metastasis to the lungs and suggest potential therapeutic targets for preventing or treating this deadly disease. SIGNIFICANCE: Through a phenotypic screen, we found that MEK inhibitor Trametinib suppressed EV uptake and macropinocytosis in lung fibroblasts, and that EV uptake is mediated by MEK2 in these cells. Our results suggest that MEK2 inhibition could serve as a strategy to block cancer EV uptake by lung fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Vesículas Extracelulares , MAP Quinase Quinase 2 , Pinocitose , Transporte Biológico , Fibroblastos , Pulmão , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Humanos , Células MDA-MB-231 , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(3): 1874-1886, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38085547

RESUMO

Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has broad applications in visualizing biological activities, detecting chemical species, and characterizing materials. However, the chemical information encoded in the PL images is often limited by the overlapping emission spectra of chromophores. Here, we report a PL microscopy based on the nonlinear interactions between mid-infrared and visible excitations on matters, which we termed MultiDimensional Widefield Infrared-encoded Spontaneous Emission (MD-WISE) microscopy. MD-WISE microscopy can distinguish chromophores that possess nearly identical emission spectra via conditions in a multidimensional space formed by three independent variables: the temporal delay between the infrared and the visible pulses (t), the wavelength of visible pulses (λvis), and the frequencies of the infrared pulses (ωIR). This method is enabled by two mechanisms: (1) modulating the optical absorption cross sections of molecular dyes by exciting specific vibrational functional groups and (2) reducing the PL quantum yield of semiconductor nanocrystals, which was achieved through strong field ionization of excitons. Importantly, MD-WISE microscopy operates under widefield imaging conditions with a field of view of tens of microns, other than the confocal configuration adopted by most nonlinear optical microscopies, which require focusing the optical beams tightly. By demonstrating the capacity of registering multidimensional information into PL images, MD-WISE microscopy has the potential of expanding the number of species and processes that can be simultaneously tracked in high-speed widefield imaging applications.

6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 411: 110527, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38118357

RESUMO

Sprouts and spent sprout irrigation water (SSIW) present unique challenges for the development of a Salmonella detection method in food matrices. This study aimed to compare universal preenrichment broth (UPB) and lactose broth (LB) as preenrichment media for cultural and rapid screening methods and to compare their abilities to recover Salmonella in SSIW samples from different sprout varieties (i.e., alfalfa, broccoli, and mung bean sprouts). The associated co-enriched microbiota with different sprout varieties using different preenrichment media were also examined using a quasi-metagenomic approach. The performance of media and detection methods was compared using the relative level of detection (RLOD) value, as recommended by ISO 16140-2:2016. The level of detection (LOD) for Salmonella culture method with UPB was similar to that with LB in low aerobic plate count (APC) background samples (the relative LOD, i.e., RLOD, was nearly 1 after adjusting for the effects of SSIW variety and serovar), but significantly lower than that with LB in high APC background samples (RLOD = 0.32). The LOD for Salmonella with selected rapid methods was comparable to each other (RLOD from 0.97 to 1.50) and to the culture method (RLOD from 0.69 to 1.03), and no significant difference was detected between preenrichment broths in low APC background samples with RLOD values between 0.76 and 1.04. In samples with a high APC background, however, a drastic difference in LOD was observed between methods and between preenrichment broths for each method. The RLOD ranged from 0.03 to 0.32 when UPB was compared to LB as preenrichment broth. The composition and relative abundance (RA) of co-enriched microbiota was affected by multiple factors including food matrices, preenrichment media and Salmonella contamination. Altogether, this study validated UPB as a better preenrichment broth than LB for the detection of Salmonella enterica from SSIW. This study also suggested UPB may also be an optimal preenrichment medium for rapid screening methods when APC level is high. The observation of potential exclusion of Salmonella in preenrichment through the overgrowth of competitive microflora from the quasi-metagenomic study provided novel information that may be used to further optimize preenrichment formulations.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella enterica , Meios de Cultura/análise , Salmonella/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
7.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 37(1): 29-37, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the mediating role of resilience in the relationship between these two factors. METHODS: The adverse childhood experience scale, resilience scale and IGD Scale were administered to 9349 university students. Correlations and mediating effects were calculated among these scores. RESULTS: After controlling for sex and age, significant correlations among adverse childhood experiences, resilience and IGD were observed; resilience was a partial mediator variable in the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and IGD. CONCLUSIONS: The more adverse childhood experiences an individual has, the less their mental toughness and the greater their tendency to become addicted to internet games. Adverse childhood experiences can effectively predict IGD, and the risk of becoming addicted to the internet can be decreased by increasing one's mental toughness.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Comportamento Aditivo , Resiliência Psicológica , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Universidades , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Jogos de Vídeo/efeitos adversos , Internet , Estudantes
8.
Cells ; 12(22)2023 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37998383

RESUMO

Endothelial cells are the crucial inner lining of blood vessels, which are pivotal in vascular homeostasis and integrity. However, these cells are perpetually subjected to a myriad of mechanical, chemical, and biological stresses that can compromise their plasma membranes. A sophisticated repair system involving key molecules, such as calcium, annexins, dysferlin, and MG53, is essential for maintaining endothelial viability. These components orchestrate complex mechanisms, including exocytosis and endocytosis, to repair membrane disruptions. Dysfunctions in this repair machinery, often exacerbated by aging, are linked to endothelial cell death, subsequently contributing to the onset of atherosclerosis and the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke, major causes of mortality in the United States. Thus, identifying the core machinery for endothelial cell membrane repair is critically important for understanding the pathogenesis of CVD and stroke and developing novel therapeutic strategies for combating CVD and stroke. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of endothelial cell membrane repair. The future directions of this research area are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Células Endoteliais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membranas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
9.
Sports Biomech ; : 1-23, 2023 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37921046

RESUMO

Eccentric quasi-isometrics (EQIs) are a novel, low-velocity resistance exercise technique that incorporates a holding isometric contraction to positional fatigue, followed by voluntary resistance of the resulting eccentric muscle action. As females are typically more fatigue resistant than males during isometric and low-velocity dynamic muscle actions, this study explored sex-differences in the muscle fatigue response to an EQI protocol. Twenty-five (n = 12 female) participants completed 4 unilateral EQI elbow flexions. Absolute and relative surface electromyography (sEMG) amplitude (iEMG, LE peak), mean power frequency (MPF), angular impulse (aIMP), and elbow angle were compared across repetitions and between sexes using discrete values and statistical parametric/non-parametric mapping. There were significant and substantial sex and repetition differences in absolute iEMG, MPF, and aIMP, however, males and females had statistically similar absolute aIMP by repetition 4. When expressed relatively, there were no significant sex-differences. Additionally, there were significant between repetition changes in sEMG amplitude and elbow angle with an increasing number of repetitions, largely in the first-two thirds of repetition time. The current study suggests that there are absolute, but not relative sex-differences in EQI induced muscle fatigue, and the effects across repetitions occur predominately in the first two-thirds of repetition time.

10.
J Behav Addict ; 12(3): 758-774, 2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37651282

RESUMO

Objective: This study sought to investigate brain responses to positive and negative events in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) during real gaming as a direct assessment of the neural features of IGD. This investigation reflects the neural deficits in individuals with IGD while playing games, providing direct and effective targets for prevention and treatment of IGD. Methods: Thirty subjects with IGD and fifty-two matched recreational game use (RGU) subjects were scanned while playing an online game. Abnormal brain activities during positive and negative events were detected using a general linear model. Functional connectivity (FC) and correlation analyses between neural features and addiction severity were conducted to provide additional support for the underlying neural features. Results: Compared to the RGU subjects, the IGD subjects exhibited decreased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during positive events and decreased activation in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus during negative events. Decreased FC between the DLPFC and putamen during positive events and between the MFG and amygdala during negative events were observed among the IGD subjects. Neural features and addiction severity were significantly correlated. Conclusions: Individuals with IGD exhibited deficits in regulating game craving, maladaptive habitual gaming behaviors and negative emotions when experiencing positive and negative events during real game-playing compared to RGU gamers. These abnormalities in neural substrates during real gaming provide direct evidence for explaining why individuals with IGD uncontrollably and continuously engage in game playing, despite negative consequences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Jogos Recreativos/psicologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Internet
11.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 29(7): 328-334, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37499149

RESUMO

Background: With social development, an aging population, and the increasing trend of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has become one of the major problems affecting human health across the globe. Methods: Information on controlled trials was retrieved from four databases to obtain the effects of different doses of canagliflozin combined with metformin for treating T2DM. After a rigorous evaluation of the quality of the literature, data analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: We included 8 studies in this meta-analysis. The least square (LS) means of HbA1c and FPG in the test group were statistically lower than the control group. Our analysis revealed that the adverse reactions were not significantly different between the experimental and control groups (OR: 1.03; 95% Cl: 0.94, 1.12; P = .555). Also, we found that the urinary tract infection of the experimental group was not statistically different from the control group (OR: 0.94; 95% Cl: 0.71, 1.24; P = .648). Moreover, we identified that the blood pressure and blood lipids of the experimental group did not statistically differ from the control group. Conclusion: The meta-analysis demonstrates that high doses of canagliflozin combined with metformin may be potentially effective in patients with T2DM, as evidenced by LS means of HbA1c and FPG, and the above conclusions need to be verified by more high-quality studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Idoso , Humanos , Glicemia , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Food Prot ; 86(9): 100134, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37516241

RESUMO

Industry and public health agencies sample and test food products for various purposes related to food safety and quality. Methods of sample selection and sample size determination are important in designing an optimal sampling plan. The appropriate sample size of a sampling plan depends on the objective. We examine the methods of sample size calculation for the following four objectives commonly associated with food sampling: (1) estimate prevalence (e.g., of contaminated products), (2) detect presence (e.g., of contaminated products), (3) estimate maximum prevalence, and (4) compare estimated prevalence with a specified value (e.g., a previous estimate or a threshold value). We illustrate these methods using examples and provide a web-based application (https://simple-sample.galaxytrakr.org/) written in R, using the shiny package, to help users with the application of each method.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos , Tamanho da Amostra
13.
EMBO Rep ; 24(9): e56464, 2023 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37439436

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle loss and weakness are associated with bad prognosis and poorer quality of life in cancer patients. Tumor-derived factors have been implicated in muscle dysregulation by inducing cachexia and apoptosis. Here, we show that extracellular vesicles secreted by breast cancer cells impair mitochondrial homeostasis and function in skeletal muscle, leading to decreased mitochondrial content and energy production and increased oxidative stress. Mechanistically, miR-122-5p in cancer-cell-secreted EVs is transferred to myocytes, where it targets the tumor suppressor TP53 to decrease the expression of TP53 target genes involved in mitochondrial regulation, including Tfam, Pgc-1α, Sco2, and 16S rRNA. Restoration of Tp53 in muscle abolishes mitochondrial myopathology in mice carrying breast tumors and partially rescues their impaired running capacity without significantly affecting muscle mass. We conclude that extracellular vesicles from breast cancer cells mediate skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer and may contribute to muscle weakness in some cancer patients.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias , Camundongos , Animais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
14.
J Biol Chem ; 299(7): 104918, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37315791

RESUMO

Unlike other members of the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily, voltage-gated proton (Hv) channels are solely composed of voltage sensor domains without separate ion-conducting pores. Due to their unique dependence on both voltage and transmembrane pH gradients, Hv channels normally open to mediate proton efflux. Multiple cellular ligands were also found to regulate the function of Hv channels, including Zn2+, cholesterol, polyunsaturated arachidonic acid, and albumin. Our previous work showed that Zn2+ and cholesterol inhibit the human voltage-gated proton channel (hHv1) by stabilizing its S4 segment at resting state conformations. Released from phospholipids by phospholipase A2 in cells upon infection or injury, arachidonic acid regulates the function of many ion channels, including hHv1. In the present work, we examined the effects of arachidonic acid on purified hHv1 channels using liposome flux assays and revealed underlying structural mechanisms using single-molecule FRET. Our data indicated that arachidonic acid strongly activates hHv1 channels by promoting transitions of the S4 segment toward opening or "preopening" conformations. Moreover, we found that arachidonic acid even activates hHv1 channels inhibited by Zn2+ and cholesterol, providing a biophysical mechanism to activate hHv1 channels in nonexcitable cells upon infection or injury.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico , Colesterol , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Canais Iônicos , Prótons , Zinco , Humanos , Albuminas/farmacologia , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Colesterol/farmacologia , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais Iônicos/agonistas , Canais Iônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais Iônicos/química , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Zinco/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
15.
Food Microbiol ; 114: 104299, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37290875

RESUMO

The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Salmonella culture method takes at least 3 days for a presumptive positive result. The FDA developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to detect Salmonella from 24-h preenriched cultures, using ABI 7500 PCR system. The qPCR method has been evaluated as a rapid screening method for a broad range of foods by single laboratory validation (SLV) studies. The present multi-laboratory validation (MLV) study was aimed to measure the reproducibility of this qPCR method and compare its performance with the culture method. Sixteen laboratories participated in two rounds of MLV study to analyze twenty-four blind-coded baby spinach test portions each. The first round yielded ∼84% and ∼82% positive rates across laboratories for the qPCR and culture methods, respectively, which were both outside the fractional range (25%-75%) required for fractionally inoculated test portions by the FDA's Microbiological Method Validation Guidelines. The second round yielded ∼68% and ∼67% positive rates. The relative level of detection (RLOD) for the second-round study was 0.969, suggesting that qPCR and culture methods had similar sensitivity (p > 0.05). The study demonstrated that the qPCR yields reproducible results and is sufficiently sensitive and specific for the detection of Salmonella in food.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Spinacia oleracea , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Laboratórios , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella/genética
16.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37131582

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in cell-cell communication but they are highly heterogeneous, and each vesicle has dimensions smaller than 200 nm thus encapsulates very limited amounts of cargos. We report the technique of NanOstirBar (NOB)-EnabLed Single Particle Analysis (NOBEL-SPA) that utilizes NOBs, which are superparamagnetic nanorods easily handled by a magnet or a rotating magnetic field, to act as isolated "islands" for EV immobilization and cargo confinement. NOBEL-SPA permits rapid inspection of single EV with high confidence by confocal fluorescence microscopy, and can assess the colocalization of selected protein/microRNA (miRNA) pairs in the EVs produced by various cell lines or present in clinical sera samples. Specific EV sub-populations marked by the colocalization of unique protein and miRNA combinations have been revealed by the present work, which can differentiate the EVs by their cells or origin, as well as to detect early-stage breast cancer (BC). We believe NOBEL-SPA can be expanded to analyze the co-localization of other types of cargo molecules, and will be a powerful tool to study EV cargo loading and functions under different physiological conditions, and help discover distinct EV subgroups valuable in clinical examination and therapeutics development.

17.
Bull Math Biol ; 85(7): 58, 2023 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37243841

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate the disruption of the glucose homeostasis at the whole-body level by the presence of cancer disease. Of particular interest are the potentially different responses of patients with or without hyperglycemia (including diabetes mellitus) to the cancer challenge, and how tumor growth, in turn, responds to hyperglycemia and its medical management. We propose a mathematical model that describes the competition between cancer cells and glucose-dependent healthy cells for a shared glucose resource. We also include the metabolic reprogramming of healthy cells by cancer-cell-initiated mechanism to reflect the interplay between the two cell populations. We parametrize this model and carry out numerical simulations of various scenarios, with growth of tumor mass and loss of healthy body mass as endpoints. We report sets of cancer characteristics that show plausible disease histories. We investigate parameters that change cancer cells' aggressiveness, and we exhibit differing responses in diabetic and non-diabetic, in the absence or presence of glycemic control. Our model predictions are in line with observations of weight loss in cancer patients and the increased growth (or earlier onset) of tumor in diabetic individuals. The model will also aid future studies on countermeasures such as the reduction of circulating glucose in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Homeostase
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37047370

RESUMO

Organic solvent tolerant oxidoreductases are significant for both scientific research and biomanufacturing. However, it is really challenging to obtain oxidoreductases due to the shortages of natural resources and the difficulty to obtained it via protein modification. This review summarizes the recent advances in gene mining and structure-functional study of oxidoreductases from extremophiles for non-aqueous reaction systems. First, new strategies combining genome mining with bioinformatics provide new insights to the discovery and identification of novel extreme oxidoreductases. Second, analysis from the perspectives of amino acid interaction networks explain the organic solvent tolerant mechanism, which regulate the discrete structure-functional properties of extreme oxidoreductases. Third, further study by conservation and co-evolution analysis of extreme oxidoreductases provides new perspectives and strategies for designing robust enzymes for an organic media reaction system. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities in designing biocatalysis non-aqueous systems are highlighted.


Assuntos
Extremófilos , Oxirredutases , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Extremófilos/genética , Extremófilos/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Biocatálise , Solventes/química
19.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36993246

RESUMO

In this paper we investigate the disruption of the glucose homeostasis at the whole-body level by the presence of cancer disease. Of particular interest are the potentially different responses of patients with or without hyperglycemia (including Diabetes Mellitus) to the cancer challenge, and how tumor growth, in turn, responds to hyperglycemia and its medical management. We propose a mathematical model that describes the competition between cancer cells and glucosedependent healthy cells for a shared glucose resource. We also include the metabolic reprogramming of healthy cells by cancer-cell-initiated mechanism to reflect the interplay between the two cell populations. We parametrize this model and carry out numerical simulations of various scenarios, with growth of tumor mass and loss of healthy body mass as endpoints. We report sets of cancer characteristics that show plausible disease histories. We investigate parameters that change cancer cells’ aggressiveness, and we exhibit differing responses in diabetic and non-diabetic, in the absence or presence of glycemic control. Our model predictions are in line with observations of weight loss in cancer patients and the increased growth (or earlier onset) of tumor in diabetic individuals. The model will also aid future studies on countermeasures such as the reduction of circulating glucose in cancer patients.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 299(3): 102967, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36736429

RESUMO

High-resolution structures of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) were first obtained from a prokaryotic ortholog NavAb, which provided important mechanistic insights into Na+ selectivity and voltage gating. Unlike eukaryotic Navs, the NavAb channel is formed by four identical subunits, but its ion selectivity and pharmacological profiles are very similar to eukaryotic Navs. Recently, the structures of the NavAb voltage sensor at resting and activated states were obtained by cryo-EM, but its intermediate states and transition dynamics remain unclear. In the present work, we used liposome flux assays to show that purified NavAb proteins were functional to conduct both H+ and Na+ and were blocked by the local anesthetic lidocaine. Additionally, we examined the real-time conformational dynamics of the NavAb voltage sensor using single-molecule FRET. Our single-molecule FRET measurements on the tandem NavAb channel labeled with Cy3/5 FRET fluorophore pair revealed spontaneous transitions of the NavAb S4 segment among three conformational states, which fitted well with the kinetic model developed for the S4 segment of the human voltage-gated proton channel hHv1. Interestingly, even under strong activating voltage, the NavAb S4 segment seems to adopt a conformational distribution similar to that of the hHv1 S4 segment at a deep resting state. The conformational behaviors of the NavAb voltage sensor under different voltages need to be further examined to understand the mechanisms of voltage sensing and gating in the canonical voltage-gated ion channel superfamily.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem , Conformação Proteica , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/metabolismo , Bactérias , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
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