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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112093, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474352

RESUMO

Cardiac arrest (CA) remains a major public health issue. Inflammatory responses with overproduction of interleukin-1ß regulated by NLRP3 inflammasome activation play a crucial role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of the selective NLRP3-inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 on post-resuscitation cerebral function and neurologic outcome in a rat model of cardiac arrest. Thirty-six male rats were randomized into the MCC950 group, the control group, or the sham group (N = 12 of each group). Each group was divided into a 6 h non-survival subgroup (N = 6) and a 24 h survival subgroup (N = 6). Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced and untreated for 6 min, followed by 8 min of precordial compressions and mechanical ventilation. Resuscitation was attempted with a 4J defibrillation. Either MCC950 (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally immediately after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Rats in the sham group underwent the same surgical procedures without VF and CPR. Brain edema, cerebral microcirculation, plasma interleukin Iß (IL-1ß), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) concentration were measured at 6 h post-ROSC of non-survival subgroups, while 24 h survival rate, neurological deficits were measured at 24 h post-ROSC of survival subgroups. Post-resuscitation brain edema was significantly reduced in animals treated with MCC950 (p < 0.05). Cerebral perfused vessel density (PVD) and microcirculatory flow index (MFI) values were significantly higher in the MCC950 group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The plasma concentrations of IL-1ß and NSE were significantly decreased in animals treated with MCC950 compared with the control group (p < 0.05). 24 h-survival rate and neurological deficits score (NDS) was also significantly improved in the MCC950 group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). NLRP3 inflammasome blockade with MCC950 at ROSC reduces the circulatory level of IL-1ß, preserves cerebral microcirculation, mitigates cerebral edema, improves the 24 h-survival rate, and neurological deficits.

2.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 571-578, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494528

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the related factors of pathological complete response(pCR)of patients with gastric cancer treated by neoadjuvant therapy and resection,and to analyze the risk factors of prognosis. Methods The clinical and pathological data of 490 patients with gastric cancer who received neoadjuvant therapy followed by radical gastrectomy from January to December in 2008 were retrospectively analyzed.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors affecting pCR and prognosis. Results Among the 490 patients,41 achieved pCR,and the overall pCR rate was 8.3%(41/490).The pCR rate was 16.0% in the neoadjuvant chemoradiation group and 6.4% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group.The results of multivariate analysis showed that neoadjuvant chemoradiation(OR=4.401,95% CI=2.023-9.574,P<0.001)and preoperative therapeutic response as partial response(OR=40.492,95% CI=5.366-305.572,P<0.001)were independent predictors of pCR after neoadjuvant therapy.Multivariate analysis of prognosis showed that poorly differentiated tumor(HR=1.809,95% CI=1.104-2.964,P=0.019),gastric cardia-fundus-body tumor(HR=2.025,95% CI=1.497-2.739,P<0.001),≤15 intraoperative dissected lymph nodes(HR=1.482,95% CI=1.059-2.073,P=0.022),and postoperative complications(HR=1.625,95% CI=1.156-2.285,P=0.005)were independent risk factors for prognosis,while pCR(HR=0.153,95% CI=0.048-0.484,P=0.001)and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy(HR=0.589,95% CI=0.421-0.823,P<0.001)were independent protective factors of prognosis. Conclusions Patients who achieved pCR after neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced gastric cancer might have promising long-term survival,and pCR is an independent predictor for overall survival.Compared with chemotherapy alone,preoperative chemoradiotherapy can significantly improve the pCR rate of patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 157: 112550, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517076

RESUMO

The synthetic organic chemical, 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE), can cause brain edemas under subacute poisoning. Our previous studies indicated that neuroinflammation could be induced due to astrocytes and microglia activation during brain edemas in 1,2-DCE-intoxicated mice. However, the crosstalk between these two glial cells in 1,2-DCE-induced neuroinflammation remained unclear. In this study, primary cultured rat astrocytes and microglia, as well as an immortalized microglia cell line were employed to study the effects of 2-chloroethanol (2-CE, a 1,2-DCE intermediate metabolite in vivo) treated astrocytes on microglia polarization. Our current results revealed that 2-CE treated rat astrocytes were activated through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathways. Theses pathways were triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during 2-CE metabolism. Also, astrocytes were more sensitive to 2-CE effects than microglia. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were upregulated in 2-CE-induced reactive astrocytes, enhancing IL-1ß, TNF-α, and nitric oxide (NO) excretions, which stimulated microglia polarization. Therefore, the neuroinflammation induced by 1,2-DCE in mice's brains is probably triggered by reactive astrocytes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542266

RESUMO

Conductive hydrogels are promising multifunctional materials for wearable sensors, but their practical applications require combined properties that are difficult to achieve. Herein, we developed a flexible wearable sensor with double-layer structure based on conductive composite hydrogel, which included the outer layer of silicone elastomer (Ecoflex)/silica microparticle composite film and the inner layer of P(AAm-co-HEMA)-MXene-AgNPs hydrogel. Through covalently cross-linking silicone elastomer on the surface of the hydrogel polymer, we bonded a thin Ecoflex film (100 µm) on the P(AAm-co-HEMA)-MXene-AgNPs hydrogel with robust interface, which can easily adhere to the Ecoflex/SiO2 microparticle composite film by silicone glue. The Ecoflex/SiO2 microparticle composite film endows the strain wearable sensor with superhydrophobic function that could maintain the stability under stretching or bending. Moreover, it can effectively resist the interference of water droplets and water flow. The P(AAm-co-HEMA)-MXene-AgNPs hydrogel exhibits outstanding antibacterial activity to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and even drug-resistant Escherichia coli. In addition, the flexible wearable sensor exhibited good self-adhesive performance by changing the reaction temperature of hydrogel and can adhere strongly onto various materials. The conductive composite hydrogel reported in this work contributes an innovative strategy for the preparation of multifunctional flexible wearable sensor.

5.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(11): e12145, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514732

RESUMO

Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a widely adopted method for the isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from complex samples. SEC can efficiently remove high-abundant proteins, while often requires multiple fractionation operation using diversified column settings. In this study, we aim to establish a simplified SEC method to acquire high quality EVs. In comparison of all three cross-linked Sepharose resins with the sample types of FBS and human serum (HS), CL-6B and CL-4B showed superior performance in regular SEC to CL-2B in terms of significantly narrower EV and protein peaks, higher resolutions and EV purity. By increasing their bed volumes to 20 ml, the resolutions of CL-6B and CL-4B columns could be significantly improved, while the CL-6B column had the best performance with higher particle yields and tighter EV peaks. With the CL-6B 20 ml column, we further established a simplified dichotomic SEC method that only requires two bulk elutions to acquire EVs in the Eluate 1 and proteins in the Eluate 2. We further justified that such CL-6B columns were reusable for at least 10 consecutive times, and the dichotomic SEC was applicable to EV isolations from HS and FBS-free supernatants of fluorescently labelled and unlabelled SW620 cells. The proteomics analysis implicated that although the two methods had dissimilar abilities in removing different co-isolating contaminant proteins from EVs, the dichotomic SEC and ultracentrifugation could isolate EVs from human plasma with comparable purity. This dichotomic SEC has its intriguing potential to be used for EV preparation toward clinical testing and/or basic research.

6.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of non-invasive neurostimulation therapies on dysphagia patients after stroke. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane library databases until April 22, 2020. All published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included. Full texts were independently reviewed. The risk of RCT bias was evaluated by two independent assessors using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The primary outcome measure was swallowing function before and after neurostimulation therapy. The effect sizes are calculated from the extracted data and combined into a comprehensive summary statistic. RESULT: A total of 27 randomized controlled trials were included in this study, involving 914 stroke patients (27 intervention groups and 20 control groups). Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, noninvasive neurostimulation therapies (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (sNMES) or pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES)) had a better effect (SMD = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.54-1.27; Z = 4.84; P < 0.00001; I² = 86%). In the subgroup analysis based on type of stimulus, rTMS appeared to perform better. In the subgroup analysis based on clinical phase, stimulation applied in the acute phase may be more effective. In the subgroup analysis based on the site of injury, the brainstem injury group seemed to achieve better outcomes. In the subgroup analysis based on stroke type, the cerebral infarction group had better outcomes than the cerebral infarction/hemorrhage mixed group. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive neurostimulation therapies can effectively promote the recovery of dysphagia after stroke.

7.
Med Phys ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited-angle computed tomography is a challenging but important task in certain medical and industrial applications for nondestructive testing. The limited-angle reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and conventional reconstruction algorithms would introduce heavy artifacts. Various models and methods have been proposed to improve the quality of reconstructions by introducing different priors regarding to the projection data or ideal images. However, the assumed priors might not be practically applicable to all limited-angle reconstruction problems. Convolutional neural network (CNN) exhibits great promise in the modeling of data coupling and has recently become an important technique in medical imaging applications. Although existing CNN methods have demonstrated promising results, their robustness is still a concern. In this paper, in light of the theory of visible and invisible boundaries, we propose an alternating edge-preserving diffusion and smoothing neural network (AEDSNN) for limited-angle reconstruction that builds the visible boundaries as priors into its structure. The proposed method generalizes the alternating edge-preserving diffusion and smoothing (AEDS) method for limited-angle reconstruction developed in the literature by replacing its regularization terms by CNNs, by which the piecewise constant assumption assumed by AEDS is effectively relaxed. METHODS: The AEDSNN is derived by unrolling the AEDS algorithm. AEDSNN consists of several blocks, and each block corresponds to one iteration of the AEDS algorithm. In each iteration of the AEDS algorithm, three subproblems are sequentially solved. So, each block of AEDSNN possesses three main layers: data matching layer, x -direction regularization layer for visible edges diffusion, and y -direction regularization layer for artifacts suppressing. The data matching layer is implemented by conventional ordered-subset simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART) reconstruction algorithm, while the two regularization layers are modeled by CNNs for more intelligent and better encoding of priors regarding to the reconstructed images. To further strength the visible edge prior, the attention mechanism and the pooling layers are incorporated into AEDSNN to facilitate the procedure of edge-preserving diffusion from visible edges. RESULTS: We have evaluated the performance of AEDSNN by comparing it with popular algorithms for limited-angle reconstruction. Experiments on the medical dataset show that the proposed AEDSNN effectively breaks through the piecewise constant assumption usually assumed by conventional reconstruction algorithms, and works much better for piecewise smooth images with nonsharp edges. Experiments on the printed circuit board (PCB) dataset show that AEDSNN can better encode and utilize the visible edge prior, and its reconstructions are consistently better compared to the competing algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: A deep-learning approach for limited-angle reconstruction is proposed in this paper, which significantly outperforms existing methods. The superiority of AEDSNN consists of three aspects. First, by the virtue of CNN, AEDSNN is free of parameter-tuning. This is a great facility compared to conventional reconstruction methods; Second, AEDSNN is quite fast. Conventional reconstruction methods usually need hundreds even thousands of iterations, while AEDSNN just needs three to five iterations (i.e., blocks); Third, the learned regularizer by AEDSNN enjoys a broader application capacity, which could work well with piecewise smooth images and surpass the piecewise constant assumption frequently assumed for computed tomography images.

8.
J Pharm Sci ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480929

RESUMO

With the deepening of tumor targeting research, the application of intelligent responsive drug carriers in the field of controlled drug release has become more and more extensive, and multiple responsive nano drug carriers have attracted greater attention. In this paper, nanoparticles with gold nanorods (GNR) as the core, mesoporous silica (mSiO2) doped with hydroxyapatite (HAP) as the inorganic hybrid shell and physically loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX•HCl) are prepared (DOX/GNR/mSiO2/HAP, DNPs). DNPs nanoparticles have a typical core-shell structure. The gold nanorods as the core have extremely high light-to-heat conversion efficiency. Under the irradiation of near-infrared light, light can be converted into heat. The inorganic hybrid shell is a drug reservoir. The excellent photothermal response of gold nanorods combined with the excellent pH response of hydroxyapatite can obtain slow and sustained release of chemotherapeutic drugs. In vivo and in vitro anti-tumor cell activity study show that the DNPs in the laser showed stronger cytotoxicity than the other groups. Compared to chemotherapy and phototherapy alone, DNPs selectively accumulate in the tumor through the enhanced penetration and retention (EPR) effects. and have the unified function of hyperthermia and chemotherapy, and have significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth. Therefore, this study provides a new idea for the study of the combination of multiple therapeutic methods in the treatment of cancer.

9.
Nanoscale ; 13(33): 14197-14206, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477701

RESUMO

Surface modification by loading a water oxidation co-catalyst (WOC) is generally considered an efficient means to optimize the sluggish surface oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of a hematite photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. However, the surface WOC usually exerts little impact on the bulk charge separation of hematite. Herein, an ultrathin citrate-Ni0.9Co0.1(OH)x [Cit-Ni0.9Co0.1(OH)x] is conformally coated on the fluorine-doped hematite (F-Fe2O3) photoanode for PEC water oxidation to simultaneously promote the internal hole extraction and surface hole injection of the target photoanode. Besides, the conformally coated Cit-Ni0.9Co0.1(OH)x overlayer passivates the redundant surface trap states of F-Fe2O3. These factors result in a superior photocurrent density of 2.52 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (V vs. RHE) for the target photoanode. Detailed investigation manifests that the hole extraction property in Cit-Ni0.9Co0.1(OH)x is mainly derived from the Ni sites, while Co incorporation endows the overlayer with more catalytic active sites. This synergistic effect between Ni and Co contributes to a rapid and continuous hole migration pathway from the bulk to the interface of the target photoanode, and then to the electrolyte for water oxidation.

10.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105700, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364068

RESUMO

In this study, microcapsules were prepared by spray drying and embedding hemp seed oil (HSO) with soy protein isolate (SPI) and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials. The effect of ultrasonic power on the microstructure and characteristics of the composite emulsion and microcapsules was studied. Studies have shown that ultrasonic power has a significant impact on the stability of composite emulsions. The particle size of the composite emulsion after 450 W ultrasonic treatment was significantly lower than the particle size of the emulsion without the ultrasonic treatment. Through fluorescence microscopy observation, HSO was found to be successfully embedded in the wall materials to form an oil/water (O/W) composite emulsion. The spray-dried microcapsules showed a smooth spherical structure through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the particle size was 10.7 µm at 450 W. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis found that ultrasonic treatment would increase the degree of covalent bonding of the SPI-MD complex to a certain extent, thereby improving the stability and embedding effect of the microcapsules. Finally, oxidation kinetics models of HSO and HSO microcapsules were constructed and verified. The zero-order model of HSO microcapsules was found to have a higher degree of fit; after verification, the model can better reflect the quality changes of HSO microcapsules during storage.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Modelos Químicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Cápsulas , Cinética , Oxirredução
11.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364688

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Information on the dimensional changes in maxillary and mandibular dentures made by using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) techniques under uniform testing conditions is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dimensional changes and reproducibility of maxillary and mandibular dentures by using CAD-CAM-milled and 3D-printed techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maxillary and mandibular edentulous models with wax occlusal rims were scanned, and dentures were designed by using a CAD software program and fabricated by using 2 techniques and materials: CAD-CAM-milled (CCM) and 3D-printed (3DP). The 3DP fabrications included 4 subgroups: dentures printed with a 90-degree build angle with UV light polymerization on the reference model (3DP 90M), dentures printed with a 90-degree build angle and light polymerization without the reference model (3DP 90), dentures printed with a 45-degree build angle with light polymerization on the reference model (3DP 45M), and dentures printed with a 45-degree build angle and light polymerization without the reference model (3DP 45). The preprocessing and postprocessing scan files of each denture produced by CCM and 3DP were superimposed by using a surface matching software program. Ten points each on maxillary and mandibular dentures were measured for deviations after processing. Additionally, for each denture, the widths were measured between the canines and molars, the anteroposterior plane from cusp tips between the canines and molars, and the vertical plane from the cusp tip of the canines to the marginal gingiva. They were then compared with those in the denture design CAD cast. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test was used for statistical analyses (α=.05). RESULTS: According to digital superimposition, CCM had the smallest values of deviation with no statistical difference (P>.05), indicating more uniform results from measurement points in both maxillary and mandibular dentures, followed by 3DP 90M, 3DP 90, 3DP 45M, and 3DP 45. Regarding the width measurements, CCM had the smallest values of deviation (P<.05). In 3DP, smaller deviation values were observed at the vertical plane from the tip of the canine to the marginal gingiva, and larger values were observed in the intermolar width (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: CCM exhibited smaller dimensional changes and better reproducibility among the tested techniques. In 3DP, the build angle and methods of light postprocessing influenced the dimensional stability. The 90-degree build angle with additional light polymerization on the cast improved the dimensional deviations.

12.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373892

RESUMO

Genes do not function independently; rather, they interact with each other to fulfill their joint tasks. Identification of gene-gene interactions has been critically important in elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the variation of a phenotype. Regression models are commonly used to model the interaction between two genes with a linear product term. The interaction effect of two genes can be linear or nonlinear, depending on the true nature of the data. When nonlinear interactions exist, the linear interaction model may not be able to detect such interactions; hence, it suffers from substantial power loss. While the true interaction mechanism (linear or nonlinear) is generally unknown in practice, it is critical to develop statistical methods that can be flexible to capture the underlying interaction mechanism without assuming a specific model assumption. In this study, we develop a mixed kernel function which combines both linear and Gaussian kernels with different weights to capture the linear or nonlinear interaction of two genes. Instead of optimizing the weight function, we propose a grid search strategy and use a Cauchy transformation of the P-values obtained under different weights to aggregate the P-values. We further extend the two-gene interaction model to a high-dimensional setup using a de-biased LASSO algorithm. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed method. Application to two case studies further demonstrates the utility of the model. Our method provides a flexible and computationally efficient tool for disentangling complex gene-gene interactions associated with complex traits.

13.
Indoor Air ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374125

RESUMO

Improving air quality in indoor environments where people live is of importance to protect human health. In this systematic review, we assessed the effectiveness of personal-level use of air filtration units in reducing indoor particulate matters (PM) concentrations under real-world situations following systematic review guidelines. A total of 54 articles were included in the review, in which 20 randomized controlled/crossover trials that reported the changes in indoor fine PM (PM2.5 ) concentrations were quantitatively assessed in meta-analysis. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for changes in indoor PM concentrations following air filtration interventions. Moderate-to-large reductions of 11%-82% in indoor PM2.5  concentrations were observed with SMD of -1.19 (95% CI: -1.50, -0.88). The reductions in indoor PM concentrations varied by geographical locations, filtration technology employed, indoor environmental characteristics, and air pollution sources. Most studies were graded with low-to-moderate risk of bias; however, the overall certainty of evidence for indoor PM concentration reductions was graded at very low level. Considering the effectiveness of indoor air filtration under practical uses, socio-economic disparities across study populations, and costs of air filter replacement over time, our results highlight the importance of reducing air pollution exposure at the sources.

14.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463059

RESUMO

An intelligent chemometric second-order calibration method called alternating trilinear decomposition- assisted multivariate curve resolution combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection was used for the simultaneous quantification of nine tyrosine kinase inhibitors in three complex biological systems. The method allows simultaneous quantification of the components in different biological matrices without the need for cumbersome pre-treatment steps, complex elution conditions, and complete peak separation. Even with the varying time shift, severe peak overlap, and various unknown interferences, the proposed method can extract pure chromatographic and spectroscopic information for each analyte, while providing accurate qualitative and quantitative results of nine common tyrosine kinase inhibitors in three different biological matrices. All the drugs were eluted in 7 min. The results showed that the nine drugs in each matrix showed good linearity (r > 0.984) in the calibration range with a root mean square error of calibration less than 0.9 µg/mL. The average spiked recoveries of the target analytes were all in the range of 83.4-110.0%, with standard deviations less than 9.0%. Finally, the classical method was used to validate the proposed method. In comparison to the traditional method, the proposed strategy is accuracy, simultaneous, and interference-free.

15.
Anal Chem ; 93(34): 11654-11659, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410698

RESUMO

Accurate Constant via Transient Incomplete Separation (ACTIS) is a new method for finding the equilibrium dissociation constant Kd of a protein-small molecule complex based on transient incomplete separation of the complex from the unbound small molecule in a capillary. This separation is caused by differential transverse diffusion of the complex and the small molecule in a pressure-driven flow. The advection-diffusion processes underlying ACTIS can be described by a system of partial differential equations allowing for a virtual ACTIS instrument to be built and ACTIS to be studied in silico. The previous in silico studies show that large variations in the fluidic system geometry do not affect the accuracy of Kd determination, thus, proving that ACTIS is conceptually accurate. The conceptual accuracy does not preclude, however, instrumental inaccuracy caused by run-to-run signal drifts. Here we report on assembling a physical ACTIS instrument with a fluidic system that mimics the virtual one and proving the absence of signal drifts. Furthermore, we confirmed method ruggedness by assembling a second ACTIS instrument and comparing the results of experiments performed with both instruments in parallel. Despite some unintentional differences between the instruments (caused by tolerances in sizes, positions, etc.) and noticeable differences in their respective separagrams, we found that the Kd values determined for identical samples with these instruments were equal. Conclusively, the fluidic system presented here can serve as a template for reliable ACTIS instrumentation.


Assuntos
Entropia
16.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103158, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365188

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) by comparing the improvement of subjective symptoms and objective metrics before surgery and after 6 months of surgery. METHODS: Patients with the main complaint of nasal congestion combined with habitual snoring who were hospitalized and treated were selected. Patients underwent subjective symptom tests and objective indicator monitoring both before surgery and 6 months after surgery. Comparisons between groups were performed using the independent samples t-test. RESULTS: Subjective scale evaluations demonstrated that nasal congestion, daytime sleepiness, snoring, nose-related symptoms, and sleep symptoms in patients with simple snoring or with OSA were improved after nasal surgery. Additionally, vitality was improved in all groups except for the patients with simple snoring and emotional consequence was improved in patients with simple snoring and mild OSA. Objective evaluations indicated the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), the thickness of the soft palate, and the maximum cross-sectional area of the sagittal plane of the soft palate decreased after surgery in patients with mild OSA. The lowest blood oxygen concentration (LSaO2) and anteroposterior diameter of the soft palate increased after surgery in patients with mild OSA. The arousal index also significantly decreased in patients with mild and moderate OSA. The nasal cavity volumes (NCVs) and the nasal minimal cross-sectional areas (NMCAs) of all groups showed significant differences after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal surgery can effectively improve nose and sleep symptoms in patients with simple snoring or with OSA. It can significantly reduce the nasal resistance and increase the ventilation volume. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is becoming a global health problem. OSA is associated with several coexisting conditions, reduced health-related quality of life, and impaired work productivity. This study performed nasal surgery on OSA patients with the main complaint of nasal congestion combined with snoring and patients with simple snoring to compare the improvement of subjective symptoms and objective metrics before and after surgery. We found that: (1) symptoms such as nasal congestion, daytime sleepiness or snoring were improved after nasal surgery; (2) the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and arousal index decreased after surgery in patients with OSA; (3) the nasal and oropharyngeal cavity volumes increased after surgery. These findings suggest that patients with OSA or with simple snoring could benefit from nasal surgery.

17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120267, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419828

RESUMO

In this paper, a fast and efficient analytical strategy was proposed that chemometrics assisted with excitation-emission fluorescence matrices was used to quantify carbaryl (CAR) and thiabendazole (TBZ) in peach, soil and sewage. Even if there are serious overlapped peaks and unknown interferences in fluorescence analysis, the second-order calibration method based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm can be used to analyze CAR and TBZ in peach, soil and sewage. The recoveries of CAR and TBZ in peach are 110.4% and 99.7% and their standard deviations are lower than 2.1% and 0.3%, respectively. In addition, the accuracy of the method was assessed with figures of merit as well as intra-day and inter-day precision. The limit of detection, the limit of quantitation of CAR and TBZ in peach are 1.2 ng mL-1 and 0.3 ng mL-1, 3.5 ng mL-1 and 0.8 ng mL-1, respectively. And their root-mean-square error of prediction are 17.0 ng mL-1 and 5.0 ng mL-1 and there are high sensitivity and selectivity in this method. Meanwhile, the results obtained by ATLD algorithm were compared with those obtained by the self-weighted alternate trilinear decomposition algorithm (SWATLD) and the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) algorithm, and statistical methods such as the t-test, F-test and the elliptic joint confidence region were used to evaluate for analysis. There were no significant differences among these methods. At last, high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was used to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. These results are satisfactory and indicate that the proposed method can be used for accurate and rapid determination of pesticides in complex systems.

18.
Int Endod J ; 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420220

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of butyric acid (BA), a metabolic product generated by pulp and root canal pathogens, on the viability and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) production of endothelial cells, which are crucial to angiogenesis and pulpal/periapical wound healing. METHODOLOGY: Endothelial cells were exposed to butyrate with/without inhibitors. Cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated using an MTT assay, PI/annexin V and DCF fluorescence flow cytometry respectively. RNA and protein expression was determined using a polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blotting or immunofluorescent staining. Soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantitative results were expressed as mean ± standard error (SE) of the mean. The data were analysed using a paired Student's t-test where necessary. A p-value ≤0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference between groups. RESULTS: Butyrate (>4 mM) inhibited cell viability and induced cellular apoptosis and necrosis. It inhibited cyclin B1 but stimulated p21 and p27 expression. Butyrate stimulated ROS production and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression as well as activated the Ac-H3, p-ATM, p-ATR, p-Chk1, p-Chk2, p-p38 and p-Akt expression of endothelial cells. Butyrate stimulated ICAM-1 mRNA/protein expression and significant sICAM-1 production (p < .05). Superoxide dismutase, 5z-7oxozeaenol, SB203580 and compound C (p <  .05), but not ZnPP, CGK733, AZD7762 or LY294002, attenuated butyrate cytotoxicity to endothelial cells. Notably, little effect on butyrate-stimulated sICAM-1 secretion was found. Valproic acid, phenylbutyrate and trichostatin (three histone deacetylase inhibitors) significantly induced sICAM-1 production (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Butyric acid inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, stimulated ROS and HO-1 production and increased ICAM-1 mRNA expression and protein synthesis in endothelial cells. Cell viability affected by BA was diminished by some inhibitors; however, the increased sICAM-1 secretion by BA was not affected by any of the tested inhibitors. These results facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of pulpal/periapical diseases.

19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(8): e24546, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continued use of mHealth apps can achieve better effects in health management. Gamification is an important factor in promoting users' intention to continue using mHealth apps. Past research has rarely explored the factors underlying the continued use of mobile health (mHealth) apps and gamification's impact mechanism or path on continued use. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the factors influencing mHealth app users' intention to continue using mHealth apps and the impact mechanism and path of users' feelings induced by gamification on continued mHealth app use. METHODS: First, based on the expectation confirmation model of information system continuance, we built a theoretical model for continued use of mHealth apps based on users' feelings toward gamification. We used self-determination theory to analyze gamification's impact on user perceptions and set the resulting feelings (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) as constructs in the model. Second, we used the survey method to validate the research model, and we used partial least squares to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 2988 responses were collected from mHealth app users, and 307 responses were included in the structural equation model after passing the acceptance criteria. The intrinsic motivation for using mHealth apps is significantly affected by autonomy (ß=.312; P<.001), competence (ß=.346; P<.001), and relatedness (ß=.165; P=.004) induced by gamification. The intrinsic motivation for using mHealth apps has a significant impact on satisfaction (ß=.311, P<.001) and continuance intention (ß=.142; P=.045); furthermore, satisfaction impacts continuance intention significantly (ß=.415; P<.001). Confirmation has a significant impact on perceived usefulness (ß=.859; P<.001) and satisfaction (ß=.391; P<.001), and perceived usefulness has a significant impact on satisfaction (ß=.269; P<.001) and continuance intention (ß=.273; P=.001). The mediating effect analysis showed that in the impact path of the intrinsic motivation for using the mHealth apps on continuance intention, satisfaction plays a partial mediating role (ß=.129; P<.001), with a variance accounted for of 0.466. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the impact path of users' feelings induced by gamification on the intention of continued mHealth app use. We confirmed that perceived usefulness, confirmation, and satisfaction in the classical continued use theory for nonmedical information systems positively affect continuance intention. We also found that the path and mechanism of users' feelings regarding autonomy, competence, and relatedness generated during interactions with different gamification elements promote the continued use of mHealth apps.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428163

RESUMO

This article develops a novel cost function (performance index function) to overcome the obstacles in solving the optimal tracking control problem for a class of nonlinear systems with known system dynamics via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) technique. For the traditional optimal control problems, the assumption that the controlled system has zero equilibrium is generally required to guarantee the finiteness of an infinite horizon cost function and a unique solution. In order to solve the optimal tracking control problem of nonlinear systems with nonzero equilibrium, a specific cost function related to tracking errors and their derivatives is designed in this article, in which the aforementioned assumption and related obstacles are removed and the controller design process is simplified. Finally, comparative simulations are conducted on an inverted pendulum system to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed optimal tracking control strategy.

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