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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117458, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437766

RESUMO

The matter of fluoroquinolone residues in various foods still arouses wide public concern nowadays. In the present work, the strategy of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence data coupled with second-order calibration method based on alternating normalization-weighted error (ANWE) algorithm was used to determine ofloxacin, lomefloxacin and ciprofloxacin in milk powder, milk and beef. Owning the unique "second-order advantage", the ANWE-assisted analytical method was proved to successfully and eco-friendly resolve the overlapped fluorescence spectra of multi-component in complex food matrixes without tedious pretreatment steps and sophisticated high-cost instrumentations. The feasibility of the proposed method was validated by experiments. The average spiked recoveries of three fluoroquinolones range from 82.6% to 110.5% with relative standard deviations lower than 7.4%, and the limits of detection range from 0.18 and 2.41 ng mL-1. For further evaluation, analytical figures of merit such as sensitivity and selectivity, as well as the RSDs of intra-day (≦10.6%) and inter-day (≦9.4%) were calculated. The satisfactory analytical results demonstrated that the proposed strategy could be a competitive alternative for simple, rapid and simultaneous determination of multiple fluoroquinolones in animal-derived food samples.

2.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645680

RESUMO

Recurrent fusion genes (FGs) with clinical significances in leukemias are mainly mutually exclusive, and the coexistence of different FGs has been rarely reported. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the incidence, genetic characteristics, and prognosis of leukemias with concurrent pathogenic FGs, which commonly reported in hematological malignancies in 8226 leukemia patients. A total of 25 patients with coexistence of double FGs were identified, accounting for 0.30% of all cases enrolled. More than half of the cases (14/25, 56%) were diagnosed as chronic myeloid leukemia in accelerated or blast phase, another six and five cases were acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, respectively. Most cases (20/25, 80%) carried constitutively activated tyrosine kinases FGs (BCR-ABL1 or ETV6-PDGFRB) and transcription factors associated FGs simultaneously. Of the 11 patients with contemporaneous karyotype, 5 (45%) showed visible chromosomal abnormalities corresponding to both FGs. The concurrency of FGs was often associated with disease progressions. The prognosis was pessimistic for patients with concurrent FGs, even with the combination of targeted therapy and chemotherapy. Performing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible after complete remission can ameliorate the dismal prognosis.

3.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634147

RESUMO

This article investigates the adaptive fuzzy fault-tolerant control problem for a class of strict-feedback stochastic nonlinear systems with quantized input signal. A hysteretic quantizer is utilized to avoid chattering caused by quantized input signals. The fuzzy-logic systems are utilized to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and also to construct the fuzzy state observer, which is used to estimate the immeasurable state vector. The actuator faults considered in this article are loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place faults. By using the Lyapunov stability theory, the closed-loop stochastic nonlinear system is guaranteed to be stable in probability, and all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded in probability in the presence of quantized input and actuator faults. Finally, a simulation example is given to verify the validity of the proposed control strategy.

4.
Mol Ther ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636038

RESUMO

Inflammation is associated with retinal diseases. Our recent data demonstrate that immunoproteasome catalytic subunit ß2i contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced retinopathy in mice. Here, we investigated the role of another catalytic subunit ß5i in regulating retinopathy and its underlying mechanisms. We induced a murine model of retinopathy by infusing Ang II (3,000 ng/kg/min) for 3 weeks into wild-type (WT) mice, ß5i-knockout (KO) mice, or WT mice injected with either adenovirus-expressing ß5i (Ad-ß5i) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-associated protein (Ad-ATRAP), which inhibits AT1R. The ß5i expression and chymotrypsin-like activity were most significantly elevated in Ang II-infused retinas and serum from patients with hypertensive retinopathy. Moreover, Ang II infusion-induced retinopathy was markedly attenuated in ß5i-KO mice but aggravated in Ad-ß5i-injected mice. Accordingly, ß5i KO markedly restored Ang II-induced downregulation of ATRAP and activation of AT1R downstream mediators, which was further enhanced in Ad-ß5i-injected mice. Interestingly, overexpression of ATRAP significantly abrogated Ang II-induced retinopathy in Ad-ß5i-injected mice. This study found that ß5i promoted Ang II-induced retinopathy by promoting ATRAP degradation and activation of AT1R-mediated signals.

5.
Neurotoxicology ; 75: 233-244, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585129

RESUMO

Brain edema caused by subacute poisoning with 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) has gained much attention during recent years, but its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. As an intermediate metabolite of 1,2-DCE in vivo, 2-chloroethanol (2-CE) can be transformed into chloroacetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS) through cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) mediated metabolism. In previous studies, it was found that CYP2E1 expression is enhanced in the brain of mice treated with 1,2-DCE. This study was designed to verify the roles of CYP2E1 overexpression in 2-CE induced cytotoxicity in rat astrocytes, and the contribution of specific signaling molecules to the upregulation of CYP2E1 expression caused by 2-CE. The results of this study demonstrate that treatment with 2-CE can enhance CYP2E1 protein and mRNA levels, cause an increase in ROS and MDA levels, and higher percentages of apoptotic cells in rat astrocytes. Pretreatment with either diallyl sulfide or vitamin C, the inhibitor of CYP2E1 or scavenger of ROS, respectively, can suppress the levels of CYP2E1 expression, ROS and MDA, ameliorate cell apoptosis, and attenuate phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in these cells. Additionally, pretreatment with the inhibitor of either ERK1/2 or transcriptional factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) can suppress the CYP2E1 expression, and alleviate the oxidative damage caused to these cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CYP2E1 overexpression plays a crucial role in 2-CE induced oxidative damage of rat astrocytes, and that CYP2E1 expression is upregulated partially through the activation of the ERK1/2 and SP1 signaling pathways by ROS generated during CYP2E1-mediated 2-CE metabolism. This study provides novel information that can be used in elucidating the mechanism by which 1,2-DCE induces brain edema.

6.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605659

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Neonatal diabetes mellitus is created by alterations in the genes responsible for beta-cell mass and/or function. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic variants in the insulin gene (INS) in four Chinese infants aged <12 months with diabetes onset, and to explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by INS mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The complete coding sequences of KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS were detected using Sanger sequencing. The pathogenicity of the mutations was determined based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, and the structure of wild-type and mutant proteins was predicted using the web-based tool, Phyre2. RESULTS: One novel mutation (p.I99_C100insSI) and three previously reported variants (p.G32S, p.R89C and p.C96R) in INS were identified in four infants with early-onset diabetes. All the mutations in the four patients were de novo. Except for mutation R89C, which causes permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus through the addition of an additional cysteine residue at the cleavage site of the A chain and C-peptide, the other three mutations affected disulfide bonds. The patients had diabetes with marked hyperglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis, and were then treated with exogenous insulin. Mutations in crucial regions of the INS might give rise to diabetes with varying severity. CONCLUSIONS: This study enriches our awareness of the mutant spectrum in INS, and suggests the important role of INS in the development of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112323, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639487

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside compound K (CK), a product produced by the intestinal bacteria-mediated breakdown of ginsenoside, exhibits a wide array of pharmacological activities against diverse targets. However, few of preclinical safety evaluation of CK is reported. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The present study therefore sought to assess the toxicity of oral CK in Beagle dogs over a 26-week period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All dogs received 4, 12, or 36 mg/kg oral CK doses for 26 weeks with regular monitoring, followed by a 4-week recovery period. Animals were monitored through measurements of temperature, weight, food intake, blood chemistry and hematological findings, electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, urinalysis, gross necropsy and organ weight and tissue histopathology. RESULTS: Animals in the 36 mg/kg group exhibited an apparent reduction in body weight over the study period, in addition to the presence of focal liver necrosis and increased plasma enzyme levels (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; alkaline phosphatase, ALP) consistent with hepatotoxicity, although there was some evidence suggesting this toxicity was reversible. Animals in the 4 and 12 mg/kg groups did not exhibit any apparent toxicity for any measured parameters. CONCLUSION: These results thus indicate that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in dogs is 12 mg/kg.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1501-1510, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631782

RESUMO

As one of many nonstructural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), nonstructural protein 12 (Nsp12) has received relatively little attention, and its role in virus replication, if any, is essentially unknown. By the application of reverse genetic manipulation of an infectious PRRSV clone, the current study is the first to demonstrate that Nsp12 is a key component of PRRSV replication. In addition, the biochemical properties of Nsp12 were evaluated, revealing that Nsp12 forms dimers when exposed to oxidative conditions. Furthermore, we systemically analyzed the function of Nsp12 in PRRSV RNA synthesis using a strand-specific PCR method. To our surprise, Nsp12 was not found to be involved in minus-strand genomic RNA (-gRNA) synthesis; importantly, our results indicate that Nsp12 is involved in the synthesis of both plus- and minus-strand subgenomic mRNAs (+sgmRNA and -sgmRNA). Finally, we found that the combination of cysteine 35 and cysteine 79 in Nsp12 is required for sgmRNA synthesis. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the biological role of Nsp12 in the PRRSV lifecycle, and we conclude that Nsp12 is involved in the synthesis of both + sgRNA and -sgRNA.

9.
Environ Int ; 132: 105111, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476640

RESUMO

The serious fine particle (PM2.5) pollution in China causes millions of premature deaths. Driven by swift economic growth and stringent control policies, air pollutant emissions in China have changed significantly in the last decade, but the change in the source contribution of PM2.5-related health impacts remains unclear. In this study, we develop a multi-pollutant emission inventory in China for 2005-2015, and combine chemical transport modeling, ambient/household exposure evaluation and health impact assessment to quantify the contribution of eight emission sectors to PM2.5 exposure and associated health risk. From 2005 to 2015, the mortality due to PM2.5 from ambient air pollution (AAP) decreases from 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.25) million to 0.87 (0.70-1.04) million. The agricultural sector contributes 25% and 32% to ambient PM2.5-attributed mortality in 2005 and 2015, respectively, representing the largest contributor during this period. The contribution of power plants drops monotonously from 13% to 6%. The percentage contribution of industrial process drops significantly while the contribution of industrial combustion stays the same level. The overall contribution of industry is still as large as 26% in 2015 in spite of strict control measures. For transportation, despite strict emission standards, its contribution increases remarkably due to the rapid growth of vehicle population. When both ambient and household PM2.5 exposures are taken into account, the mortality due to integrated population-weighted exposure to PM2.5 (IPWE) drops from 1.78 (1.46-2.09) million in 2005 to 1.28 (1.05-1.52) million in 2015. Most of the IPWE reduction comes from domestic combustion as a result of urbanization and improved income, whereas this sector remains the largest contributor (58%) to IPWE-related health risk in 2015. Our results suggest that the government should dynamically adjust the air pollution control strategy according to the change in source contributions. Domestic combustion and agriculture should be prioritized considering their predominant contributions to mortality and the lack of effective control policies. More stringent control measures for industry and transportation are necessary since the existing policies have not adequately reduced their health impacts. Electricity production is no longer the top priority of air pollution control policies given its lower health impact compared with that of other sources.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17087, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517830

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a crucial health problem and caused substantial malignancy diseases among female worldwide. We aim to investigate the distribution of HPV subtype and the status of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions caused by HPV infection in North China Plain population. A total of 61,870 samples of outpatients and inpatients from January 2015 to May 2017 at the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University were collected. All of the samples were tested by rapid flow-through hybridization HPV genotyping. Approximately 17,280 of the cases tested positive for HPV, indicating an infection rate of 27.9%. Approximately 7009 cases were compared to the results of cytological diagnosis. The top five HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (4.5%), HPV-52 (2.9%), HPV-58 (2.8%), HPV-53 (1.9%), and HPV-81 (1.9%). The youngest age group (age < 20 years) showed the highest infection rate (59.9%), and then decreased with age. As the degree of cervical lesions worsened gradually, the rate of high-risk HPV infection increased, such as 24.3% (322/1324) in the Cervicitis, 31.30% (560/1785) in the CINI, 54.1% (568/1050) in the CINII, 80.1% (693/865) in the CIN III, and 99.5% (428/430) in the cervical cancer group. These findings were significantly different from the 9.7% (155/1555) observed in the normal medical examination group (P < .05). This is the first study to demonstrate the characteristics of HPV and the association with cervical lesions in North China Plain population.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios Menstruais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/classificação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Descarga Vaginal/patologia
12.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124602, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545211

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been known to exhibit neurotoxicity in rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown and there is no available intervention. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex and primary neurons in rats following the BDE-153 treatment. Compared to the untreated group, BDE-153 treatment significantly induced the neurotoxic effects in rats, as manifested by the increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and cell apoptosis rates, and the decreased neurotrophic factor contents and cholinergic enzyme activities in rats' cerebral cortices and primary neurons. When compared to the untreated group, the oxidative and nitrosative stress had occurred in the cerebral cortex or primary neurons in rats following the BDE-153 treatment, as manifested by the increments in levels of reactive oxygenspecies (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA and protein expressions, along with the decline in levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, and peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and Prx II mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or NO scavenger NG-Nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA) significantly rescued the LDH leakage and cell survival, reversed the neurotrophin contents and cholinergic enzymes, mainly via regaining balance between oxidation/nitrosation and antioxidation. Overall, our findings suggested that oxidative and nitrosative stresses are involved in the neurotoxicity induced by BDE-153, and that the antioxidation is a potential targeted intervention.

13.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477806

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with double mutant CEBPA (CEBPAdm) is generally associated with favorable prognosis, but the heterogeneity still blatant and needs further exploration. We aimed to comprehensively analyze the companion genetic abnormalities and their clinical significance in AML patients with CEBPAdm. By performed targeted amplicon sequencing of 58 genes in specimens at the time of initial diagnosis of 609 AML patients, we identified 76 cases (12.5%) were CEBPAdm, and 88.2% of them also carry other gene mutations. There were more additional gene mutations, especially more epigenetic modifiers gene mutations in CEBPAsm than CEBPAdm cases, while GATA2, CSF3R, JAK3, and KIT mutations were exclusively betide in CEBPAdm but not CEBPAsm. Mutations of tyrosine kinase genes confer to adverse prognostic in karyotype normal CEBPAdm AML and provide potential therapeutic targets. The incidence of germline CEBPA mutation in CEBPAdm cases was 5.3% (4/76), including one C-terminal mutation. Deciphering the mutation spectrum of CEBPAdm AML could facilitate an in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis and refine the prognostic classification of this disease entity.

14.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 82: 102690, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479843

RESUMO

Combining natural products with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may increase the efficacy of cancer treatment. It has been hypothesized that natural products may inhibit DNA repair and sensitize cancer cells to DNA damage-based cancer therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these activities remain unclear. In this study, we found that diallyl disulfide (DADS), an organosulfur compound, increased the sensitivity of yeast cells to DNA damage and has potential for development as an adjuvant drug for DNA damage-based cancer therapy. We induced HO endonuclease to generate a specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) by adding galactose to yeast and used this system to study how DADS affects DNA repair. In this study, we found that DADS inhibited DNA repair in single-strand annealing (SSA) system and sensitized SSA cells to a single DSB. DADS impaired DNA repair by inhibiting the protein levels of the DNA resection-related proteins Sae2 and Exo1. We also found that the recruitment of MRX and the Mec1-Ddc2 complex to a DSB was prevented by DADS. This result suggests that DADS counteracts G2/M DNA damage checkpoint activation in a Mec1 (ATR)- and Tel1 (ATM)-dependent manner. Only by elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which DADS influences DNA repair will we be able to discover new adjuvant drugs to improve chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

15.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(11): 152636, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most prevalent malignant tumor and the second leading cause of cancer-related death around the world. Aberrant proliferation and metastasis are the mainspring of death in patients with GC. However, the specific mechanism of gastric cancer is far from being fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence revealed that miRNA played a significant role in the tumorigenesis and development. METHODS: The level of miR-183-5p was detected in 102 GC patients by using qRT-PCR. The prognostic value of miR-183-5p in GC was evaluated. Cell function assays (CCK-8 and transwell assays) were conducted to assess the role of miR-183-5p in proliferation and metastasis in GC. Dual luciferase report assay and western blot were performed to validate this potential target regulated by miR-183-5p in GC. RESULTS: miR-183-5p was down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines. Remarkable pertinence was obtained between miR-183-5p level and TNM stage, tumor size, invasion depth, and lymph node metastasis. TNM stage, differentiation and miR-183-5p level were independent causes impacting on the overall survival in GC in multivariate analysis. GC individuals with high miR-183-5p level would experience a relatively better survival prognosis. Upregulation of miR-183-5p restrained GC cell proliferation and migration. EEF2 may be a potential target gene regulated by miR-183-5p in GC. CONCLUSION: miR-183-5p acts as a potential prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer and regulates cell functions by modulating EEF2.

16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 94-106, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471036

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are subjected to various transformation processes (chemical, physical and biological processes) in the environment, potentially affecting their bioavailability and toxic properties. However, the size variation of TiO2 NPs during aging process and subsequent effects in mammalian cells are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to illustrate the adverse effects of TiO2 NPs in different sizes (5, 15 and <100 nm) during aging process on human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells. There was an aging-time dependent enhancement of average hydrodynamic size in TiO2 NPs stock suspensions. The cytotoxicity of fresh TiO2 NPs increased in a size-dependent manner; in contrast, their genotoxicity decreased with the increasing sizes of NPs. No significant toxicity difference was observed in cells exposed to either fresh or 60 day-aged TiO2 NPs. Both Fresh and aged TiO2 NPs efficiently induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activated Caspase-3/7 in a size-dependent manner. Using mitochondrial-DNA deficient (ρ0) AL cells, we further discovered that mitochondrial dysfunction made significant contribution to the size-dependent toxicity induced by TiO2 NPs during the aging process. Taken together, our data indicated that TiO2 NPs could significantly induced the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in an aging time-independent and size-dependent manner, which were triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study suggested the necessity to include size as an additional parameter for the cautious monitoring of TiO2 NPs disposal before entering the environment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(4): F967-F977, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390232

RESUMO

We studied sex differences in response to high K+ (HK) intake on thiazide-sensitive cation (Na+ and K+) excretion in wild-type (WT) and ANG II receptor subtype 1a (AT1aR) knockout (KO) mice. Renal clearance experiments were performed to examine Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) activity on mice fed with control and HK (5% KCl, 7 days) diets. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-induced changes in urine volume, glomerular filtration rate, absolute Na+ and K+ excretion, and fractional excretion were compared. HK-induced changes in NCC, Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3), and ENaC expression were examined by Western blot analysis. In WT animals under the control diet, HCTZ-induced cation excretion was greater in female animals, reflecting larger increases in Na+ excretion, since there was little sex difference in HCTZ-induced K+ excretion. Under the HK diet, the sex difference in HCTZ-induced cation excretion was reduced because of larger increments in K+ excretion in male animals. The fraction of K+ excretion was 57 ± 5% in male WT animals and 36 ± 4% in female WT animals (P < 0.05), but this difference was absent in AT1aR KO mice. NCC abundance was higher in female animals than in male animals but decreased by similar fractions on HK diet. NHE3 abundance decreased, whereas cleaved forms of γ-ENaC increased, with HK in all groups; these changes were similar in male and female animals and were not significantly affected by AT1aR ablation. These results indicate that, with the HK diet, male animals display greater distal Na+ delivery and greater activation of K+ secretion mechanisms, all suggesting a more powerful male adaptation to HK intake.

18.
Phytomedicine ; 64: 152926, 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SFN) has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC cells harboring constitutively active EGFR mutations are more sensitive to SFN treatment than cells with wild-type EGFR, but whether NSCLC cells with high levels of EGFR expression are more resistant or sensitive to SFN treatment is not known. STUDY DESIGN: We employed a pair of cell lines, CL1-0 and CL1-5, which have the same genetic background but different levels of EGFR expression, to examine the effects of high EGFR level in the sensitivity to SFN. METHODS: The effect of SFN on cell viability and tumorigenicity was examined by trypan blue dye-exclusion assay, clonogenic assays, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting in vitro as well as tumorigenicity study in vivo. ROS levels in cells were assessed by flow cytometry using the ROS-reactive fluorescent indicator CM-H2DCFDA. Knockdown of EGFR in CL1-5 cells was infected with an EGFR-targeting small hairpin (interfering) RNA (shRNA)-containing lentivirus. RESULTS: We present evidence that cells with high-level EGFR expression (CL1-5) are more resistant to SFN treatment than those with low-level expression (CL1-0). SFN treatment produced a similar increase in ROS and caused arrest of a cell population at S-phase accompanied by the induction of γH2AX, a DNA damage-response marker, in both cell sublines. However, SFN induced apoptosis only in the high-EGFR-expressing CL1-0 subline. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented SFN-induced apoptosis in CL1-0 cells and production of γH2AX in both CL1-0 and CL1-5 cells. shRNA-mediated knockdown of EGFR in CL1-5 cells rendered the cells susceptible to SFN-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The cellular effects produced by SFN in NSCLC cells are largely mediated by SFN-induced production of ROS. Cells with higher levels of EGFR were more resistant to SFN treatment and showed resistance to SFN-induced apoptosis, suggesting that high EGFR levels protect cells from SFN-induced apoptosis. Despite this, we found that SFN retained the ability to inhibit the growth of NSCLC tumors with high-level EGFR expression in vivo.

19.
J Neurosci ; 39(40): 7976-7991, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363064

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to produce the toxic amyloid-ß (Aß) peptide. Accumulation of Aß, together with the concomitant inflammatory response, ultimately leads to neuronal death and cognitive decline. Despite AD progression being underpinned by both neuronal and immunological components, therapeutic strategies based on dual targeting of these systems remains unexplored. Here, we report that inactivation of the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) reduces anterograde axonal trafficking of APP in hippocampal neurons and dampens secretion of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha by microglial cells in the familial AD APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mouse model. Moreover, APP/PS1 mice with kinase-inactive PI3Kδ (δD910A) had reduced Aß peptides levels and plaques in the brain and an abrogated inflammatory response compared with APP/PS1 littermates. Mechanistic investigations reveal that PI3Kδ inhibition decreases the axonal transport of APP by eliciting the formation of highly elongated tubular-shaped APP-containing carriers, reducing the levels of secreted Aß peptide. Importantly, APP/PS1/δD910A mice exhibited no spatial learning or memory deficits. Our data highlight inhibition of PI3Kδ as a new approach to protect against AD pathology due to its dual action of dampening microglial-dependent neuroinflammation and reducing plaque burden by inhibition of neuronal APP trafficking and processing.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During Alzheimer's disease (AD), the accumulation of the toxic amyloid-ß (Aß) peptide in plaques is associated with a chronic excessive inflammatory response. Uncovering new drug targets that simultaneously reduce both Aß plaque load and neuroinflammation holds therapeutic promise. Using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches, we found that the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is involved in anterograde trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein in neurons and in the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from microglial cells. Genetic inactivation of PI3Kδ reduces Aß plaque deposition and abrogates the inflammatory response, resulting in a complete rescue of the life span and spatial memory performance. We conclude that inhibiting PI3Kδ represents a novel therapeutic approach to ameliorate AD pathology by dampening plaque accumulation and microglial-dependent neuroinflammation.

20.
Ann Neurol ; 86(5): 754-761, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a decrease in blood pressure (BP) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH) on performance in each domain of cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a cross-sectional and within-group design. METHODS: Subjects were individuals without dementia and with type 2 diabetes mellitus, including 107 individuals without OH and 94 with OH (DMOH); 95 control participants were also included. BP was assessed in both the supine and standing positions. A detailed neuropsychological assessment was made in each posture for all subjects. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the patients without OH and the DMOH group with regard to some cognitive measures while supine. Standing posture exacerbated and broadened cognitive deficits in the DMOH group for all measures in the different domains of cognition including executive functioning, memory, visuospatial skills, information processing speed, and attention. When group-specific supine scores were used as baseline anchors, both the patients without OH and the DMOH group showed cognitive changes when transitioning from a supine to a standing, upright position, with the DMOH group exhibiting a wider range of neuropsychological deficits in memory, visuospatial skills, executive function, and sustained attention, as well as significant changes in information processing speed. INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with OH had transient, posture-mediated cognitive deficits in excess of those found in diabetes mellitus without OH. Understanding the effects of OH on cognition due to autonomic failure is important, particularly as clinical assessments and neuroimaging collect data only in the seated or supine positions. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:754-761.

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