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1.
J Virol ; : e0023524, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775478

RESUMO

Baculoviruses enter insect midgut epithelial cells via a set of occlusion-derived virion (ODV) envelope proteins called per os infectivity factors (PIFs). P74 of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), which was the first identified PIF, is cleaved by an endogenous proteinase embedded within the occlusion body during per os infection, but the target site(s) and function of the cleavage have not yet been ascertained. Here, based on bioinformatics analyses, we report that cleavage was predicted at an arginine and lysine-rich region in the middle of P74. A series of recombinant viruses with site-directed mutants in this region of P74 were generated. R325 or R334 was identified as primary cleavage site. In addition, we showed that P74 is also cleaved by brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the host insect at R325 or R334, instead of R195, R196, and R199, as previously reported. Simultaneous mutations in R195, R196, and R199 lead to instability of P74 during ODV release. Bioassays showed that mutations at both R325 and R334 significantly affected oral infectivity. Taken together, our data show that both R325 and R334 of AcMNPV P74 are the primary cleavage site for both occlusion body endogenous proteinase and BBMV proteinase during ODV release and are critical for oral infection. IMPORTANCE: Cleavage of viral envelope proteins is usually an important trigger for viral entry into host cells. Baculoviruses are insect-specific viruses that infect host insects via the oral route. P74, a per os infectivity factor of baculoviruses, is cleaved during viral entry. However, the function and precise cleavage sites of P74 remain unknown. In this study, we found that R325 or R334 between the N- and C-conserved domains of P74 was the primary cleavage site by proteinase either from the occlusion body or host midgut. The biological significance of cleavage seems to be the release of the potential fusion peptide at the N-terminus of the cleaved C-terminal P74. Our results shed light on the cleavage model of P74 and imply its role in membrane fusion in baculovirus per os infection.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775640

RESUMO

The electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) presents an alternative method for the Haber-Bosch process, and single-atom catalysts (SACs) to achieve efficient NRR have attracted considerable attention in the past decades. However, whether SACs are more suitable for NRR compared to atomic-cluster catalysts (ACCs) remains to be studied. Herein, we have successfully synthesized both the Fe monomers (Fe1) and trimers (Fe3) on nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts. Both the experiments and DFT calculations indicate that compared to the end-on adsorption of N2 on Fe1 catalysts, N2 activation is enhanced via the side-on adsorption on Fe3 catalysts, and the reaction follows the enzymatic pathway with a reduced free energy barrier for NRR. As a result, the Fe3 catalysts achieved better NRR performance (NH3 yield rate of 27.89 µg h-1 mg-1cat. and Faradaic efficiency of 45.13%) than Fe1 catalysts (10.98 µg h-1 mg-1cat. and 20.98%). Therefore, our research presents guidance to prepare more efficient NRR catalysts.

3.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(214): 20230625, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715322

RESUMO

Peer effects can directly or indirectly rely on interaction networks to drive people to follow ideas or behaviours triggered by a few individuals, and such effects can be largely improved by targeting the so-called influential individuals. In this article, we study the current most promising seeding strategy used in field experiments, the one-hop strategy, where the underlying interaction networks are generally too impractical or prohibitively expensive to be obtained, and propose an individual-centralized seeding approach to target influential seeds in information-limited networks. The presented strategy works by reasonable follow-up questions to respondents, such as Who do you think has more connections/friends?, and constructs the seeding set by those nodes with the most nominations. In this manner, the proposed method could acquire more information about the studied interaction network from the inference of respondents without surveying additional individuals. We evaluate our strategy on networks from various experimental datasets. Results show that the obtained seeds are much more influential compared to the one-hop strategy and other methods. We also show how the proposed approach could be implemented in field studies and potentially provide better interventions in real scenarios.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Humanos
4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2308886, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725135

RESUMO

Efficiently generating 3D holograms is one of the most challenging research topics in the field of holography. This work introduces a method for generating multi-depth phase-only holograms using a fully convolutional neural network (FCN). The method primarily involves a forward-backward-diffraction framework to compute multi-depth diffraction fields, along with a layer-by-layer replacement method (L2RM) to handle occlusion relationships. The diffraction fields computed by the former are fed into the carefully designed FCN, which leverages its powerful non-linear fitting capability to generate multi-depth holograms of 3D scenes. The latter can smooth the boundaries of different layers in scene reconstruction by complementing information of occluded objects, thus enhancing the reconstruction quality of holograms. The proposed method can generate a multi-depth 3D hologram with a PSNR of 31.8 dB in just 90 ms for a resolution of 2160 × 3840 on the NVIDIA Tesla A100 40G tensor core GPU. Additionally, numerical and experimental results indicate that the generated holograms accurately reconstruct clear 3D scenes with correct occlusion relationships and provide excellent depth focusing.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753758

RESUMO

Plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) can effectively regulate plant growth and metabolism. The regulation is modulated by metabolic signals, and the resulting metabolites can have considerable effects on the plant yield and quality. Here, tissue culture Houttuynia cordata Thunb., was inoculated with Rhizobium sp. (BH46) to determine the effect of BH46 on H. cordata growth and metabolism, and elucidate associated regulatory mechanisms. The results revealed that BH46 metabolized indole-3-acetic acid and induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase to decrease ethylene metabolism. Host peroxidase synthesis MPK3/MPK6 genes were significantly downregulated, whereas eight genes associated with auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and antioxidant enzymes were significantly upregulated. Eight genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis were significantly upregulated, with the CPY75B1 gene regulating the production of rutin and quercitrin and the HCT gene directly regulating the production of chlorogenic acid. Therefore, BH46 influences metabolic signals in H. cordata to modulate its growth and metabolism, in turn, enhancing yield and quality of H. cordata.

7.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757482

RESUMO

Disruption of the alveolar barrier can trigger acute lung injury. This study elucidated the association of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) with Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP)-induced apoptosis and inflammatory injury of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). AECs were cultured and then infected with SP. Furthermore, the expression of METTL3, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), long noncoding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), mucin 19 (MUC19), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), and NEAT1 after m6A modification were detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent, m6A quantification, and methylated RNA immunoprecipitation-qPCR analyses, respectively. Moreover, the subcellular localization of NEAT1 was analyzed by nuclear/cytosol fractionation assay, and the binding between NEAT1 and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) was also analyzed. The results of this investigation revealed that SP-induced apoptosis and inflammatory injury in AECs and upregulated METTL3 expression. In addition, the downregulation of METTL3 alleviated apoptosis and inflammatory injury in AECs. METTL3-mediated m6A modification increased NEAT1 and promoted its binding with CTCF to facilitate MUC19 transcription. NEAT1 or MUC19 overexpression disrupted their protective role of silencing METTL3 in AECs, thereby increasing apoptosis and inflammatory injury. In conclusion, this is the first study to suggest that METTL3 aggravates SP-induced cell damage via the NEAT1/CTCF/MUC19 axis.

8.
Org Lett ; 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757610

RESUMO

gem-Difluoroalkenes and monofluorinated cycloalkenes have emerged as basic structural units in a variety of bioactive molecules and natural products. Thus, developing straightforward and efficient methods for synthesizing fluorinated alkene compounds is of considerable significance. Herein, we disclose a visible-light-induced defluorination of 2-trifluoromethyl-1-alkene via a 1,5-HAT process using N-alkoxyphtalimides as both radical precursor and potential nucleophile. The mild and stepwise reaction leads to a variety of structurally diverse gem-difluoroalkenes and monofluorinated cyclooctenes with high efficiency, respectively.

9.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 68: e230101, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739523

RESUMO

Objective: Both pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and combined gonadotropin therapy are effective to induce spermatogenesis in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pulsatile GnRH therapy on spermatogenesis in male patients with CHH who had poor response to combined gonadotropin therapy. Materials and methods: Patients who had poor response to combined gonadotropin therapy ≥ 6 months were recruited and shifted to pulsatile GnRH therapy. The rate of successful spermatogenesis, the median time to achieve spermatogenesis, serum gonadotropins, testosterone, and testicular volume were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 28 CHH patients who had poor response to combined gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) therapy for 12.5 (6.0, 17.75) months were recruited and switched to pulsatile GnRH therapy for 10.0 (7.25, 16.0) months. Sperm was detected in 17/28 patients (60.7%). The mean time for the appearance of sperm in semen was 12.0 (7.5, 17.5) months. Compared to those who could not achieve spermatogenesis during pulsatile GnRH therapy, the successful group had a higher level of LH60min (4.32 vs. 1.10 IU/L, P = 0.043) and FSH60min (4.28 vs. 1.90 IU/L, P = 0.021). Testicular size increased during pulsatile GnRH therapy, compared to previous HCG/ HMG therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusion: For CHH patients with prior poor response to one year of HCG/ HMG therapy, switching to pulsatile GnRH therapy may induce spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Hipogonadismo , Espermatogênese , Testosterona , Humanos , Masculino , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Resultado do Tratamento , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Gonadotropina Coriônica/uso terapêutico , Menotropinas/administração & dosagem , Menotropinas/uso terapêutico , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Pulsoterapia , Adolescente
10.
Opt Lett ; 49(10): 2557-2560, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748104

RESUMO

The inherent nonseparability of vector beams presents a unique opportunity to explore novel optical functionalities, expanding new degrees of freedom for optical information processing. In this Letter, we introduce a novel, to the best of our knowledge, method for tailoring the local nonseparability along the propagation axis of vector beams. Employing higher-order Bessel vector beams, the longitudinal control over the local nonseparability is achieved through targeted amplitude modulation of constituent orthogonal polarization components within the main ring region. Experimental demonstrations of diverse longitudinal nonseparability profiles corroborate the efficacy and versatility of our approach, opening avenues for further exploration of the nonseparability manipulation in vector beams.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 15(19): 5202-5207, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717357

RESUMO

Far-red cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are bilin-based photosensory proteins that promise to be novel optical agents in optogenetics and deep tissue imaging. Recent structural studies of a far-red CBCR 2551g3 have revealed a unique all-Z,syn chromophore conformation in the far-red-absorbing Pfr state. Understanding the photoswitching mechanism through bilin photoisomerization is important for developing novel biomedical applications. Here, we employ femtosecond spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis to systematically characterize the dynamics of wild-type 2551g3 and four critical mutants in the 15Z Pfr state. We captured local relaxations in several picoseconds and isomerization dynamics in hundreds of picoseconds. Most mutants exhibited faster local relaxation, while their twisting dynamics and photoproducts depend on specific protein-chromophore interactions around the D-ring and C-ring. These results collectively reveal a unique dynamic pattern of excited-state evolution arising from a relatively rigid protein environment, thereby elucidating the molecular mechanism of Pfr-state photoisomerization in far-red CBCRs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Isomerismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/química , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biliares/química , Pigmentos Biliares/metabolismo
12.
Virulence ; 15(1): 2350775, 2024 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The translocation of intestinal flora has been linked to the colonization of diverse and heavy lower respiratory flora in patients with septic ARDS, and is considered a critical prognostic factor for patients. METHODS: On the first and third days of ICU admission, BALF, throat swab, and anal swab were collected, resulting in a total of 288 samples. These samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA analysis and the traceability analysis of new generation technology. RESULTS: On the first day, among the top five microbiota species in abundance, four species were found to be identical in BALF and throat samples. Similarly, on the third day, three microbiota species were found to be identical in abundance in both BALF and throat samples. On the first day, 85.16% of microorganisms originated from the throat, 5.79% from the intestines, and 9.05% were unknown. On the third day, 83.52% of microorganisms came from the throat, 4.67% from the intestines, and 11.81% were unknown. Additionally, when regrouping the 46 patients, the results revealed a significant predominance of throat microorganisms in BALF on both the first and third day. Furthermore, as the disease progressed, the proportion of intestinal flora in BALF increased in patients with enterogenic ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with septic ARDS, the main source of lung microbiota is primarily from the throat. Furthermore, the dynamic trend of the microbiota on the first and third day is essentially consistent.It is important to note that the origin of the intestinal flora does not exclude the possibility of its origin from the throat.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Microbiota , Faringe , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Sepse , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Idoso , Sepse/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Alvéolos Pulmonares/microbiologia , Adulto , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal
13.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1381372, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711972

RESUMO

Recent studies have emphasized that there is a strong link between the gut microbiome and the brain that affects social behavior and personality in animals. However, the interface between personality and the gut microbiome in wild primates remains poorly understood. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing and ethological methods in primate behavioral ecology to investigate the relationship between gut microbiome and personality in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana). The behavioral assessment results indicated three personality dimensions including socialization, shyness, and anxiety. There was significant variation in alpha diversity only for shyness, with a significantly lower alpha diversity indices (including Shannon, Chao1, and PD) for bold individuals than for shy individuals. Using regression models to control for possible confounding factors, we found that the relative abundance of three genera, Akkermansia, Dialister, and Asteroleplasma, was significantly and positively correlated with the sociability scores in the macaques. In addition, Oscillospiraceae exhibited a positive correlation with scores for Shy Dimension. Furthermore, we found that the predicted functional genes for propionate and pyruvate, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathways related to animal behavior, were significant enriched in shyness group. We propose that the gut microbiome may play an important role in the formation of personality of Tibetan macaques.

14.
Insights Imaging ; 15(1): 110, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) LI-RADS in liver nodules < 20 mm at high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their correlation with clinic-pathological features. METHODS: A total of 432 pathologically proved liver nodules < 20 mm were included from January 2019 to June 2022. Each nodule was categorized as LI-RADS grade (LR)-1 to LR-5 through LR-M according to CEUS LI-RADS. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC) of CEUS LI-RADS were evaluated using pathological reference standard. Correlations between clinic-pathological features and CEUS LI-RADS categorization, together with major CEUS features, were further explored. RESULTS: With LR-5 to diagnose HCC, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC were 50.3%, 70.0%, 91.2%, 18.5%, and 0.601, respectively. The proportion of LR-5 in primary HCCs was significantly higher than that in recurrent ones (p = 0.014). HCC 10-19 mm showed significantly more frequent arterial phase hyper-enhancement (APHE) and late washout (p < 0.05) and less no-washout (p = 0.003) compared with those in HCC < 10 mm. Well-differentiated HCCs showed more frequent non-APHE and no-washout than moderate- and poor-differentiated HCCs (p < 0.05). Upgrading "APHE without washout" LR-4 nodules 10-19 mm with HCC history and "APHE with late mild washout" LR-4 nodules < 10 mm to LR-5 could improve the diagnostic performance of LR-5. The corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC are 60.2%, 70.0%, 92.6%, 22.1%, and 0.651, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CEUS LI-RADS is valuable in the diagnosis of HCC < 20 mm and performance can be improved with the combination of clinic-pathological features. CRITICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: CEUS LI-RADS was valuable in the diagnosis of HCC < 20 mm and its diagnostic performance can be improved by combining clinic-pathological features. Further research is needed to define its value in this set of lesions. KEY POINTS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can detect small liver lesions where LI-RADS accuracy is uncertain. Many LI-RADS Grade-4 nodules were upgraded to Grade-5 by combining imaging with clinic-pathological factors. The reclassification of LI-RADS Grade-5 can improve sensitivity without decreasing positive predictive value.

15.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1380694, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779676

RESUMO

Background: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by Clostridium botulinum is one of the most potent known toxins. Moreover, BoNT is classified as one of the most important biological warfare agents that threatens the biosafety of the world. Currently, the approved treatment for botulism in humans is the use of polyvalent horse serum antitoxins. However, they are greatly limited because of insufficient supply and adverse reactions. Thus, treatment of human botulism requires the development of effective toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Considering their advantages, neutralizing nanobodies will play an increasing role as BoNTs therapeutics. Methods: Herein, neutralizing nanobodies binding to the heavy chain (Hc) domain of BoNT/B (BHc) were screened from a phage display library. Then, BoNT/B-specific clones were identified and fused with the human Fc fragment (hFc) to form chimeric heavy chain antibodies. Finally, the affinity, specificity, and neutralizing activity of antibodies against BoNT/B in vivo were evaluated. Results: The B5-hFc, B9-hFc and B12-hFc antibodies demonstrated high affinity for BHc in the nanomolar range. The three antibodies were proven to have potent neutralizing activity against BoNT/B in vivo. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that inhibiting toxin binding to the host receptor is an efficient strategy and the three antibodies could be used as candidates for the further development of drugs to prevent and treat botulism.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Botulismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Animais , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/imunologia , Humanos , Botulismo/imunologia , Camundongos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Feminino , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia
16.
Nature ; 629(8013): 784-790, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720075

RESUMO

Electro-optical photonic integrated circuits (PICs) based on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) have demonstrated the vast capabilities of materials with a high Pockels coefficient1,2. They enable linear and high-speed modulators operating at complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor voltage levels3 to be used in applications including data-centre communications4, high-performance computing and photonic accelerators for AI5. However, industrial use of this technology is hindered by the high cost per wafer and the limited wafer size. The high cost results from the lack of existing high-volume applications in other domains of the sort that accelerated the adoption of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics, which was driven by vast investment in microelectronics. Here we report low-loss PICs made of lithium tantalate (LiTaO3), a material that has already been adopted commercially for 5G radiofrequency filters6 and therefore enables scalable manufacturing at low cost, and it has equal, and in some cases superior, properties to LiNbO3. We show that LiTaO3 can be etched to create low-loss (5.6 dB m-1) PICs using a deep ultraviolet (DUV) stepper-based manufacturing process7. We demonstrate a LiTaO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with a half-wave voltage-length product of 1.9 V cm and an electro-optic bandwidth of up to 40 GHz. In comparison with LiNbO3, LiTaO3 exhibits a much lower birefringence, enabling high-density circuits and broadband operation over all telecommunication bands. Moreover, the platform supports the generation of soliton microcombs. Our work paves the way for the scalable manufacture of low-cost and large-volume next-generation electro-optical PICs.


Assuntos
Lítio , Óxidos , Fótons , Lítio/química , Óxidos/química , Tantálio/química , Nióbio/química , Semicondutores , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Raios Ultravioleta , Silício/química
17.
Mol Cell Biol ; 44(4): 149-163, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725392

RESUMO

Phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln), a gut metabolite is substantially elevated in heart failure (HF). The increase of PAGln in plasma is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), and contributes to AF pathogenesis. However, the role of PAGln in AF with HF remains uncertain. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of PAGln on AF after HF. Thoracic aortic coarctation (TAC) created overpressure-induced HF mice for 4 weeks. Histopathology, biochemical, echocardiographic for assessment of cardiac function, and electrophysiological examination of several electrophysiological indexes (ERP, SNRT, and the occurrence rate of AF) were performed at the end of the HF mice model. We found that plasma PAGln levels were significantly elevated in PAGln-treated HF mice and that PAGln aggravated maladaptive structural remodeling and electrical remodeling, which aggravated the vulnerability of AF, shortened the ERP duration, prolonged the SNRT, increased the occurrence rate of AF in HF mice. Mechanistically, PAGln exacerbated ROS accumulation and increased the levels of phosphorylated PLB and CAMK II. Overall, PAGln played a vital role in promoting the occurrence of AF in HF mice by activating the CAMK II signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Camundongos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glutamina/análogos & derivados , Glutamina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 442, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (preCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer in older people who were classified as "fit" by comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). METHODS: A single-arm, multicenter, phase II trial was designed. Patients were eligible for this study if they were aged 70 years or above and met the standards of "fit" (SIOG1) as evaluated by CGA and of the locally advanced risk category. The primary endpoint was 2-year disease-free survival (DFS). Patients were scheduled to receive preCRT (50 Gy) with raltitrexed (3 mg/m2 on days 1 and 22). RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients were evaluated by CGA, of whom eighty-six, eleven and twelve were classified into the fit, intermediate and frail category. Sixty-eight fit patients with a median age of 74 years were enrolled. Sixty-four patients (94.1%) finished radiotherapy without dose reduction. Fifty-four (79.3%) patients finished the prescribed raltitrexed therapy as planned. Serious toxicity (grade 3 or above) was observed in twenty-four patients (35.3%), and fourteen patients (20.6%) experienced non-hematological side effects. Within a median follow-up time of 36.0 months (range: 5.9-63.1 months), the 2-year overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 89.6% (95% CI: 82.3-96.9), 92.4% (95% CI: 85.9-98.9) and 75.6% (95% CI: 65.2-86.0), respectively. Forty-eight patients (70.6%) underwent surgery (R0 resection 95.8%, R1 resection 4.2%), the corresponding R0 resection rate among the patients with positive mesorectal fascia status was 76.6% (36/47). CONCLUSION: This phase II trial suggests that preCRT is efficient with tolerable toxicities in older rectal cancer patients who were evaluated as fit based on CGA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The registration number on ClinicalTrials.gov was NCT02992886 (14/12/2016).


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico
19.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241249425, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727154

RESUMO

Quality improvement is an international priority, and quality education and training are important parts of hospital quality management. The aim of this study was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and its influencing factors related to quality training in medical staff. A questionnaire survey was conducted by convenience sampling to assess the KAP of quality training in Taizhou Enze Medical Center. Principal component analysis was used to extract factors from the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (frequency, median, mean), Kendall grade correlation analysis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. A total of 205 staff members participated in the questionnaire survey. For the 5 factors of the KAP scale, the highest score was factor F4, recognition and support for quality training (mean = 90.55, median = 100), followed by factor F3, perceived benefits (mean = 84.46, median = 85.65). Relatively lower scores were found for factor F2, quality knowledge learning and mastery (mean = 63.09, median = 63.89), and F5, quality management practices and sharing (mean = 82.07, median = 75.00). There was a correlation between the 5 factors. The scores of F2 (quality knowledge learning and mastery) for staff with senior professional titles were higher than those for staff with intermediate professional titles or below. The score of F3 (perceived benefits of quality training) in medical technicians and nurses was higher than in doctors and administrative personnel. Our findings showed that the respondents' attitude toward quality training was positive, but their knowledge mastery and practice behaviors should be further improved. Occupational category and professional title were the influencing factors of the quality training KAP. Therefore, hospital should conduct quality management training at a wider scope according to the competency requirements of different groups, and further optimize the improvement and innovation system.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Gerais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Melhoria de Qualidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , China
20.
J Org Chem ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741558

RESUMO

A novel three-component cyclization carbonylation reaction of iodoarene-tethered propargyl ethers with amine and CO is reported. This palladium-catalyzed cascade reaction undergoes a sequence of oxidative addition, unsaturated bond migration, carbonyl insertion, and nucleophilic attack to deliver the benzofuran skeleton. Both aromatic amines and aliphatic amines could proceed smoothly in this transformation under one atm of CO.

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