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1.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 140: 107802, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794412

RESUMO

Procalcitonin (PCT) is a sensitive and specific biomarker for sepsis diagnosis. In this study, a novel ratio-typed electrochemical immunosensor was constructed for reliable and sensitive assay of PCT based on hierarchical PtCoIr nanowires/polyethylene polyamine-grafted-ferrocene (PtCoIr HNWs/PEPA-Fc) and porous SiO2@Ag nanoparticles-toluidine blue (porous SiO2@Ag NPs-TB). Importantly, the PtCoIr HNWs/PEPA-Fc was first modified on the sensing interface, which harvested stable and strong electrochemical signals for readout of Fc due to the enriched anchoring sites created by the PtCoIr HNWs. Meanwhile, porous SiO2@Ag NPs-TB behaved as the label to conjugate with secondary antibody (Ab2), which also provided another strong detection signals originated from TB confined in such porous structures. The resulting immunosensor displayed a measurable output of procalcitonin (PCT) in the dynamic scope of 0.001 ~ 100 ng mL-1 with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.46 pg mL-1 (S/N = 3). Moreover, we exploited this strategy for PCT assay in a diluted human serum sample with acceptable results, exhibiting promising applications in the clinical analysis.

2.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797896

RESUMO

Various transition-metal oxide (TMO)-based nanomaterials have been explored as peroxidase mimics. However, the moderate peroxidase-like activity of TMOs limited their widespread use. Decorating highly active noble-metal nanozymes on the surface of TMOs can not only enhance the peroxidase-like activity of TMOs but also prevent the small-sized metal nanoparticles (NPs) from aggregation. Herein, in situ exsolution of noble-metal NPs (i.e., Ir and Ru) from A-site-deficient perovskite oxides (i.e., chemical formula La0.9B0.9B'0.1O3-δ, B = Mn/Fe, B' = Ir/Ru) under a reducing atmosphere was achieved for preparing noble-metal NPs/perovskite composites. The exsolved NPs were socketed on the surface of parent perovskite oxides, which significantly enhanced the stability of metal NPs. In addition, the peroxidase-like activity of perovskite oxides increased remarkably after NPs egress. We then used the optimized Ir/LMIO with high stability and excellent peroxidase-like activity to develop a colorimetric assay for the determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Benefiting from the remarkable peroxidase-like activity of Ir/LMIO, the sensing platform exhibited a wide linear range. The practical application of the colorimetric sensing method was demonstrated by detecting the ALP in serum samples. This work not only provides new insights into the synthesis of highly active peroxidase-like nanozymes but expands their applications for constructing a high-performance biosensing platform.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 117003, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798352

RESUMO

The recent observation of room-temperature superconductivity will undoubtedly lead to a surge in the discovery of new, dense, hydrogen-rich materials. The rare earth metal superhydrides are predicted to have very high-T_{c} superconductivity that is tunable with changes in stoichiometry or doping. Here we report the synthesis of an yttrium superhydride that exhibits superconductivity at a critical temperature of 262 K at 182±8 GPa. A palladium thin film assists the synthesis by protecting the sputtered yttrium from oxidation and promoting subsequent hydrogenation. Phonon-mediated superconductivity is established by the observation of zero resistance, an isotope effect and the reduction of T_{c} under an external magnetic field. The upper critical magnetic field is 103 T at zero temperature.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6648078, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824874

RESUMO

Purpose: This study is aimed at investigating the expression, underlying biological function, and clinical significance of coatomer protein complex subunit beta 2 (COPB2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: HCC-related data were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) database, and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. A logistic regression module was applied to analyze the relationship between the expression of COPB2 and clinicopathologic characteristics. The Cox proportional hazard regression model and Kaplan-Meier method were used for survival analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to annotate the underlying biological functions. Loss-of-function experiments were conducted to determine the underlying mechanisms. Results: COPB2 was overexpressed in HCC, and high expression of COPB2 was significantly correlated with higher alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.616, >20 vs. ≤20, p < 0.05), stage (OR = 1.744, III vs. I, p < 0.05), and grade (OR = 1.746, G4+G3 vs. G2+G1, p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that HCC patients with high COPB2 expression had a worse prognosis than those with low COPB2 expression (p < 0.0001 for TCGA cohort, p < 0.05 for ICGC cohort). The univariate Cox (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.068, p < 0.0001) and multivariate Cox (HR = 2.011, p < 0.05) regression analyses suggested that COPB2 was an independent risk factor. GSEA showed that mTOR and other tumor-related signaling pathways were differentially enriched in the high COPB2 expression phenotype. Silencing of COPB2 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and mTOR signaling. Conclusion: COPB2 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for HCC.

5.
Plant Signal Behav ; : 1891769, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818288

RESUMO

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins play important roles in plant defense response to drought stress. However, genome-wide identification of the LEA gene family was not revealed in Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, 61 SmLEA genes were identified from S. miltiorrhiza and divided into 7 subfamilies according to their conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships. SmLEA genes contained the LEA conserved motifs and few introns. SmLEA genes of the same subfamilies had similar gene structures and predicted subcellular locations. Our results indicated that the promoters of SmLEA genes contained various cis-acting elements associated with abiotic stress response. In addition, RNA-seq and real-time PCR results suggested that SmLEA genes are specifically expressed in different tissue, and most SmLEA genes can be induced by drought stress. These results provide a valuable foundation for future functional investigations of SmLEA genes and drought stress-resistant breeding of S. miltiorrhiza.

6.
Jpn J Radiol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818707

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) evaluated by a hepatic fat fraction (HFF) using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and high-risk coronary plaques (HRP) in NAFLD patients. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study involving 172 NAFLD individuals recruited from August 2019 to September 2020. They underwent dual-energy coronary computed tomographic angiography and were classified as no-plaque, HRP negative and HRP positive groups. HFF values were measured using multimaterial decomposition algorithm of DECT, and the differences among three groups were compared. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent correlation between HFF and HRP. Spearman rank correlation was used to assess the correlations between HFF and multiple variables. RESULTS: HRP positive group (15.3%) had higher HFF values than no-plaque (6.9%) and HRP negative groups (8.9%) (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, the results indicated that HFF was an independent risk factor for HRP (OR 1.93, P < 0.001). Additionally, HFF significantly correlated with coronary artery calcium score, hepatic CT attenuation, epicardial and pericoronary adipose tissue volume, and CT attenuation (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As a new imaging marker for the quantification of liver fat, HFF was independently associated with HRP.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7686, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833302

RESUMO

Abnormal cortical folding patterns, such as lissencephaly, pachygyria and polymicrogyria malformations, may be related to neurodevelopmental disorders. In this context, computational modeling is a powerful tool to provide a better understanding of the early brain folding process. Recent studies based on biomechanical modeling have shown that mechanical forces play a crucial role in the formation of cortical convolutions. However, the effect of biophysical parameters in these models remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the cortical growth, the initial geometry and the initial cortical thickness on folding patterns. In addition, we not only use several descriptors of the folds such as the dimensionless mean curvature, the surface-based three-dimensional gyrification index and the sulcal depth, but also propose a new metric to quantify the folds orientation. The results demonstrate that the cortical growth mode does almost not affect the complexity degree of surface morphology; the variation in the initial geometry changes the folds orientation and depth, and in particular, the slenderer the shape is, the more folds along its longest axis could be seen and the deeper the sulci become. Moreover, the thinner the initial cortical thickness is, the higher the spatial frequency of the folds is, but the shallower the sulci become, which is in agreement with the previously reported effects of cortical thickness.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7591, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828166

RESUMO

The relevance of pregestational body mass index (BMI) on adverse pregnancy outcomes remained unclear in Southwest China. This study aimed to investigate the overall and age-category specific association between pre-gestational BMI and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, preterm delivery, stillbirth, macrosomia, and small-for-gestational age (SGA) or large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates in Southwest China. Furthermore, it explores the relative importance of influence of pregravid BMI and maternal age on pregnancy outcomes. 51,125 Chinese singleton pregnant women were recruited as study subjects. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the influence of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Gradient boosting machine was used to evaluate the relative importance of influence of pregravid BMI and maternal age on pregnancy outcomes. It is found that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes except for SGA neonates, while pre-pregnancy underweight is a protective factor for GDM, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, macrosomia and LGA, but not SGA. Younger mothers are more susceptible to GDM and macrosomia neonates, while older mothers are more prone to preeclampsia. Pre-pregnancy BMI has more influence on various pregnancy outcomes than maternal age. To improve pregnancy outcomes, normal BMI weight as well as relatively young maternal ages are recommended for women in child-bearing age.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836511

RESUMO

The quantum confinement effect resulting from size reduction drastically alters the electronic structure and optical properties of optoelectronic materials. Quantum confinement in nanomaterials can be efficiently controlled by morphology variation combined characteristics of nanomaterials, such as their size, shape, and spatial organization. In this study, considering indium arsenide (InAs) in tetrahedral semiconductors as an example, we demonstrated the controllable morphology evolution of InAs nanostructures by tuning the growth conditions. We used the atomistic pseudopotential method to investigate the morphology-dependent electronic and optical properties of InAs nanostructures: tapered and uniform nanostructures, including the absorption spectra, single-particle energy levels, distribution and overlap integral of band-edge states, and exciton binding energies. Compared with uniform nanomaterials, a weaker quantum confinement effect was observed in the tapered nanomaterials, because of which tapered InAs nanostructures have a smaller bandgap, larger separation of photoinduced carriers, and smaller exciton binding energy. The absorption spectra of InAs nanostructures also exhibit strong morphology dependence. Our results indicate that morphology engineering can be exploited as a potential approach for modulating the electronic and optoelectronic properties of nanomaterials.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 1457089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777312

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activation of microglia is considered to be a major cause of neuronal dysfunction, which can lead to damage and death through direct oxidative damage to neuronal macromolecules or derangement of neuronal redox signaling circuits. BAP31, an integral ER membrane protein, has been defined as a regulatory molecule in the CNS. Our latest studies have found that BAP31 deficiency leads to activation of microglia. In this study, we discovered that BAP31 deficiency upregulated LPS-induced superoxide anion production in BV2 cells and mice by upregulating the expression level of p22phox and by inhibiting the activation of Nrf2-HO-1 signaling. Knockdown of p22phox/keap1 or use of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin) reversed the production of superoxide anion and inflammatory cytokines, which then reduced neuronal damage and death in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that BAP31 deficiency contributes to microglia-related superoxide anion production and neuroinflammation through p22phox and keap1. Furthermore, the excess superoxide anion cooperated with inflammatory cytokines to induce the damage and death of neurons. Thus, we determined that BAP31 is an important regulator in superoxide anion production and neuroinflammation, and the downstream regulators or agonists of BAP31 could therefore be considered as potential therapeutic targets in microglial-related superoxide anion production and neuroinflammation.

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6659282, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777317

RESUMO

Melatonin is a strong antioxidant which beneficially protects against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by hemorrhagic transformation in rats; protection includes the reduction of neurological deficits, infarction, and hematoma volume. The molecular mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects in the MCAO model have not been clearly identified. This study examined the influence and involved mechanism of melatonin on inflammation in hemorrhagic transformation following hyperglycemia MCAO rat model. Compared with the MCAO group, MCAO+dextrose (DX) group showed worse neurological function and higher infarction and hematoma volume. Interestingly, the protein expression of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome increased in the MCAO+DX group compared with the MCAO group, which indicated that NLRP3 inflammasome may be involved in the DX-induced hemorrhagic transformation following MCAO. Then, three dosages of melatonin were intraperitoneally injected 2 h after MCAO induction. Melatonin treatment attenuated inflammatory response by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NLRP3 inflammasome, alleviating neuronal injury, and reducing infarction and hematoma volume, finally improving neurological score. Melatonin also repressed cortical levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß, which were increased 24 h after hyperglycemia MCAO. In order to identify the potential mechanisms, we further revealed that nigericin administration reversed the neuroprotective effect of melatonin by promoting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In general, this present study reveals that melatonin prevents the occurrence of hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation, and this effect might be beneficial to attenuate neurological dysfunction via suppressing the inflammatory response after MCAO which possibly associated with the inhibition of the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 110, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733385

RESUMO

This study sought to improve the oral bioavailability and enhance the anti-enteritis effect of fraxetin by incorporating it into long circulating liposomes (F-LC-Lipo). The optimal formulation of F-LC-Lipo was obtained via orthogonal design. The particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, stability, and anti-enteritis effect of F-LC-Lipo were evaluated. The particle size of F-LC-Lipo was 166.65 ± 8.75 nm with entrapment efficiency (EE) of 92.18 ± 0.17%. The release rate in different dissolution media (pH 1.2 HCl, DDW, and pH 7.4 PBS) was significantly higher than that of fraxetin solution. Compared with the free fraxetin solution, F-LC-Lipo increased oral bioavailability of fraxetin by 4.43 times (443%). More importantly, F-LC-Lipo could improve the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), prostaglandin E2 (PEG2), and IL-10 in rats with enteritis. Overall, these results suggested that LC-Lipo may serve as a potential carrier for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of fraxetin as well as improving its enteritis effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Enterite/patologia , Lipossomos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Clin Invest Med ; 44(1): E15-24, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate a novel composite methodology of using targeted serum microRNAs (micro ribonucleic acid; miRNA) and urine metabolites for the accurate detection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Consecutively consenting NSCLC patients and matched control subjects were recruited to provide samples of serum for miRNA and/or urine for metabolite analyses. Serum miRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription with exogenous control, and the comparative delta cycle threshold (CT) method was used to calculate relative miRNA expression of two targeted miRNAs (miR-21 and miR-223). The concentrations of six targeted urinary metabolites in patients and healthy controls were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. A composite methodology of using the 35 accruals with both serum and urine biomarkers was then established with binary logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models with or without artificial intelligence (AI). RESULTS: The ROC analysis of miRNA expression yielded a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 88.2% for the detection of early stage NSCLC, with area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91 (CI 95%: 0.80-1.0). Relative urinary concentrations of 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (4MPLA) were significantly different between NSCLC and healthy control (p=0.008). The ROC analysis of 4MPLA yielded a sensitivity of 82.1% and a specificity of 88.2%, with AUC = 0.85. The composite process combining miRNA and metabolite expression demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100% and AUC=1. CONCLUSIONS: A highly specific, sensitive and non-invasive detection method for NSCLC was developed. Pending validation, this can potentially improve the early detection and, hence, the treatment and survival outcomes of patients.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771430

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) relies on efficient remodeling of alveolar bone. While a well-controlled inflammatory response is essential during OTM, the mechanism regulating inflammation is unknown. Autophagy, a conserved catabolic pathway, has been shown to protect cells from excess inflammation in disease states. We hypothesize that autophagy plays a role in regulating inflammation during OTM. METHODS: A split-mouth design was used to force load molars in adult male mice, carrying a GFP-LC3 transgene for in vivo detection of autophagy. Confocal microscopy, Western blot, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to evaluate autophagy activation in tissues of loaded and control molars at time points after force application. Rapamycin, a Food and Drug Administration-approved immunosuppressant, was injected to evaluate induction of autophagy. RESULTS: Autophagy activity increases shortly after loading, primarily on the compression side of the tooth, and is closely associated with inflammatory cytokine expression and osteoclast recruitment. Daily administration of rapamycin, an autophagy activator, led to reduced tooth movement and osteoclast recruitment, suggesting that autophagy downregulates the inflammatory response and bone turnover during OTM. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration that shows that autophagy is induced by orthodontic loading and plays a role during OTM, likely via negative regulation of inflammatory response and bone turnover. Exploring roles of autophagy in OTM holds great promise, as aberrant autophagy is associated with periodontal disease and its related systemic inflammatory disorders.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(6): 9056-9070, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661758

RESUMO

Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is one of the most promising treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the limited survival of transplanted NSCs reduces their therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a co-transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) may enhance the survival of NSCs and improve the beneficial effects of NSCs in rats with SCI, as well as to investigate potential mechanisms underlying such efficacies. Co-transplantation of OECs and NSCs was used to treat rats with SCI. Sympathetic nerve function was determined by measuring sympathetic skin responses. The results showed that OEC/NSC co-transplantation improved motor function and autonomic nerve function in rats with SCI. Co-transplantation of OECs promoted NSC-induced neuroprotection and inhibited programmed necrosis of NSCs, which was mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Furthermore, OECs increased the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in vitro, and improved the survival rate of NSCs in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that transplantation of OECs inhibited programmed necrosis of co-transplanted NSCs to promote therapeutic effects on SCI. Therefore, co-transplantation of OECs and NSCs may represent a promising strategy for treating patients with SCI.

16.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 993-1004, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724931

RESUMO

Three photocatalysts (CdS, ZnFe2O4, and NiFe2O4) were synthesized and their ability to photodegrade methylene blue (MB) was evaluated. MB was degraded by both spinel photocatalysts under visible light at room temperature, although their efficacy was less than that for CdS. The photocatalytic efficacies of NiFe2O4 were observed to be much greater than that for ZnFe2O4. All the synthesized nanoparticles absorbed visible light, while CdS had a larger absorption range within the visible light spectra and the most porous surface. Photo-deactivation was observed during the study, which could be due to the chemical adsorption of the degraded products on the catalyst surface. The factors that affected MB removal efficacy include the absorption range of photocatalysts, initial MB concentrations, amount of photocatalysts added, and photoreactor conditions. Life cycle analysis was used to compare the preparation methods of the photocatalysts in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact. The results showed that the hydrothermal method for NiFe2O4 preparation was less energy-intensive than the sol-gel method for CdS and ZnFe2O4 as the hydrothermal method is effective over a wider range of temperatures in aqueous media. Also, as ZnFe2O4, and NiFe2O4 have lower environmental impacts than CdS both show promise as photocatalysts.


Assuntos
Luz , Nanopartículas , Catálise , Meio Ambiente , Azul de Metileno
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145408, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736169

RESUMO

The accumulation of antimony (Sb) by rice is a severe threat to exposed populations. Previous studies demonstrated that, compared to flooded (anaerobic) water management, dry cultivation management (aerobic) could substantially decrease As, an analog of Sb, uptake by rice. However, the effects of different water management strategies on the accumulation of Sb by rice are less understood. It is proposed that microorganisms play an important role in regulating Sb mobility in rice paddies. Hence, the current study compared the microbial communities in rice paddies receiving different water management, i.e., flooded (anaerobic) and dry (aerobic)) rice cultivation. Significant decrease in Sb uptake by rice, in both the roots and grains, was observed under the aerobic compared to the anaerobic conditions. This could partially be attributed to the differences in the microbial communities as shaped by the redox environment. In aerobic soils, the gene responsible for Sb oxidation (i.e., aioA) was significantly, while in anaerobic soils the gene responsible for Sb reduction (i.e., arrA) was enriched, suggesting that variation in redox conditions may trigger different microbial responses. Accordingly, geochemical analysis indicated that accumulation of Sb(III) was only observed under anaerobic conditions, but not under aerobic conditions. The environment-microbe interactions were distinct between the two treatments with a greater number of interactions between Sb fractions and the microbial assemblage under anaerobic conditions, while Eh was the most influential geochemical parameter under aerobic conditions. Finally, the presence of a core microbiome under the two conditions suggested the possibility of microorganisms that support rice growth, nutrition, and health. The reduction of Sb in rice grain significantly decreases Sb exposure to the residents in Sb contaminated regions, and should be considered for future rice cultivation practices.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Microbiota , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Anaerobiose , Antimônio/análise , Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is characterized by immune dysfunction contributing to malnutrition. We previously revealed neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an indicator of disordered immune system. Herein we aimed to i) determine the optimal NLR cut-off that best predicts malnutrition risk; ii) clarify the association between NLR and nutritional status. METHODS: A total of 135 hospitalized cirrhotics were included. Immune dysfunction was evaluated by levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), NLR and other parameters. Malnutrition was screened by a risk score referring to Royal Free Hospital-Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT). ROC curve was implemented to determine the best NLR cut-off which predicts malnutrition risk. Correlation between NLR and indicators of hepatic and physical function (handgrip strength) were also examined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between NLR and malnutrition risk. RESULTS: ROC curve revealed that the optimum cut-off to predict malnutrition risk was NLR > 4.2 with a sensitivity of 47.2%, specificity of 81.0%, NPV of 58.0% and PPV of 74.5%, respectively. Patients with NLR > 4.2 exhibited higher RFH-NPT score, higher serum platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and CRP. A positive correlation was found between NLR values and CTP (r = 0.22, p = 0.010), MELD (r = 0.36, p < 0.001) and RFH-NPT score (r = 0.31, p < 0.001). NLR was a risk factor for malnutrition independently of alcoholic liver disease and presence of ascites. CONCLUSIONS: Immune dysfunction measured by NLR was associated with malnutrition risk estimated by RFH-NPT in cirrhosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
J Mol Recognit ; : e2892, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660361

RESUMO

The kinetochore is essential for the accurate segregation of sister chromosome in the eukaryote cell. Among the kinetochore subunits, five proteins CENP-O/P/U/Q/R form a stable complex, referred to as CENP-O class, and are required for proper kinetochore function. Although the function and structure of yeast COMA complex (CENP-O/P/U/Q homologs) have been revealed extensively, the assembly mechanism and detail interactions among human CENP-O class are significantly different and remain largely unclear. Here, we identified the fragment (residues 241-360) of CENP-U and the C-terminal half of CENP-Q are essential to form a hetero-complex and interact with CENP-O/P sub-complex in vitro. We for the first time showed that CENP-R does not directly interact with CENP-O/P in vitro, but indeed interact with CENP-U and CENP-Q. Furthermore, both the N- and C-terminus of CENP-R are required for the interaction with CENP-U and CENP-Q. Our research pinpointed a novel interaction pattern that might shed light on the assembly mechanism of vertebrate CENP-O class.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644977

RESUMO

Instinctive hierarchically biomineralized structures of various organisms, such as eggs, algae, and magnetotactic bacteria, afford extra protection and distinct performance, which endow fragile organisms with a tenacious ability to adapt and survive. However, spontaneous formation of hybrid materials is difficult for most organisms in nature. Rapid development of chemistry and materials science successfully obtained the combinations of organisms with nanomaterials by biomimetic mineralization thus demonstrating the reproduction of the structures and functions and generation of novel functions that organisms do not possess. The rational design of biomaterial-organism hybridization can control biological recognition, interactions, and metabolism of the organisms. Thus, nanomaterial-organism hybrids represent a next generation of organism engineering with great potential biomedical applications. This review summarizes recent advances in material-directed organism engineering and is mainly focused on biomimetic mineralization technologies and their outstanding biomedical applications. Three representative types of biomimetic mineralization are systematically introduced, including external mineralization, internal mineralization, and genetic engineering mineralization. The methods involving hybridization of nanomaterials and organisms based on biomimetic mineralization strategies are described. These strategies resulted in applications of various nanomaterial-organism hybrids with multiplex functions in cell engineering, cancer treatment, and vaccine improvement. Unlike classical biological approaches, this material-based bioregulation is universal, effective, and inexpensive. In particular, instead of traditional medical solutions, the integration of nanomaterials and organisms may exploit novel strategies to solve current biomedical problems. This article is categorized under: Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease.

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