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1.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 235, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolactinoma is a functional pituitary adenoma that secretes excessive prolactin. Dopamine agonists (DAs) such as bromocriptine (BRC) are the first-line treatment for prolactinomas, but the resistance rate is increasing year by year, creating a clinical challenge. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the molecular mechanism of bromocriptine resistance in prolactinomas. Activation of the P38 MAPK pathway affects multidrug resistance in tumours. Our previous studies have demonstrated that inhibiting MAPK14 can suppress the occurrence of prolactinoma, but the role of MAPK11/12/13/14 (p38 MAPK) signalling in dopamine agonist-resistant prolactinomas is still unclear. METHODS: A prolactinoma rat model was established to determine the effect of bromocriptine on MAPK11/12/13/14 signalling. DA-resistant GH3 cells and DA-sensitive MMQ cells were used, and the role of MAPK11/12/13/14 in bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas was preliminarily verified by western blot, RT-qPCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and CCK-8 experiments. The effects of MAPK11 or MAPK14 on bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas were further verified by siRNA transfection experiments. RESULTS: Bromocriptine was used to treat rat prolactinoma by upregulating DRD2 expression and downregulating the expression level of MAPK11/12/13/14 in vivo experiments. The in vitro experiments showed that GH3 cells are resistant to bromocriptine and that MMQ cells are sensitive to bromocriptine. Bromocriptine could significantly reduce the expression of MAPK12 and MAPK13 in GH3 cells and MMQ cells. Bromocriptine could significantly reduce the expression of MAPK11, MAPK14, NF-κB p65 and Bcl2 in MMQ but had no effect on MAPK11, MAPK14, NF-κB p65 and Bcl2 in GH3 cells. In addition, knockdown of MAPK11 and MAPK14 in GH3 cells by siRNA transfection reversed the resistance of GH3 cells to bromocriptine, and haloperidol (HAL) blocked the inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MAPK14, MAPK11, and PRL in MMQ cells. Our findings show that MAPK11 and MAPK14 proteins are involved in bromocriptine resistance in prolactinomas. CONCLUSION: Bromocriptine reduces the expression of MAPK11/12/13/14 in prolactinomas, and MAPK11 and MAPK14 are involved in bromocriptine resistance in prolactinomas by regulating apoptosis. Reducing the expression of MAPK11 or MAPK14 can reverse bromocriptine resistance in prolactinomas.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 768966, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804058

RESUMO

Immune infiltration of peripheral natural killer (NK) cells in the brain has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunity-related genes (IRGs) play an essential role in immune infiltration; however, the expression of IRGs and possible regulatory mechanisms involved in AD remain unclear. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing data from patients with AD were analyzed and PBMCs obtained from the ImmPort database were screened for cluster marker genes. IRG activity was calculated using the AUCell package. A bulk sequencing dataset of AD brain tissues was analyzed to explore common IRGs between PBMCs and the brain. Relevant regulatory transcription factors (TFs) were identified from the Human TFDB database. The protein-protein interaction network of key TFs were generated using the STRING database. Eight clusters were identified, including memory CD4 T, NKT, NK, B, DC, CD8 T cells, and platelets. NK cells were significantly decreased in patients with AD, while CD4 T cells were increased. NK and DC cells exhibited the highest IRG activity. GO and KEGG analyses of the scRNA and bulk sequencing data showed that the DEGs focused on the immune response. Seventy common IRGs were found in both peripheral NK cells and the brain. Seventeen TFs were associated with IRG expression, and the PPI network indicated that STAT3, IRF1, and REL were the hub TFs. In conclusion, we propose that peripheral NK cells may infiltrate the brain and contribute to neuroinflammatory changes in AD through bioinformatic analysis of scRNA and bulk sequencing data. Moreover, STAT3 may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of IRGs in NK cells.

4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 107007, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The importance of environmental factors (especially leptospirosis) of moyamoya disease (MMD) has not been clarified. Here we investigated the epidemiological characteristics of MMD in Hubei province, China. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of MMD in Hubei province between 2017 and 2019. The regional clusters of the hot spots (high incidence) and cold spots (low incidence) of MMD were identified using the spatial statistical method. To evaluate the role of leptospirosis in MMD, we performed an ecological comparison study to evaluate whether the socioeconomic and environmental variables of hot spots are more suitable for leptospirosis spread. RESULTS: The average annual sex and age adjusted incidence of MMD was 3.07 per 100,000 person-years from 2017 to 2019. The middle-aged had apparently higher incidence of MMD than the children. There existed an obvious geographic distribution difference of MMD at county level. The hot spots were identified mainly in the low mountainous and hilly terrain, while cold spots were located in the Jianghan Plains. Compared to cold spots, the hot spots had larger cattle density (32.0 vs 3.1, p = 0.002), higher percentages of rice field (85.6% vs 47.0%, p = 0.007), and lower elevation (33.6 vs 157.4, p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: There exists geographic distribution difference of MMD in Hubei province and was likely to be caused by leptospirosis in the early years. The MMD in China is dominant by middle-aged adults, which might be driven from leptospirosis outbreaks in the last century.

5.
J Insect Sci ; 21(6)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750634

RESUMO

Hemolysins cause the lysis of invading organisms, representing major humoral immunity used by invertebrates. Hemolysins have been discovered in hemolymph of Helicoverpa armigera larvae as immune factors. As oral immunity is great important to clear general pathogens, we presumed that hemolysins may be present in oral secretions (OS). To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted four testing methods to identify hemolysin(s) in larval OS of H. armigera, and analyzed physicochemical properties of the hemolysin in comparison with hemolytic melittin of Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) venom. We found hemolysin(s) from OS of H. armigera for the first time, and further identified in other lepidopteran herbivores. It could be precipitated by ammonium sulfate, which demonstrates that the hemolytic factor is proteinaceous. Labial gland showed significantly higher hemolytic activity than gut tissues, suggesting that hemolysin of OS is mainly derived from saliva secreted by labial glands. Physicochemical properties of hemolysin in caterpillar's OS were different from bee venom. It was noteworthy that hemolytic activity of OS was only partially inhibited even at 100°C. Hemolytic activity of OS was not inhibited by nine tested carbohydrates contrary to bee venom melittin. Moreover, effects of metal ions on hemolytic activity were different between OS and bee venom. We conclude that there is at least a novel hemolysin in OS of herbivorous insects with proposed antibacterial function, and its hemolytic mechanism may be different from melittin. Our study enriches understanding of the potential role of hemolysins in insect immunity and provides useful data to the field of herbivorous insect-pathogen research.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793690

RESUMO

During July 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.617.2 variant infections, including vaccine breakthrough infections, occurred after large public gatherings in Provincetown, Massachusetts, USA, prompting a multistate investigation. Public health departments identified primary and secondary cases by using coronavirus disease surveillance data, case investigations, and contact tracing. A primary case was defined as SARS-CoV-2 detected <14 days after travel to or residence in Provincetown during July 3-17. A secondary case was defined as SARS-CoV-2 detected <14 days after close contact with a person who had a primary case but without travel to or residence in Provincetown during July 3-August 10. We identified 1,098 primary cases and 30 secondary cases associated with 26 primary cases among fully and non-fully vaccinated persons. Large gatherings can have widespread effects on SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and fully vaccinated persons should take precautions, such as masking, to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, particularly during substantial or high transmission.

7.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100739, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811884

RESUMO

SCOPE: This study aims to investigate and compare the potentially neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms for brown seaweed polysaccharides (PS) of Alginate (Alg) and its two components, including Polymannuronic acid (PM) and Polyguluronic acid (PG), against Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Model mice of PD were pretreated with Alg or PM or PG, separately via oral gavage once per day for four weeks. Our results found PM improved motor functions of PD mice, but Alg or PG did not. PM or PG, but not Alg, could prevent dopaminergic neuronal loss by increasing tyrosine hydroxylase expressions in midbrain of PD mice. The neuroprotective effects of PM relied on its anti-inflammation effects and its ability to improve striatal neurotransmitters (serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid) levels in PD mice. PM inhibited inflammation, but PG or Alg induced inflammation in systemic circulation of PD mice. The neuroprotection provided by PG might be related to its ability to increase striatal neurotransmitter of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels in PD mice. CONCLUSION: PM played better than PG to provide neuroprotection, but Alg did not show any neuroprotection against PD. Alg and its two components acted differently in preventing dopaminergic neuronal loss in PD mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591253

RESUMO

Currently, the weight loss effects of piperine have gained considerable attention; however, the underlying mechanism needs to be comprehensively elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the weight loss effects of piperine and intestinal function. Based on the obtained results, piperine inhibited intestinal fatty acid absorption in both cellular and animal models. The underlying mechanism may be related to the downregulation of fatty acid absorption-related genes, fatty acid-binding protein 2 and cluster of differentiation 36, but not fatty acid transport protein 4. In addition, piperine repaired the tight junction damage induced by obesity by downregulating jejunal tumor necrosis factor-α and reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced damage on intestinal cell proliferation, thus enhancing intestinal barrier function, which is beneficial in reducing chronic inflammation associated with obesity. In conclusion, the anti-obesity effect of piperine is related to the enhancement of intestinal barrier function and inhibition of intestinal fatty acid absorption.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1124985, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471634

RESUMO

Objective: Thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) acts as oncogenic or tumor suppressive gene in diverse cancers. Here we studied the prognostic and immunological role of THBS2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) using bioinformatic analysis. Methods: The genetic and protein expression of THBS2 in CRC were explored across several databases, including ONCOMINE, GEPIA2, TIMER 2.0, UALCAN and HPA databases. Correlation between THBS2 expression and clinical features in CRC was assessed using UALCAN tool. Prognostic analysis was performed using GEPIA2 and PrognoScan. Immune infiltration correlation with THBS2 in CRC was investigated with TIMER 2.0 and TISIDB. THBS2 binding and correlated genes were analyzed using String, GEPIA2, and TIMER 2.0. Results: THBS2 was significantly higher in CRC across multiple databases. Age and histological subtype were correlated with THBS2 level. High THBS2 expression correlated with short overall and disease-free survival. THBS2 expression was positively correlated with immune infiltrates in CRC. Moreover, extracellular matrix structural constituent and organization, PI3K-Akt pathway, were involved in the functional mechanisms of THBS2. Conclusions: THBS2 correlates with poor prognosis and immune infiltration in CRC. THBS2 may act as a prognostic and immunological biomarker for CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombospondinas/imunologia
11.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 16236-16241, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581581

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals ferromagnets carry the promise of ultimately miniature spintronics and information storage devices. Among the 2D ferromagnets, all inherit the magnetic ordering from their bulk ancestors. Here we report a 2D ferromagnetic semiconductor at room temperature, 2H-phase vanadium diselenide (VSe2), which shows ferromagnetic at the 2D form only. This 2D ferromagnetic semiconductor manifests an enhanced magnetic ordering owing to structural anisotropy at the 2D limit.

12.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(9): 1093-1099, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523272

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the morphology of coronal femoral intertrochanteric fracture and its effect on reduction and internal fixation. Methods: The clinical and imaging data of 46 patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture who met the selection criteria between August 2017 and October 2018 were reviewed. There were 15 males and 31 females; the age ranged from 62 to 91 years, with an average of 72.8 years. The causes of injury included walking falls in 35 cases, falling out of bed in 4 cases, and traffic accidents in 7 cases. The AO/Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification was type 31-A1 in 11 cases and type 31-A2 in 35 cases. All patients underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nails. During the operation, fracture reduction and fixation were performed according to the preoperative evaluation results. According to the patients' preoperative X-ray film and CT three-dimensional reconstruction images, the direction of the coronal fracture line of the femoral intertrochanter and the morphological characteristics of the fracture block were observed; and the coronal fracture discrimination analysis was carried out for the fractures of different AO/OTA types. The percentages of coronal femoral intertrochanteric fractures diagnosed by preoperative X-ray film and CT three-dimensional reconstruction were calculated and statistically analyzed. The fracture reduction, the position of internal fixation [measurement of tip-apex distance (TAD)]. and the reliability of internal fixation were observed after operation. Results: X-ray film was not easy to identify coronary fracture, and the coronal fracture line and the shape of the fracture piece weree clearly visible in CT three-dimensional reconstruction images. The morphological characteristics of the coronary fracture block: in AO/OTA 31-A1 type, the fracture line extended obliquely backward from the anterior tip of the large rotor, above the small rotor with or without small rotor fracture; in AO/OTA 31-A2 type, fracture line extended obliquely backward from the anterior tip of the large rotor to below the small rotor. Thirteen cases (28.3%) of coronal fractures were found on preoperative X-ray films, and 35 cases (76.1%) were found by CT three-dimensional reconstruction, showing significant difference ( χ 2=21.083, P=0.000). In AO/OTA 31-A1 type patients, the proportion of coronal fractures found by X-ray film and CT three-dimensional reconstruction was 18.2% (2/11) and 54.5% (6/11), respectively, and that in AO/OTA 31-A2 type patients was 31.4% (11/35) and 82.9% (29/35), respectively, showing significant differences ( χ 2=3.143, P=0.000; χ 2=20.902, P=0.000). Among the 35 patients with coronal fractures, 6 cases (17.1%) of AO/OTA 31-A1 type, 29 cases (82.9%) of AO/OTA 31-A2 type. The operation time of the patient was 80-112 minutes, with an average of 95 minutes; the intraoperative blood loss was 180-450 mL, with an average of 360 mL. There was no complication such as infection, falling pneumonia, and deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. At 3 days after operation, the internal fixators were all in the proper position. The TAD was 0.9-1.8 cm, with an average of 1.4 cm. All patients were followed up 14-18 months, with an average of 16 months. All the fractures healed osseously, and there was no complication such as nonunion and loosening of internal fixation. Conclusion: CT three-dimensional reconstruction can better identify coronal femoral intertrochanteric fractures than X-ray films, and accurately recognize and analyze the incidence and morphological characteristics of coronal fractures, which can help formulate more effective surgical strategies to promote patient recovery.


Assuntos
Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pinos Ortopédicos , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia is a typical feature of sperm malformations leading to male infertility. Only a few genes have been clearly identified as pathogenic genes of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we identified a homozygous frameshift variant (c.731dup, p.Asn244Lysfs*3) in CCDC34, which is preferentially expressed in the human testis, using whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of 100 Chinese men with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF). In an additional cohort of 167 MMAF-affected men from North Africa, Iran and France, we identified a second subject harbouring a homozygous CCDC34 frameshift variant (c.799_817del, p.Glu267Lysfs*72). Both affected men presented a typical MMAF phenotype with an abnormally low sperm concentration (ie, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia). Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the sperm flagella affected by CCDC34 deficiency further revealed dramatic disorganisation of the axoneme. Immunofluorescence assays of the spermatozoa showed that CCDC34 deficiency resulted in almost absent staining of CCDC34 and intraflagellar transport-B complex-associated proteins (such as IFT20 and IFT52). Furthermore, we generated a mouse Ccdc34 frameshift mutant using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Ccdc34-mutated (Ccdc34mut/mut ) male mice were sterile and presented oligoasthenoteratozoospermia with typical MMAF anomalies. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has good pregnancy outcomes in both humans and mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that CCDC34 is crucial to the formation of sperm flagella and that biallelic deleterious mutations in CCDC34/Ccdc34 cause male infertility with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia in humans and mice.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297064

RESUMO

The Minnesota Department of Health investigated a COVID-19 outbreak at a fitness center in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Twenty-three SARS-CoV-2 infections (five employees and 18 members) were identified. An epidemiological investigation supported by whole genome sequencing demonstrated that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred at the fitness center despite following recommended prevention strategies.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8726-8736, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323077

RESUMO

Lactoferrin (LF) is a bioactive glycoprotein in human milk and has positive effects on neonates. The LF knockout mouse model was generated as a mother mouse that provided LF-free milk. The intestinal development of suckling neonates drinking normal milk and LF-free milk was studied. The results showed that the intestinal density, maturity, and barrier integrity of mice drinking LF-free milk were lower than those of mice drinking normal milk. Therefore, the importance of adding lactoferrin to the human formula is considered. Human lactoferrin (HLF), bovine lactoferrin (BLF), and recombinant HLF (RHLF) were used to compare their functional impact on Caco-2 cell lines. Cell proliferation, differentiation, the establishment of the intestinal barrier, and protective effects on lipopolysaccharide injury were detected. Our results showed that RHLF exhibited more similar functions to HLF than BLF and showed the combined advantages of HLF and BLF in promoting the establishment of the intestinal barrier. This study emphasizes the important role of LF in neonatal intestinal development and provides a theoretical basis for the availability of RHLF.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Lactoferrina , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Lactoferrina/genética , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
17.
Phytomedicine ; 89: 153601, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MUC5AC was recently identified to play important roles in the proliferation and metastasis of malignant mucinous lung tumor cells. Resveratrol (Res), a natural compound with anticancer effects in lung cancer cells, has been reported to inhibit mucin production in airway epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Res on MUC5AC expression in lung mucinous adenocarcinoma cells and the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Mucus-producing A549 human lung carcinoma cells were used to test the effects of Res on SPDEF and MUC5AC expression. Gene and protein expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunofluorescence and western blotting assays. SPDEF lentivirus was used to upregulate SPDEF expression levels in mucus-producing A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. RESULTS: Res decreased MUC5AC expression in an SPDEF-dependent manner in mucus-producing A549 human lung carcinoma cells, and this change was accompanied by decreased ERK expression and AKT pathway activation. Moreover, SPDEF was found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), especially in mucinous adenocarcinoma. In-vitro functional assays showed that overexpression of SPDEF reduced the chemosensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin (DDP). In addition, Res treatment increased A549 cell chemosensitivity to DDP by inhibiting the SPDEF-MUC5AC axis. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the SPDEF-MUC5AC axis is associated with DDP sensitivity, and that Res decreases SPDEF and MUC5AC expression by inhibiting ERK and AKT signaling in A549 cells, which provides a potential pharmacotherapy for the prevention and therapeutic management of mucinous adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mucina-5AC/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/metabolismo , Resveratrol , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mucina-5AC/genética , Resveratrol/farmacologia
18.
Langmuir ; 37(24): 7582-7590, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114824

RESUMO

Based on the energy conservation approach, this study develops a universal model to predict the maximum spreading factor of liquid droplet impact on a smooth solid surface. Validated with the present simulations and experiments in the literature, this model effectively overcomes the limitation of previous models in the viscous regime and greatly reduces the computing errors from over 30% to below 6%. It is demonstrated that the underestimated maximum spreading factor by previous models results from the overestimation of viscous dissipation. By replacing the conventional model of spreading time, tm = 8D0/3U0, with a more precise one, tm = 1.47τiWe-0.44, the formulation to compute the viscous dissipation of entire spreading is improved. Finally, we examine the applicability of present model in the capillary regime and good performance is also shown.

19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 121(Pt A): 108045, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116339

RESUMO

Epilepsy with comorbid depression has recently attracted increasing attention. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may represent an increased risk of developing depression, especially if the seizures do not generalize. The two-pore domain potassium channel-TWIK-related K+ channel (TREK-1) plays important roles in both epilepsy and depression. However, the changes in its expression in patients with epilepsy with comorbid depression remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed depressive symptoms using neuropsychiatric scales in forty-two patients with drug-resistant TLE, who also underwent EEG in waking and sleeping states, as well as 3.0 T brain MRI. We tested for TREK-1 positive neurons and microglial cells in the anterior hippocampi of patients with drug-resistant TLE with and without comorbid depression (n=5/group). Approximately 31% of patients with TLE had comorbid depression (13/42). Meanwhile, the patients who had hippocampal sclerosis had much higher scores on the depression rating scale. The results indicated the contribution of hippocampal sclerosis to the development of depression. Immunostaining of TREK-1 channels was observed in neurons and glia in the anterior hippocampus. Increased immunoreactivity of TREK-1 neurons was observed in the hippocampi of patients with TLE with comorbid depression compared with nondepressed patients with TLE. TREK-1 was expressed in almost all microglia. Curiously, more activated TREK-1-positive microglia were observed in patients with TLE with depression than in those without depression. The results suggested that a change in TREK-1 immunoreactivity was involved, at least partly, in the development of depression as a comorbidity of TLE. Imbalance of the TREK-1 channel may be a potential target for the treatment of patients with epilepsy with comorbid depression.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Depressão/epidemiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/complicações , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/complicações , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/epidemiologia , Hipocampo , Humanos , Neurônios
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