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1.
Int J Pharm ; 590: 119925, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011255

RESUMO

Compared to their crystalline forms, amorphous pharmaceutical solids present marvelous potential and advantages for effectively improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. A central issue in developing amorphous pharmaceutical solids is the stability against crystallization, which is particularly important for maintaining their advantages in solubility and dissolution rate. This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent studies focusing on the physical stability of amorphous pharmaceutical solids affected by nucleation, crystal growth, phase separation and the addition of polymers. Moreover, we highlight the novel technologies and theories in the field of amorphous pharmaceutical solids. Meanwhile, the challenges and strategies in maintaining the physical stability of amorphous pharmaceutical solids are also discussed. With a better understanding of physical stability, the more robust amorphous pharmaceutical formulations with desired pharmaceutical performance would be easier to achieve.

2.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e8969, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047398

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, severe, progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive and memory impairment, and it ultimately causes death. Most approved drugs can only alleviate some of the symptoms of AD, but no interventions have been found that reverse the underlying disease mechanisms. Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE) has been reported to alleviate AD symptoms in rats. However, its underlying mechanism of action is still unclear. METHODS: A brain lipidomics study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of RCE against AD in rats to identify potential biomarkers of AD, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) coupled with high-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Differences in lipid metabolism profiles were evaluated using multivariate statistical analysis. Finally, the possible mechanism of action of RCE on AD was investigated by analysing metabolic pathways. RESULTS: The RPLC/HILIC FT-ICR MS results showed 20 lipid components with significant differences between the control and model groups. After RCE administration, the levels of 10 lipids in AD rats tended to shift toward reference levels. The pathway analysis revealed that the protective effect of RCE against AD might be related to regulation of glycerophospholipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a novel perspective on the potential intervention mechanism of RCE in the treatment of AD.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034332

RESUMO

A new superconducting sample, BaTi2Bi2O, was synthesized and characterized over a wide pressure range. The superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of BaTi2Bi2O was 4.33 K at ambient pressure. The crystal structure was tetragonal (space group of P4/mmm (No. 123)), according to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern at ambient pressure. The XRD pattern was analyzed using the Le Bail method. The magnetic-field dependence of the magnetization at different temperatures was precisely investigated to elucidate the characteristics of the superconductivity. The pressure-dependent XRD patterns showed absence of structural phase transitions up to 19.8 GPa. The superconducting properties of BaTi2Bi2O were investigated under pressure. Tc monotonously increased with the pressure (p) up to 4.0 GPa and saturated above 4.0 GPa. The variations in the Tc-p plot were thoroughly analyzed. The Cooper pair symmetry (or superconducting pairing mechanism) was analyzed based on the magnetic field dependence of the superconductivity at ambient and high pressures, which indicated a sign of p-wave pairing for the superconductivity of BaTi2Bi2O, i.e., topologically nontrivial sign was suggested for BaTi2Bi2O.

4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027172

RESUMO

Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is one of the most common but stranded complications for salvage laryngectomy. As for localized fistula, there is no convincing standard and method to cure. This paper described a patient who was submitted to extensive resection of mass in right lingual root, total laryngectomy, and pharyngoesophageal reconstruction with an anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF), because of recurred carcinoma of right lingual root which invaded bilateral epiglottis. 2 weeks after surgery, subsequent pharyngocutaneous fistula developed at the junction of the tracheostomy, and maintained over 2 months under conservative treatment. With the assistance of laryngoscope, inner and outer orificiums of fistula were found and sealed by bundled iodoform strip. 9 days after sealing, fistula had been already filled with fresh granulation tissue. During 2 years after surgery, the fistula area dose not recur. This technique provides a safe and effective way for sealing the inner and outer orificiums of fistula.

5.
Biomaterials ; 265: 120416, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007612

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal tumors worldwide. This study aims to address the lack of faithful and available in vitro models for patient-specific drug screening for HCC. We recently established a novel modeling system using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology and constructed hepatorganoids with HepaRG cells, which retain the liver function and prolong the survival of mice with liver failure after abdominal transplantation. Here we extend this modeling system to establish individualized model for hepatocellular carcinoma. HCC specimens were obtained from six patients after surgery. Primary HCC cells were isolated and mixed with gelatin and sodium alginate to form the bioink for printing. Patient-derived three-dimensional bio-printed HCC (3DP-HCC) models were successfully established afterward and grew well during long-term culture. These models retained the features of parental HCCs, including stable expression of the biomarker, stable maintenances of the genetic alterations and expression profiles. 3DP-HCC models are capable of displaying the results of drug screening intuitively and quantitatively. In conclusion, 3DP-HCC models are faithful in vitro models that are reliable in long-term culture and able to predict patient-specific drugs for personalized treatment.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 851, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051436

RESUMO

The factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1) is a transcription suppressor and an important proto-oncogene that plays multiple roles in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. In the present work, our results indicated that FBI-1 enhanced the resistance of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells to chemotherapeutic agents by repressing the expression of micoRNA-30c targeting the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The expression of FBI-1 was positively related to PXR and its downstream drug resistance-related genes in TNBC tissues. FBI-1 enhanced the expression of PXR and enhanced the activation of the PXR pathway. The miR-30c decreased the expression of PXR by targeting the 3'-UTR of PXR, and FBI-1 increased the expression of PXR by repressing miR-30c's expression. Through the miR-30c/PXR axis, FBI-1 accelerated the clearance or elimination of antitumor agents in TNBC cells (the TNBC cell lines or the patients derived cells [PDCs]) and induced the resistance of cells to antitumor agents. Therefore, the results indicated that the miR-30c/PXR axis participates in the FBI-1-mediated drug-resistance of TNBC cells.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052137

RESUMO

Free Wanderer Powder (FWP) is a classic formula for depression with digestive dysfunctions, i.e., liver-depression and spleen-deficiency syndrome (LDSDS) in Chinese Medicine. But its protective mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here a chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced rat model showed depression with LDSDS in food intake, metabolism, and behaviour tests. Then 75 rats were randomly divided, and received CRS and different treatment with behaviour tests. Expressions of c-Fos and AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits GluR1-3 in hippocampus CA1, CA3, DG and amygdala BLA were detected by immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. In CRS rats, FWP alleviated depressive behaviour and c-Fos expression. FWP suppressed the increasement of GluR1 in CA1 and DG, p-GluR1 in CA1, and p-GluR2 and GluR3 in BLA. FWP also blocked the decrease of GluR1 and Glur2/3 in CA3, p-GluR1 in CA3, and p-GluR2 in CA1 and CA3. Furthermore, constituents of FWP and their potential targets were explored using UHPLC-MS and systematic bioinformatics analysis. There were 23 constituents identified in FWP, 9 of which regulated glutamatergic synapse. Together, these results suggest that FWP contains effective constituents and alleviates depression with LDSDS by regulating AMPA-type glutamate receptor homeostasis in amygdala and hippocampus.

8.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916811

RESUMO

Aflatoxin (AF) contamination is a major concern in the food and feed industry because of its prevalence and toxicity. Improved aflatoxin detection methods are still needed. Immunoassays are an important method for total aflatoxin (TAF) analysis in food due to its technical advantages such as high specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity, but require high-quality antibodies. Here, we first review the three ways to prepare high-quality antibodies for TAF immunoassay, second, compare the advantages and disadvantages of antigen synthesis methods for B-group and G-group aflatoxins, and third, describe the status of novel genetic engineering antibodies. This review can provide new methods and ideas for the development of TAF immunoassays.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4562, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917885

RESUMO

Symmetry breaking and amplification processes have likely played a fundamental role in the development of homochirality on earth. Such processes have not been much studied for inorganic matter at the nanoscale. Here, we show that the balance between left- and right-handed intrinsically chiral metal clusters can be broken by adsorbing a small amount of a chiral molecule in its ligand shell. We studied the amplification of enantiomeric excess of the Au38(2-PET)24 cluster (2-PET = 2-phenylethylthiolate). By exchanging a small fraction of the achiral 2-PET ligand by chiral R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dithiol (R-BINAS), a mixture of species is obtained composed of anticlockwise (A) and clockwise (C) versions of Au38(2-PET)24 and Au38(2-PET)22(R-BINAS)1. At 70 °C, the system evolves towards the anticlockwise clusters at the expense of the clockwise antipode. It is shown that the interplay between the diastereospecific ligand exchange, which introduces selectivity but does not change the A/C ratio, and the fast racemization of the Au38(2-PET)24 is at the origin of this observation.

10.
J Biol Rhythms ; : 748730420951320, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915671

RESUMO

Artificial light exposure is associated with dyslipidemia in humans, which is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, it remains unclear whether artificial light at night can exacerbate atherosclerosis. In this study, we exposed female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, to either a regular light-dark cycle or to constant bright light for 14 weeks. Mice exposed to constant light demonstrated a minor reduction in food intake, without any effect on body weight, body composition, or the weight of metabolic organs. Constant light increased the plasma levels of proatherogenic non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol but did not increase the size or severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root. Mice exposed to constant light did show lower immune cell counts, which could explain the absence of an effect of atherosclerosis despite increased non-HDL cholesterol levels. Behavioral analysis demonstrated variability in the response of mice to the light intervention. Constant light completely blunted behavioral rhythms in some mice, while others extended their behavioral period. However, rhythm strength was not an important determinant of atherosclerosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that constant bright light does not affect atherosclerosis in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. Whether artificial light exposure contributes to cardiovascular disease risk in humans remains to be investigated.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910123

RESUMO

An earth-abundant photocatalytic system composed of an organic TADF photosensitizer and a simple terpyridine-Fe(iii) complex was developed for CO2 reduction. In the presence of water, significant enhancement of CO generation was observed with 99.3% selectivity. The turnover number (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF) were determined to be 2250 and 60 min-1, respectively.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924251

RESUMO

The latent HIV-1 reservoir is a major barrier to viral eradication. However, our understanding of how HIV-1 establishes latency is incomplete. Here, by performing a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout library screen, we identify phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1), also known as Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), as a novel gene inducing HIV latency. Depletion of PEBP1 leads to the reactivation of HIV-1 in multiple models of latency. Mechanistically, PEBP1 de-phosphorylates Raf1/ERK/IκB and IKK/IκB signaling pathways to sequestrate NF-κB in the cytoplasm, which transcriptionally inactivates HIV-1 to induce latency. Importantly, the induction of PEBP1 expression by the green tea compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevents latency reversal by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB, thereby suppressing HIV-1 transcription in primary CD4+ T cells isolated from patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). These results suggest a critical role for PEBP1 in the regulation of upstream NF-κB signaling pathways governing HIV transcription. Targeting of this pathway could be an option to control HIV reservoirs in patients in the future.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960812

RESUMO

The aorta and the large conductive arteries are immunoprivileged tissues and are protected against inflammatory attack. A breakdown of the immunoprivilege leads to autoimmune vasculitis, such as giant cell arteritis (GCA), in which CD8+ T regulatory (Treg) cells fail to contain CD4+ T cells and macrophages, resulting in the formation of tissue-destructive granulomatous lesions. Here, we report that the molecular defect of malfunctioning CD8+ Treg cells lies in aberrant NOTCH4 signaling that deviates endosomal trafficking and minimizes exosome production. By transcriptionally controlling the profile of RAB GTPases, NOTCH4 signaling restricted membrane translocation and vesicular secretion of the enzyme NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). Specifically, NOTCH4hiCD8+ Treg cells increased RAB5A and RAB11A expression and suppressed RAB7A, culminating in the accumulation of early and recycling endosomes and trapping of NOX2 in an intracellular, non-secretory compartment. RAB7AloCD8+ Treg cells failed in the surface translocation and the exosomal release of NOX2. NOTCH4hi RAB5Ahi RAB7Alo RAB11Ahi CD8+ Treg cells left adaptive immunity unopposed, enabling a breakdown in tissue tolerance and aggressive vessel wall inflammation. Inhibiting NOTCH4 signaling corrected the defect and protected arteries from inflammatory insult. The study implicates NOTCH4-dependent transcriptional control of RAB proteins and intracellular vesicle trafficking in autoimmune disease and in vascular inflammation.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941906

RESUMO

We herein report chitin-glucan nanofibrils from edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes (CGNFs) as a novel stabilizer for palm oil Pickering emulsion (o/w, 30:70, v:v). Generally, these CGNFs being composed of glucose and glucosamine, are threadlike with 4.9 ±â€¯1.2 nm wide and 222.6 ±â€¯91.9 nm long. They were easily absorbed on the oil-water interface to form a compact layer around the oil droplets referring to Pickering emulsion. This emulsion presented shear-thinning and gel-like behaviors, wherein CGNFs concentration had a profound influence on the emulsion volume, droplet size, and stabilization index. Moreover, CGNFs showed an ability to stabilize the emulsion with a minimum of surface coverage approximately 30%. It indicated that moderate concentration of NaCl improved the emulsification effect, and the emulsion were stable in a large range of pH. These CGNFs are easy to prepare, eco-friendly and sustainable, which provides a potential for large-scale application of Pickering emulsion in food and nutraceuticals fields.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123897, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736322

RESUMO

Chitin represents the second most abundant biomass after lignocelluloses in the biosphere. It can be depolymerized into either N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or glucosamine (GlcN) and acetate by different degradation strategies. However, these chitin-derived carbon sources have been scarcely compared for lipid production. Here, GlcNAc was found superior to GlcN or acetate for lipid accumulation by Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosum. The lipid accumulation potential of these carbon sources was calculated based on a small scale metabolic model of C. oleaginosum. Co-fermentation of GlcN and acetate under phosphate limitation rendered improved lipid production. GlcN and acetate were assimilated simultaneously. The highest lipid titer and yield of 10.1 g/L and 0.25 g/g, respectively, was reached when GlcNAc was used under phosphate limitation. The fatty acids composition of the lipid samples showed similarities to vegetable oils, demonstrating the suitability in biodiesel industry. This study provides profitable guidance for the design of chitin-to-lipids routes.


Assuntos
Carbono , Quitina , Acetilglucosamina , Biocombustíveis , Lipídeos
16.
Plant J ; 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772482

RESUMO

Acer truncatum (purpleblow maple) is a woody tree species that produces seeds with high levels of valuable fatty acids (especially nervonic acid). However, the lack of a complete genome sequence has limited both basic and applied research on A. truncatum. We describe a high-quality draft genome assembly comprising 633.28 Mb (contig N50 = 773.17 kb; scaffold N50 = 46.36 Mb) with at least 28 438 predicted genes. The genome underwent an ancient triplication, similar to the core eudicots, but there have been no recent whole-genome duplication events. Acer yangbiense and A. truncatum are estimated to have diverged about 9.4 million years ago. A combined genomic, transcriptomic, metabonomic, and cell ultrastructural analysis provided new insights into the biosynthesis of very long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids. In addition, three KCS genes were found that may contribute to regulating nervonic acid biosynthesis. The KCS paralogous gene family expanded to 28 members, with 10 genes clustered together and distributed in the 0.27-Mb region of pseudochromosome 4. Our chromosome-scale genomic characterization may facilitate the discovery of agronomically important genes and stimulate functional genetic research on A. truncatum. Furthermore, the data presented also offer important foundations from which to study the molecular mechanisms influencing the production of nervonic acids.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813660

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide, and novel treatment methods of infections caused by MDR bacteria are urgently needed. Phage therapy is a promising alternative to solve this problem, to which the key is correctly matching target pathogenic bacteria with the corresponding therapeutic phage. Deep learning is powerful for mining complex patterns to generate accurate predictions. In this study, we develop PredPHI (Predicting Phage-Host Interactions), a deep learning-based tool capable of predicting the host of phages from sequence data. We collect >3000 phage-host pairs along with their protein sequences from PhagesDB and GenBank databases and extract a set of features. Then we select high-quality negative samples based on the K-Means clustering method and construct a balanced training set. Finally, we employ a deep convolutional neural network to build the predictive model. The results indicate that PredPHI can achieve a predictive performance of 81% in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve on the test set, and the clustering-based method is significantly more robust than that based on randomly selecting negative samples. These results highlight that PredPHI is a useful and accurate tool for identifying phage-host interactions from sequence data.

18.
Small ; 16(35): e2000698, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776405

RESUMO

The realizing of high-performance rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) with high energy density and long cycling life is promising but still challenging due to the lack of suitable layered cathode materials. The work reports the excellent zinc-ion storage performance as-observed in few-layered ultrathin VSe2 nanosheets with a two-step Zn2+ intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism verified by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations. The VSe2 nanosheets exhibit a discharge plateau at 1.0-0.7 V, a specific capacity of 131.8 mAh g-1 (at 0.1 A g-1 ), and a high energy density of 107.3 Wh kg-1 (at a power density of 81.2 W kg-1 ). More importantly, outstanding cycle stability (capacity retention of 80.8% after 500 cycles) without any activation process is achieved. Such a prominent cyclic stability should be attributed to its fast Zn2+ diffusion kinetics (DZn 2+  ≈ 10-8 cm-2 s-1 ) and robust structural/crystalline stability. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation further reveals a strong metallic characteristic and optimal zinc-ion diffusion pathway with a hopping energy barrier of 0.91 eV. The present finding implies that 2D ultrathin VSe2 is a very promising cathode material in ZIBs with remarkable battery performance superior to other layered transitional metal dichalcogenides.

19.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761444

RESUMO

From an aqueous extract of "tian ma" (the steamed and dried rhizomes of Gastrodia elata), ten new compounds gastrodibenzins A-D (1-4) and gastrotribenzins A-F (5-10), along with known analogues (11-20), having structure features coupling between two and three p-hydroxybenzyl-derived units via carbon- and/or ether-bonds, were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic data analysis. Meanwhile, the new compounds 5a, 6a, 8a, 22, and 23, as well as the known derivatives 13a, 14a, 15, 17-21, 24, 25, and p-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde were isolated and identified from a refluxed aqueous solution of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. Methylation of 5a and 6a in methanol and ethylation of 6a, 8a, 13a, and 14a in ethanol produced 5 and 6 and 7, 8, 13, and 14, respectively. using ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRESIMS) analysis of the refluxed solutions of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and the refluxed extracts of the fresh G. elata rhizome and "tian ma" extracts indicated consistent production and variation of the dimeric and trimeric derivatives of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol upon extracting solvents and refluxing time. In various assays, the dimeric and trimeric derivatives showed more potent activities than p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol itself and gastrodin, which are the main known active constituents of "tian ma". These results revealed for the first time that the more effective dimers and trimers can be produced through condensation of the co-occurring p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol during processing and decocting of the G. elata rhizomes, demonstrating insights into medicinal chemistry behind application protocols of traditional Chinese medicines.

20.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 30(3): 253-264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749112

RESUMO

This article serves to evaluate the association of polymorphisms of mismatch repair genes (hMLH1 and hMSH2) with breast cancer (BC) susceptibility through a meta-analysis. Our methods involved extensive research in Chinese and English databases that examined the association of hMLH1 and hMSH2 polymorphisms with susceptibility to BC, strictly abiding by established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Software Stata 12.0 was used for statistical data analysis. A total of 12 studies were available for meta-analysis, published between 2014 and 2017, of which respectively 9 studies explored the association of hMLH1 (rs1799977 A > G and rs63750447 T > A) and 3 studies explored the association of hMSH2 (rs4987188 [Gly322Asp] and rs17217772 [Asn127Ser]) with patients' susceptibility to BC. The results showed that both the rs1799977 A > G polymorphism GA + GG genotype (especially in the Caucasian population) and the rs63750447 T > A polymorphism TA + AA genotype in the hMLH1 gene increased patients' susceptibility to BC. The genotype detection method was selected as a target for subgroup analysis. According to studies where MassARRAY assay was conducted, the rs1799977 A > G polymorphism was correlated with BC susceptibility in the dominant model, while rs4987188 (Gly322Asp) and rs17217772 (Asn127Ser) of the hMSH2 gene presented no observable correlation with the risk for BC. Both the rs1799977 A > G and rs63750447 T > A polymorphisms in the hMLH1 gene showed a significant association with a markedly increased risk for BC, while rs4987188 (Gly322Asp) and rs17217772 (Asn127Ser) of the hMSH2 gene were not clearly correlated with BC susceptibility.

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