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1.
Magn Reson Med ; 83(1): 68-82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare regional oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2 ) quantified from the microvascular quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) using a hypercapnic gas challenge with those measured by the dual-gas calibrated BOLD imaging (DGC-BOLD) in healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects were scanned using a 3T MR system. The QSM data were acquired with a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence at baseline and hypercapnia. Cerebral blood flow data were acquired using the pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling technique. Baseline OEF and CMRO2 were calculated using QSM and cerebral blood flow measurements. The DGC-BOLD data were also collected under a hypercapnic and a hyperoxic condition to yield baseline OEF and CMRO2 . The QSM-OEF and CMRO2 maps were compared with DGC-BOLD OEF and CMRO2 maps using region of interest (vascular territories) analysis and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Hypercapnia is a robust stimulus for mapping OEF in combination with QSM. Average OEF in 16 vascular territory regions of interest across 10 subjects was 0.40 ± 0.04 by QSM-OEF and 0.38 ± 0.09 by DGC-BOLD. The average CMRO2 was 176 ± 35 and 167 ± 53 µmol O2 /min/100g by QSM-OEF and DGC-BOLD, respectively. A Bland-Altman plot of regional OEF and CMRO2 in regions of interest revealed a statistically significant but small difference (OEF difference = 0.02, CMRO2 difference = 9 µmol O2 /min/100g, p < .05) between the 2 methods for the 10 healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Hypercapnic challenge-assisted QSM-OEF is a feasible approach to quantify regional brain OEF and CMRO2 . Compared with DGC-BOLD, hypercapnia QSM-OEF results in smaller intersubject variability and requires only 1 gas challenge.

2.
Magn Reson Med ; 83(1): 271-285, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an automated adaptive preconditioner for QSM reconstruction with improved susceptibility quantification accuracy and increased image quality. THEORY AND METHODS: The total field was used to rapidly produce an approximate susceptibility map, which was then averaged and trended over R 2 ∗ binning to generate a spatially varying distribution of preconditioning values. This automated adaptive preconditioner was used to reconstruct QSM via total field inversion and was compared with its empirical counterparts in a numerical simulation, a brain experiment with 5 healthy subjects and 5 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, and a cardiac experiment with 3 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Among evaluated preconditioners, the automated adaptive preconditioner achieved the fastest convergence in reducing the RMSE of the QSM in the simulation, suppressed hemorrhage-associated artifacts while preserving surrounding brain tissue contrasts, and provided cardiac chamber oxygenation values consistent with those reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: An automated adaptive preconditioner allows high-quality QSM from the total field in imaging various anatomies with dynamic susceptibility ranges.

3.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 108(1): 166-177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581365

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the ability of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide-1/type I collagen (PTHrP-1/Col-I) scaffold material to induce ectopic osteogenesis in the quadriceps muscle pocket of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A novel peptide PTHrP-1 was derived from PTH and used at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/ml) to induce ectopic osteogenesis. Radiographic examinations (X-ray, CT, and 3D reconstruction), pathological observations (H&E, Masson, Von Kossa, ALP and TRAP staining), immunohistochemical staining (Col-I, OCN and Runx-2 in tissues), western blotting was used to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of related markers proteins. Results confirmed that the appropriate concentration of PTHrP-1 can effectively enhance the osteogenic activity, thereby improving the positive results and protein expression of osteogenic markers (COL-I, OCN, and Runx-2) in the quadriceps muscle pocket of SD rats. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, high concentration of PTHrP-1 promotes osteogenic activity and active bone resorption. This study confirmed that PTHrP-1 is a novel small molecule bioactive peptide, and the rat tail collagen scaffold is a good carrier of PTHrP-1 with excellent biocompatibility. The PTHrP-1/Col-I composite scaffold material is an effective substitute for bone tissue engineering and can effectively induce and promote bone formation in the quadriceps muscle pocket of rats. In addition, the promoting ability for osteogenic differentiation of 0.3 mg/ml PTHrP-1/Col-I composite scaffold material group was significantly better than that of 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml PTHrP-1/Col-I composite scaffold material groups. Hence, the optimal concentration of PTHrP-1 to promote ectopic osteogenesis is 0.3 mg/ml.

4.
Magn Reson Med ; 83(3): 844-857, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve the accuracy of QSM plus quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent magnitude (QSM + qBOLD or QQ)-based mapping of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ) using cluster analysis of time evolution (CAT). METHODS: 3D multi-echo gradient echo and arterial spin labeling images were acquired in 11 healthy subjects and 5 ischemic stroke patients. DWI was also carried out on patients. CAT was developed for analyzing signal evolution over TE. QQ-based OEF and CMRO2 were reconstructed with and without CAT, and results were compared using region of interest analysis and a paired t-test. RESULTS: Simulations demonstrated that CAT substantially reduced noise error in QQ-based OEF. In healthy subjects, QQ-based OEF appeared less noisy and more uniform with CAT than without CAT; average OEF with and without CAT in cortical gray matter was 32.7 ± 4.0% and 37.9 ± 4.5%, with corresponding CMRO2 of 148.4 ± 23.8 and 171.4 ± 22.4 µmol/100 g/min, respectively. In patients, regions of low OEF were confined within the ischemic lesions defined on DWI when using CAT, which was not observed without CAT. CONCLUSION: The cluster analysis of time evolution (CAT) significantly improves the robustness of QQ-based OEF against noise.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 559: 65-75, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610306

RESUMO

Electroactive nanofibrous scaffold is a vital tool for the study of the various biological research fields from bioelectronics to regenerative medicine, which can provide cell preferable 3D nanofiber architecture and programmed electrical signal. However, intrinsic non-biodegradability is a major problem that hinders its widespread application in the clinic. Herein, we designed, synthesized, and characterized shell/core poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers by combining the electrospinning and recrystallization processes. Upon incorporating a trace amount of PEDOT (1.0 wt%), the resultant PEDOT/CS nanofibers exhibited low interfacial charge transfer impedance, high electrochemical stability, high electrical conductivity (up to 0.1945 S/cm), and ultrasensitive piezoelectric property (output voltage of 22.5 mV by a human hair prodding). With such unique electrical and conductive properties, PEDOT/CS nanofibers were further applied to brain neuroglioma cells (BNCs) to stimulate their adhesion, proliferation, growth, and development under an optimal external electrical stimulation (ES) and a pulse voltage of 400 mV/cm. ES-responsive PEDOT/CS nanofibers indeed promoted BNCs growth and development as indicated by a large number and density of axons. The synergetic interplay between external ES and piezoelectric voltage demonstrates new PEDOT-based nanofibers as implantable electroactive scaffolds for numerous applications in nerve tissue engineering, human health monitoring, brain mantle information extraction, and degradable microelectronic devices.

6.
J Virol Methods ; 275: 113761, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693912

RESUMO

Diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses pose a great threat to aquaculture. As DNA microarrays can be used to detect multiple pathogens, here we reported an array with the potential to simultaneously detect 13 bacterial and 11 viral pathogens of aquatic animals. The array included 853 oligonucleotide probes (20-40 mer) complementary to various virus-specific sequences and four chromosomal loci (16S rRNA, gyrB, dnaJ, and recA) of bacteria. Multiplex PCR, phi29 DNA polymerase, and a Klenow fragment-based method were evaluated for amplifying and labeling the nucleic acid of pathogens. While array hybridization signals were most intense using pathogen sequences amplified by multiplex PCR, the phi29 DNA polymerase method was more convenient and ideal since it did not require sequence-specific primers that could bias against detecting novel pathogens. The feasibility of the phi29 DNA polymerase-based microarray strategy was also demonstrated by detecting multiple unknown pathogens from four samples of diseased fish and shrimps.

7.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110187, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753395

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that surface biofunctional modification may be an effective approach to improve biocompatibility and confer new bioactive properties on biomaterials. In this work, mussel adhesive protein (MAP) was applied as a coating on 316 L stainless steel substrates (316 L SS) and stents, and then either immobilized VEGF or CD34 antibody were added to create biofunctional films. The properties of the MAP coating were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and a water contact angle test. Universal tensile testing showed that the MAP coating has adequate adhesion strength on a 316 L stainless steel material surface. Subsequent cytotoxicity and hemolysis rate tests showed that the MAP coatings have good biocompatibility. Moreover, using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysulfosussinimide (EDC/NHS) chemistry, VEGF and CD34 antibody were immobilized on the MAP coatings. The amount and immobilized yield of VEGF on the MAP coatings were analyzed by enzyme-linked immuno-assays (ELISA). Finally, an endothelial cells culture showed that the VEGF biofunctional film can promote the viability and proliferation of endothelial cells. An in vitro CD34+ cells capturing test also verified the bioactive properties of the CD34 antibody coated stents. These results showed that the MAP coatings allowed effective biomolecule immobilization, providing a promising platform for vascular device modification.

8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2052: 351-372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452172

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum has a complex life cycle consisting of asexual and sexual phases that culminate in oocyst formation in vivo. The most widely used cell culture platforms to study C. parvum only support a few days of growth and do not allow the parasite to proceed past the sexual stages to complete oocyst formation. Additionally, these cell culture platforms are mostly adenocarcinoma cell lines, which do not adequately model the parasite's natural environment in the small intestine. We describe here a method to create primary intestinal epithelial cell monolayers that support long-term C. parvum growth. Monolayers were derived from mouse intestinal stem cells grown as spheroids and plated onto transwells, allowing for separate apical and basolateral compartments. In the apical chamber, the cell growth medium was removed to create an "air-liquid interface" that enhanced host cell differentiation and supported long-term C. parvum growth. The use of primary intestinal cells to grow C. parvum in vitro will be a valuable tool for studying host-parasite interactions using a convenient in vitro model that more closely resembles the natural niche in the intestine.

9.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 108(1): 94-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974041

RESUMO

Improving the surface properties of vascular stents to accelerate endothelialization in vivo could play an important role in minimizing the risk of late thrombosis. We previously showed that mussel adhesive protein fused with VE-cadherin extracellular domain (VE-M) specifically triggered endothelial cell adhesion in vitro. In this study, using stent implants coated with VE-M, we evaluated the clinical applicability of VE-M in endothelialization recovery in vivo. First, we explored the effect of VE-M on hemocompatibility and tight junctions between endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. VE-M significantly inhibited platelet adhesion and promoted EC proliferation. Furthermore, VE-M drastically increased the centralization of F-actin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) along the cell contacts, reduced fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran transport across the HUVECs, and elevated expression levels of tight junction proteins (TJPs) in ECs. We then evaluated the effect of VE-M on endothelialization recovery in vivo through implantation of vascular stents. At 1 day after implantation, stents coated with VE-M recruited more endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) than bare stents. At 7 days after implantation, VE-M stents had a greater coverage of ECs than bare stents. At 1 month after implantation, ECs on VE-M stents were appropriately elliptical in morphology and closely resembled physiological morphology. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining revealed little in-stent neointima formation on VE-M stents, and SEM images revealed that smooth endothelium had formed on VE-M stents without adherent platelets. Taken together, these findings indicate that VE-M accelerates in vivo endothelialization of vascular stents via recruitment of EPCs and promotes endothelium formation and could be explored as a potential bioactive coating for vascular implant. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 108B:94-103, 2020.

10.
Food Chem ; 302: 125288, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419774

RESUMO

The effects of benzothiadiazole (BTH) on Penicillium expansum development, mitochondria energy metabolism, and changes in the number and structure of mitochondria in apple fruit were investigated after the fruit were immersed in 100 mg L-1 BTH for 10 min and then stored at 22 °C. The results indicated that BTH treatment significantly decreased the lesion diameter of fruit challenged with P. expansum; further, treatment enhanced the activities of mitochondrial respiratory metabolism-related enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, along with high ATP level and energy status in apple fruit during storage. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy results indicated that BTH treatment was beneficial for maintaining the number and structure of mitochondria during storage. The results suggested that BTH treatment enhanced ATP levels via mitochondrial energy metabolism, which might contribute to the induced resistance in apple fruit during storage.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Penicillium/fisiologia
11.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 630-639, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The long-term predictive value of the new proposed algorithm in the updated 2016 guidelines of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging to assess diastolic dysfunction (DD) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has not been validated. METHODS: The analysis included 451 patients who were diagnosed with HFpEF as confirmed via echocardiography. The endpoints were mortality and hospitalization for HF. The Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were generated to determine the risk of all-cause mortality based on the 2016 and 2009 DD grading algorithm, respectively. We evaluated the net reclassification index of outcomes on the basis of 2009 DD grade after abiding by the 2016 recommendations. RESULTS: After a follow-up of 2976 days, 119 patients (26.4%) died. According to the 2016 DD grading, grade III DD was associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.209; 95% CI 1.144-4.266) and HF hospitalization (HR, 2.047; 95% CI 1.348-3.870), as compared with grade I DD. Grade II DD was also associated with a higher risk of mortality (HR, 1.538; 95% CI 1.313-1.924). However, only grade III DD was independently associated with worse mortality based on 2009 DD grading. The net reclassification index for mortality increased significantly after grading by 2016 algorithm (10.6%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The 2016 DD grading algorithm showed improved prognostic value of long-term mortality in patients with HFpEF. Based on the findings of the study, the appropriate grading of DD is important in the prognostication of patients with HFpEF. KEY POINTS: • The application of the 2016 European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging recommendations diastolic dysfunction (DD) grading algorithm improves the predictive value for mortality. • Our analysis suggests DD grades II and III based on 2016 guidelines is associated with poor outcomes as compared with grade I. The echocardiographic indices of the new algorithm should be obtained and applied to effectively evaluate DD.

12.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 60: 104767, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539731

RESUMO

The effects of high-intensity ultrasonic (HIU) treatment on the functional properties of egg yolk were studied in the present work. After HIU treatment, the emulsifying, foaming and gel properties of the egg yolk solution significantly increased, but the foam stability decreased. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was no obvious change in the protein bands of egg yolk, indicating that the yolk proteins did not undergo covalent crosslinking or degradation. HIU treatment enhanced the zeta potential of egg yolk components in solution and increased the free sulfhydryl content of egg yolk proteins. Moreover, the particle size distribution of egg yolk components in solution changed markedly, and these changes demonstrated that HIU treatment caused the aggregation of yolk low-density lipoprotein and the partial dissociation of yolk granules. These results revealed that HIU treatment could change the aggregation of yolk components, which in turn could influence the solution characteristics of egg yolk, finally resulting in changes to the functional properties of egg yolk.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134418, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629269

RESUMO

Soil pH is an important predictor of bacterial community composition and diversity. Examining the effects of pH on diversity, structure, interaction, and function of rhizosphere bacterial communities in acidic crop soils provide valuable information for knowing potential role of rhizosphere bacteria in crop yield. Here, we collected soils from artificial greenhouses and applied Illumina Miseq sequencing, quantitative PCR techniques, multiple ecological analysis methods, including topological analysis and functional profiling to analyze our data and validate our hypotheses. We found that the soil physicochemical properties, species diversity, and rhizosphere bacterial community composition were significantly affected by the degree of soil acidification (pH < 5.5 and pH > 5.5) but not vegetation type. Additionally, bacterial absolute abundance increased with higher pH. The 18 soil samples were clustered into two distinct groups of pH < 5.5 and pH > 5.5 at the OTU level, and soil pH had more of an effect on bacterial community composition compared to the other physicochemical variables. In addition, rhizosphere bacteria might presented relatively less competition for survival in pH < 5.5 soils, and bacterial community functions, including nutrient (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur) cycling-related enzymes and proteins, were downregulated in more acidic soils (pH < 5.5) based on sequence analysis. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show that pH is a key factor affecting the diversity, structure, interaction, and function of rhizosphere bacterial communities in acidic crop soil in artificial greenhouses. Our findings emphasize that community function and structure of rhizosphere bacteria are closely correlated in more acidic soils, and the decreased crop yield may be correlated with attenuation of the function of the rhizosphere bacterial community.

14.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117359, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344583

RESUMO

The present study demonstrates the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism of 2-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-hydroxychromone (DH3B2) is based on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. We find that DH3B2-C is the main conformation to occur ESIPT. Moreover, we get the different results of DH3B2 for the ESIPT mechanisms in comparison with the previous reports. We have optimized three isomers (DH3B2-A, DH3B2-B and DH3B2-C), and calculated absorption and fluorescence spectra, which agree well with the experimental data. Furthermore, we prove the hydrogen bond is enhanced in the S1 state by comparing infrared vibrational spectra, the relevant bond length and bond angle. In our calculations, the results of the three levels of calculations (CAM-B3LYP/TZVP, B3LYP/TZVP and PBEPBE/TZVP) indicate that DH3B2-C is the most stable conformation, by compared the single point energy of three isomers. By constructed the potential energy surfaces (PESs), we find the converted relationship among the three isomers; DH3B2-C is the main conformation in which DH3B2 exists. Furthermore, combination with reduced density gradient (RDG) function, the hydrogen bond of DH3B2-C is stronger than that of DH3B2-A and DH3B2-B, which proves that DH3B2-C form is the most favorable form for ESIPT among the three isomers. Meanwhile, we have further investigated the ESIPT mechanisms of DH3B2, via constructing the potential energy curves (PECs). These results have shown that DH3B2-C is easier to ESIPT occur than DH3B2-A and DH3B2-B. Therefore, the proton receptors of the ESIPT are mainly the benzimidazole nitrogen atoms.

15.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(5): 3252-3257, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635672

RESUMO

This study focused on an iron phthalocyanine compound with aligned CNTs on the surface of a carbon felt electrode (FePc/CNT/C) to enhance the bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cell system cathodes reaction rate of hydrogen peroxide and the electrical plate. Experiments of polarization curves and power density, decolorization of Reactive Black 5 (RB5), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measured the characteristics of the cathode plate. FePc/CNT/C presented better electrical properties (open-circuit voltage, maximum current density, and maximum power density) than that of CNT/C and C, as FePc is a catalyst and its planar structure could easily adhere to CNT to enhance the reduction reaction at the cathode and provide higher specific surface area. The optimal decolorization of RB5 dye, as achieved with the FePc/CNT/C electrode, was 61.79% among the three cathode electrodes in the bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cell system, and the maximum number of hydroxyl radicals was generated for the cathode electrode of FePc/CNT/C. These results suggest that the bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cell system could be applied as an energy-saving and efficient approach for dye-containing wastewater treatment.

16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792748

RESUMO

Tibetans living in the Qing-Tibet plateau show unique genetic features since they are exposed to the high altitude environment. Accordingly, it is necessary for us to analyze genetic components of the Tibetan groups. Here, genetic structure and ancestry proportions of Tibet Tibetan and Qinghai Tibetan groups are dissected by using a previously published ancestral deletion/insertion polymorphisms (DIPs) panel. Genetic distributions of the analyzed DIPs in both Tibetan groups reveal that some DIPs show relatively balanced frequency distributions with the values ranging from 0.4 to 0.6, implying that these DIPs could be used as individual identification loci for forensic applications in both groups. Besides, the cumulative power of discrimination of the panel also reflects that the panel could serve as a valuable tool for forensic individual identifications in Tibet Tibetan and Qinghai Tibetan groups. Population genetic analyses including principal component analysis, DA genetic distances, phylogenetic tree, and genetic structure reveal that two studied Tibetan groups have closer genetic affiliations with East Asian populations. Genetic differentiation analyses of two Han populations, Xinjiang Uyghur and two Tibetan groups reveal that some DIP loci might be informative for differentiating Uyghurs from the other populations.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791121

RESUMO

The discovery of catalytic systems based on earth-abundant transition metals for the functionalization of C-H bonds enables streamlined and sustainable solutions to problems in synthetic organic chemistry. In this Communication, we disclose an iron-based catalytic system for the functionalization of propargylic and allylic C-H bonds. Inexpensive and readily-available cyclopentadienyliron(II) dicarbonyl complexes were employed as catalysts for a novel deprotonative activation mode for C-H functionalization, an approach that allows for the direct union of unsaturated building blocks with aryl aldehydes and other carbonyl electrophiles to deliver a range of unsaturated alcohol coupling products under operationally simple and functional group tolerant reaction conditions.

19.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; : 1-18, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anterior capsulotomy (AC) is sometimes used as a life-saving treatment for patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (Tr-OCD). Most of the previous studies have assessed only total symptoms and have concluded that AC is a safe and effective procedure. Few of these studies have focused on meticulously investigating the variety of results obtained from patients with different subtypes of OCD. This study reviewed the long-term effects of AC on patients with OCD and analyzed the dissimilarity between particular subtypes of the disease in order to determine which groups are more suited to surgical treatment. METHODS: For this retrospective evaluation, we selected 54 consecutive patients from a total of 63 people with Tr-OCD between 2005 and 2014 who had undergone AC by thermocoagulation at our department. Preoperative and follow-up assessments were conducted at multiple time points (before surgery and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 36 months after surgery). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were used to quantify the symptoms of OCD. According to different elements (clinical manifestation, comorbidity, and whether a patient was more compulsive or more obsessive), we classified patients into various subtypes and analyzed the variation in symptom improvement and adverse effects. RESULTS: The mean Y-BOCS, HAMD, and HAMA scores were, respectively, 27.03, 23.30, and 21.46 preoperatively and 8.50, 7.07, and 7.42, respectively, at 36 months after surgery. Most patients (n = 43, 79.6%) were shown to have been at least partially responsive to surgical treatment at their long-term follow-up. Six patients demonstrated no obvious improvement (Y-BOCS score decreased by <35%), and 5 patients developed recurrences of their conditions. The following subtypes demonstrated better results: contamination/cleaning; obsessions/checking; compulsive behavior dominant; pure OCD; and OCD with Tourette's -syndrome. The subtypes of aggressive/sexual, obsessive thought dominant, compulsive behavior with obsessive thoughts, OCD comorbidity with bipolar disorder, OCD comorbid with severe depression, and OCD comorbid with psychiatric symptoms showed good outcomes. However, surgery was ineffective for patients with the subtypes of symmetry/ordering, hoarding, pure obsessive thoughts, and OCD with obsessive slowness. CONCLUSIONS: AC is effective in reducing symptoms of OCD. By comparing differently classified follow-up results, we found that patients with most subtypes/dimensions of OCD showed good outcomes. How-ever, patients categorized into the OCD subtypes of pure -obsessive thoughts, symmetry/ordering, hoarding, OCD with obsessive slowness, and OCD comorbid with psychiatric symptoms should take into account these results before undergoing AC.

20.
Bioresour Technol ; : 122406, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787513

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in phosphorus fractions during vegetable waste and chicken manure composting. High throughput sequencing, quantitative PCR, and multiple analysis methods were applied to investigate interconnections among phosphorus fractions, enzyme activity, and phoD-harboring bacterial community composition. We found the highest composting temperature reached 61 °C and phosphorus fractions presented significant differences during a 60-day composting. The content of plant-absorbable phosphorus, including water soluble phosphorus, available phosphorus, and citric acid phosphorus increased by 121%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Additionally, phoD gene abundance significantly correlated with the activities of nine enzymes. Our findings emphasize that microbial activity plays an important role in phosphorus transformation during composting, and the final composting product could be good biological phosphorus fertilizer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that enzyme activity, community composition and abundance of phoD-harboring bacteria have direct and indirect effects on phosphorus transformation during composting.

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