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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(1): 51-59, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A small shift in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assays can lead to different result interpretation and consequent patient management. We explored whether a small bias could be detected using conventional internal quality control (QC) procedures, evaluated the performance of moving average (MA)-based QC procedures, and proposed a new QC procedure based on the moving rate (MR) of positive patient results of hs-cTnT assays. METHODS: The ability of conventional QC to detect a 5 ng/L bias was examined using the13s/ 22s/R4s multi-rule procedure as deviation rules.We developed MA and MR procedures for the hs-cTnT assay using eight months of patient data. The performance of different MA or MR procedures was investigated by calculating the median number of patient samples affected until a bias introduced into the dataset was detected (MNPed). After comparing the MNPed across different procedures, we selected an optimal MA or MR procedure for validation. Validation graphs were plotted using the minimum, median, and maximum number of results affected until bias detection. RESULTS: Our conventional QC procedures could not detect a positive bias of 5 ng/L. When a positive bias was introduced, MNPed was much higher using MA than using MR, with cut-off values of 5 ng/L and 14 ng/L, respectively. MR validation charts for optimal procedures provided insight into the MR performance. CONCLUSIONS: The MR procedure could detect different errors with few false alarms. In the hs-cTnT assay, the MR procedure with a smaller cut-off value outperformed MA and conventional QC procedures for small bias detection.

2.
Talanta ; 221: 121668, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076174

RESUMO

Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bacterial infections at early stage is of great significance for food safety monitoring as well as clinical treatment. Herein, we construct a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobe based on M13 phages for the selective detection and inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). M13 phage with specific S. aureus-binding heptapeptide displayed on the N-terminal of pIII protein is selected from phage display peptide library. The S. aureus-specific SERS probe is thus constructed by in situ growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on M13 phage surface, followed by modification with 5,5-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) as SERS active molecule. Upon the addition of this SERS probe, M13 phage selectively binds with S. aureus to induce anchoring of AuNPs on S. aureus surface, and the SERS probe-labeled S. aureus cells are collected by centrifugation for SERS detection. For the quantification of S. aureus, a linear range of 10-106 cfu mL-1 is achieved in aqueous medium. It is further demonstrated by spiking recovery in soft drinks. Furthermore, this SERS probe exhibits bactericidal capabilities towards S. aureus, which shows promising potential to serve as a multifunctional platform for simultaneous detection and inactivation of S. aureus.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(14): 147202, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064512

RESUMO

By engineering an anti-parity-time (anti-PT) symmetric cavity magnonics system with precise eigenspace controllability, we observe two different singularities in the same system. One type of singularity, the exceptional point (EP), is produced by tuning the magnon damping. Between two EPs, the maximal coherent superposition of photon and magnon states is robustly sustained by the preserved anti-PT symmetry. The other type of singularity, arising from the dissipative coupling of two antiresonances, is an unconventional bound state in the continuum (BIC). At the settings of BICs, the coupled system exhibits infinite discontinuities in the group delay. We find that both singularities coexist at the equator of the Bloch sphere, which reveals a unique hybrid state that simultaneously exhibits the maximal coherent superposition and slow light capability.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065970

RESUMO

To solve the problem of excessive heat accumulation in the electronic packaging field, a novel series of hybrid filler (BN@CNT) with a hierarchical "line-plane" structure was assembled via a condensation reaction between functional boron nitride(f-BN) and acid treated carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). The reactions with different mass ratios of BN and CNTs and the effect of the obtained hybrid filler on the composites' thermal conductivity were studied. According to the results, BN@15CNT exhibited better effects on promoting thermal conductivity of polybenzoxazine(PBz) composites which were prepared via ball milling and hot compression. The thermally conductive coefficient value of PBz composites, which were loaded with 25 wt% of BN@15CNT hybrid fillers, reached 0.794 W· m-1· K-1. The coefficient value was improved to 0.865 W· m-1· K-1 with 15 wt% of BN@15CNT and 10 wt% of BN. Although CNTs were adopted, the PBz composites maintained insulation. Dielectric properties and thermal stability of the composites were also studied. In addition, different thermal conduction models were used to manifest the mechanism of BN@CNT hybrid fillers in enhancing thermal conductivity of PBz composites.

5.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066527

RESUMO

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has become a public hazard to people's lives and health. Traditional melt-blown membranes cannot filter dangerous particles due to their limited diameter, and ultra-fine electrospinning fibers are vulnerable to external forces. Therefore, creating highly efficient air filters by using an innovative technique and structure has become necessary. In this study, a combination of polypropylene (PP) melt-blown and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/zeolite imidazole frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) electrospinning technique is employed to construct a PP/PVA/ZIF-8 membrane with a hierarchical fibrous structure. The synergistic effect of hierarchical fibrous structure and ZIF-8 effectively captures PM2.5. The PP/PVA composite membrane loaded with 2.5% loading ZIF-8 has an average filtration efficacy reaching as high as 96.5% for PM2.5 and quality factor (Qf) of 0.099 Pa-1. The resultant membrane resists 33.34 N tensile strength and has a low pressure drop, excellent filtration efficiency, and mechanical strength. This work presents a facile preparation method that is suitable for mass production and the application of membranes to be used as air filters for highly efficient filtration of PM2.5.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing epidemics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), an emerging tick-borne disease in East Asia, and its high case fatality rate have raised serious public health concerns. METHODS: Surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed SFTS cases in China were collected. The spatiotemporal dynamics and epidemiological features were explored. The socioeconomic and environmental drivers were identified for SFTS diffusion using survival analysis and for SFTS persistence using a two-stage generalized boosted regression tree model. RESULTS: During 2010‒2018, a total of 7,721 laboratory-confirmed SFTS cases were reported in China, with an overall CFR of 10.5%. The average annual incidence increased >20 times and endemic areas expanded from 27 to 1,574 townships, whereas the CFR declined from 19% to 10% during this period. Four geographical clusters, the Changbai Mountain area, the Jiaodong Peninsula, the Taishan Mountain area and the Huaiyangshan Mountain area, were identified. Diffusion and persistence of the disease were both driven by elevation, high coverages of woods, crops and shrub, and the vicinity of habitats of migratory birds, but had different meteorological drivers. Residents ≥60 years old in rural areas with crop fields and tea farms were at increased risk to SFTS. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of SFTS and intervention programs need to be targeted at areas with ecologically suitability for vector ticks and in the vicinity of migratory birds to curb the growing epidemic.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057171

RESUMO

The ventral pallidum (VP) regulates motivation, drug addiction, and several behaviors that rely on heightened arousal. However, the role and underlying neural circuits of the VP in the control of wakefulness remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the specific role of VP GABAergic neurons in controlling sleep-wake behaviors in mice. Fiber photometry revealed that the population activity of VP GABAergic neurons was increased during physiological transitions from non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep to either wakefulness or REM sleep. Moreover, chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations were leveraged to investigate a potential causal role of VP GABAergic neurons in initiating and/or maintaining arousal. In vivo optogenetic stimulation of VP GABAergic neurons innervating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) strongly promoted arousal via disinhibition of VTA dopaminergic neurons. Functional in vitro mapping revealed that VP GABAergic neurons, in principle, inhibited VTA GABAergic neurons but also inhibited VTA dopaminergic neurons. In addition, optogenetic stimulation of terminals of VP GABAergic neurons revealed that they promoted arousal by innervating the lateral hypothalamus, but not the mediodorsal thalamus or lateral habenula. The increased wakefulness chemogenetically evoked by VP GABAergic neuronal activation was completely abolished by pretreatment with dopaminergic D1 and D2/D3 receptor antagonists. Furthermore, activation of VP GABAergic neurons increased exploration time in both the open-field and light-dark box tests but did not modulate depression-like behaviors or food intake. Finally, chemogenetic inhibition of VP GABAergic neurons decreased arousal. Taken together, our findings indicate that VP GABAergic neurons are essential for arousal related to motivation.

8.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020966009, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-stigma exerts a range of adversities for persons with severe mental illness (SMI), however, little is known about the association between peer contact, social support and self-stigma. AIMS: This study aimed to explore the mediating role of social support on the relationship between peer contact and self-stigma among persons with SMI in Hong Kong. METHODS: A total of 159 persons with SMI (schizophrenia and mood disorder) in community service centres participated in the study through completing a survey on self-stigma, social functioning, social support, perception of peer contact and mass media. Logistic regression was utilised to explore the influencing factors of self-stigma among the participants. RESULTS: The results showed that 81.1% of participants reported moderate to severe levels of self-stigma. Self-stigma was significantly associated with diverse factors (e.g. social functioning). Importantly, positive peer contact was significantly associated with lower self-stigma of persons with SMI. Social support acted as a mediator between peer contact and self-stigma. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that contact-based interventions, such as enhancing positive peer-to-peer contact, should be conducted for reducing self-stigma among persons with SMI.

9.
Curr Gene Ther ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019930

RESUMO

In recent years, RNA interference technology has been extensively studied for its therapeutic potential against a wide variety of diseases. It aims to silence the expression of undesired genes associated with the target disease by administration of RNA interference agents. However, these agents (nucleic acids) are unstable in the circulatory system and lack target specificity. Drug delivery systems are therefore crucial for successful practice of the technique. A wide array of delivery systems has been developed to conquer these challenges, such as viral vectors, inorganic drug carriers, polymeric carriers and lipid-based carriers, with, however, significant limitations. In addition to the existing technologies, novel, innovative drug delivery systems, such as the configurable xenobot, are emerging in a rapid pace and have the potential to take the realm of biomedicine to the next level. This review summarizes technical difficulties in development of drug delivery systems and current technologies developed for delivering RNAi agents with a discussion on their limitations.

10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone enabled telehealth is important in response to strict hospital visitor restrictions during COVID-19 pandemic. The infection control measures became barriers for communication among patient, family, and multidisciplinary medical team about discharge planning and withdrawal of life sustaining treatments in palliative care. Also, the lack of nonverbal communication in telehealth may dampen the clinician-patient relationship during communication. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish the model of smartphone-enabled telehealth for palliative care family conference with integration of shared decision making concept (SDM) and VALUE (value, acknowledge, listen, understand, and elicit) approach in the face of COVID-19 threat. METHODS: The framework of the telehealth for palliative care family conference was developed on the basis of SDM model with "team talk", "option talk", and "decision talk". Three phases of the family conference including "pre-visit", "during-visit", and "post-visit" were also designed according to telehealth implementation guides. The model was implemented in a national cancer treatment center in Taiwan from February 2020. RESULTS: From February to April 2020 during COVID-19 era, 14 telehealth family conferences in the palliative care unit were analyzed. The patients age was 73 ± 10.1 (mean ± SD), and 6 patients (43%) were female. 12 patients were married (86%), and the main caregiver joining the conference were mostly spouse and children (71%). Most patients were terminally-ill cancer patients (13 out 14 patients, 93%), except 1 stroke patient. The percentage of reaching consensus on goal of care in "discharge planning" and "withdrawal of life sustaining treatments" during family conferences was 93%. There were 5 families feeling the family meeting to be good or very good (36%) and 9 were neutral (64%). CONCLUSIONS: The model of smartphone-enabled telehealth for palliative care family conference with integration of SDM demonstrated high satisfaction of the family and was effective in reaching consensus. The model might be applied to other countries to promote the quality of end of life care in the era of COVID-19 outbreak.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021607

RESUMO

Intrinsically poor conductivity, sluggish ion transfer kinetics, and limited specific area are the three main obstacles that confine the electrochemical performance of manganese dioxide in supercapacitors. Herein, one-dimensional mesoporous MnO2 nanotubes were prepared using a polycarbonate film as a template and a large number of oxygen vacancies were introduced by calcination under a N2 atmosphere. The effects of calcination temperature on the crystal structure, micro-morphology and electrochemical performance of MnO2 nanotubes were studied. The presence of oxygen vacancies increases the redox capacity of ov-MnO2-300 nanotubes, and the unique one-dimensional mesoporous structure also provides an effective channel for ion transport. Therefore, the ov-MnO2-300 nanotube has an excellent specific capacitance of 459.0 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and also has outstanding rate performance and cycle performance. An asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with ov-MnO2-300 nanotubes as the positive electrode and graphene@MoS2 as the negative electrode delivered an energy density of 40.2 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1024 W kg-1. The excellent capacitance performance is mostly attributed to the introduction of oxygen vacancies to increase the intrinsic conductivity of MnO2, and the unique one-dimensional mesoporous nanotube structure increases the active sites of redox reactions.

12.
Biochemistry ; 59(40): 3796-3801, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006472

RESUMO

Ubiquitination and SUMOylation of protein are crucial for various biological responses. The recent unraveling of cross-talk between SUMO and ubiquitin (Ub) has shown the pressing needs to develop the platform for the synthesis of Ub tagged SUMO2 dimers to decipher its biological functions. Still, the platforms for facile synthesis of dimers under native condition are less explored and remain major challenges. Here, we have developed the platform that can expeditiously synthesize all eight Ub tagged SUMO2 and SUMOylated proteins under native condition. Expanding genetic code (EGC) method was employed to incorporate Se-alkylselenocysteine at lysine positions. Oxidative selenoxide elimination generates the electrophilic center, dehydroalanine, which upon Michael addition with C-terminal modified ubiquitin, a nucleophile, yield Ub tagged SUMO2. The dimers were further interrogated with USP7, a SUMO2 deubiquitinase, which is involved in DNA repair, to understand specificity toward the Ub tagged SUMO2 dimer. Our results have shown that the C-terminal domain of USP7 is crucial for USP7 efficiency and selectivity for the Ub tagged SUMO2 dimer.

13.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044827

RESUMO

Piezo-phototronic effect is a fundamental effect of semiconductors lacking of central symmetry with geometries from one-dimensional (1D) nanowire to 3D bulk. Here, we present that the piezo-phototronic effect can even tune a spin-orbit coupled photoluminescence (PL) based on all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs). Although the cubic structure of CsPbBr3 QDs is nonpiezoelectric, a cooling treatment can change it to an orthorhombic structure, which is proven to possess a piezoelectric property. The spin-orbit coupled PL intensity is demonstrated to be dependent on the polarization of the excited light. Because of the manipulation of the spin-split energy levels via the piezo-phototronic effect, the spin-orbit coupled PL intensities under a -0.9% compressive strain for linearly and circularly polarized light excitations can be enhanced by 136% and 146%, respectively. These findings reveal fundamental understandings of the spin-orbit coupled PL dynamics and demonstrate promising optoelectronic applications of the piezo-phototronic effect in these QDs.

14.
Gerontology ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between cognitive frailty and falls among older adults. Activity engagement (AE) is known to be related to falls in older adults but the subject has been limited to empirical study. This study aimed to explore the mediating role of AE between cognitive frailty and falls among older adults in rural Shandong, China. METHODS: A total of 3,242 rural seniors (age ≥60 years; 63.6% women) were included in this cross-sectional study. Regression and bootstrap analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of AE between cognitive frailty and falls. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls was 13.1% and the prevalence of cognitive frailty was 6.6% among the participants. AE mediated the association between cognitive frailty and falls (95% CI 0.077-0.223). However, the direct effect was no longer significant after being adjusted for AE (95% CI -0.037 to 0.684; p = 0.078). CONCLUSION: Cognitive frailty was found to be associated with falls among rural older adults, and AE mediated this association. More attention should be paid to promote AE among Chinese rural older adults with cognitive frailty.

15.
Schizophr Res ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046333

RESUMO

In this study, we applied brain grey matter volume and structural covariance methods on T1 weighted images to delineate potential structural brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy, who were defined as healthy individuals scoring in the top tenth percentile of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Eighty-seven college students with high schizotypy and 122 controls were recruited in China. Differences in grey matter volume and volume covariance between the two groups, and correlations of grey matter volume with SPQ scores in the high schizotypy group were examined. We found that individuals with high schizotypy had decreased grey matter volume at the left medial superior frontal gyrus (medsFG) extending towards the superior frontal gyrus, decreased structural covariance within the right medsFG, between the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), the right superior temporal gyrus and the right anterior insula; and increased structural covariance between the caudate and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis revealed that grey matter volume of the left middle temporal pole and the right sFG correlated positively with the SPQ total scores, volume of the bilateral cerebellum 9 sub-region correlated negatively with the SPQ cognitive-perceptual sub-scale scores, volume of the bilateral striatum correlated positively with the SPQ interpersonal sub-scale scores, and volume of the bilateral superior temporal pole correlated positively with the SPQ disorganization sub-scale scores in the high schizotypy group. These results highlight important grey matter structural changes in the medsFG in individuals with high schizotypy.

16.
J Gene Med ; : e3282, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The source and availability of cells for tissue engineering in large scale research or clinical trials requires special attention. We put forward the idea of applying rabbit umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for this purpose. METHODS: Here, the structure of the rabbit umbilical cord was analyzed and compared with that of human umbilical macroscopically and histologically. Next, we isolated, cultured, and identified the proliferative activity and immunological characteristics of rabbit umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in vitro using mixed lymphocyte reaction, flow cytometry, and ELISA test. Further, we evaluated the effects of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic scaffolds seeded with rabbit umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in rat cranial defect models using multiple techniques, including radiological, histological, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro studies demonstated a high level of proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation potential in rabbit umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. Rabbit umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells exibited low immunogenicity property and immune suppression capability in both the allogeneic and xenogeneic immune response. Results of the in vivo study showed that rabbit umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells could promote osteogenesis in heterogeneous hosts. CONCLUSIONS: The rabbit umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells may be a new source for tissue engineering.

17.
J Investig Med ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023916

RESUMO

COVID-19 raised tension both within China and internationally. Here, we used mathematical modeling to predict the trend of patient diagnosis outside China in future, with the aim of easing anxiety regarding the emergent situation. According to all diagnosis number from WHO website and combining with the transmission mode of infectious diseases, the mathematical model was fitted to predict future trend of outbreak. Daily diagnosis numbers from countries outside China were downloaded from WHO situation reports. The data used for this analysis were collected from January 21, 2020 and currently end at February 28, 2020. A simple regression model was developed based on these numbers, as follows: [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the total diagnosed patient till the i-th day and t=1 at February 1, 2020. Based on this model, we estimate that there were approximately 34 undetected founder patients at the beginning of the spread of COVID-19 outside China. The global trend was approximately exponential, with an increase rate of 10-fold every 19 days. Through establishment of this model, we call for worldwide strong public health actions, with reference to the experiences learned from China and Singapore.

18.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820962111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000695

RESUMO

cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2), a member of the novel CRTC family of transcriptional coactivators that activates basic leucine zipper transcription factors, including CREB, is overexpressed in many carcinomas, including colon cancer. Phosphorylation of CRTC2 protein at different residues is important for its subcellular localization and activity. However, the functions of some of the serine phosphorylation sites have not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of phosphorylation of Ser127, Ser238, and Ser245 sites of CRTC2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Recombinant lentiviral particles with a CRTC2-targeting small hairpin RNA (shRNA) sequence were transfected into CRC cells to obtained shCRTC2 cell lines. Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser127, Ser238, and Ser245 cells were constructed by transfecting CRTC2 cDNA containing S127A, S238A, and S245A mutations into shCRTC2. Cell proliferation was measured by cell counting kit-8. Cell migration and invasion were examined by transwell assay. mRNA expression was assayed by qRT-PCR, and protein expression was determined by Western blot. Our results indicate that CRTC2 is overexpressed in CRC cells. Knockdown of CRTC2 inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells. When the phosphorylation of CRTC2 Ser238 decreases due to the lack of ERK2, the phosphorylation of Ser171 site increases. The proliferation, migration and invasion of CRC cells were inhibited, the nuclear aggregation of CRTC2 in the nucleus was reduced, and the interaction between CRTC2 and CREB was weaken. It is shown that the phosphorylation of CRTC2 Ser238 is important for CREB transcriptional activity. These findings may help in the identification of potentially new targets for CRC therapy.

19.
Arch Oral Biol ; 120: 104922, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid are known antimicrobial agents. Their roles in controlling microbial colonization, such as bacterial attachment and biofilm formation, are however not completely clear. This study aims to investigate their effects on the colonization of abiotic surfaces by oral bacteria and study the mechanism of their activities. DESIGN: the effects of epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid on cell surface physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity and charge) of a range of oral bacteria and their auto-aggregation, attachment and biofilm formation on different abiotic surfaces (glass, stainless steel and hydroxyapatite) were studied. RESULTS: results show that epigallocatechin gallate inhibited bacterial attachment to the hard surfaces (except hydroxyapatite) by 0.2-1.4 log CFU cm-2 by affecting cell surface hydrophobicity and charge. In addition, epigallocatechin gallate induced notches on cell surfaces of Streptococcus mutans without affecting their viability and biofilm formation. Gallic acid enhanced auto-aggregation (by 7.9-30.6 %) and biofilm formation by Actinomyces naeslundii (by 0.9-1.2 log CFU cm-2) by causing calcium efflux from the cells. CONCLUSIONS: the tested phytochemicals influenced the colonization of abiotic surfaces by oral bacteria through different mechanisms, most notably via affecting cell surface physicochemical properties, inducing changes in the shape of cell envelopes and causing calcium efflux.

20.
BMJ ; 371: m3464, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether irregular or long menstrual cycles throughout the life course are associated with all cause and cause specific premature mortality (age <70 years). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017). PARTICIPANTS: 79 505 premenopausal women without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes and who reported the usual length and regularity of their menstrual cycles at ages 14-17 years, 18-22 years, and 29-46 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before age 70 years) were estimated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 1975 premature deaths were documented, including 894 from cancer and 172 from cardiovascular disease. Women who reported always having irregular menstrual cycles experienced higher mortality rates during follow-up than women who reported very regular cycles in the same age ranges. The crude mortality rate per 1000 person years of follow-up for women reporting very regular cycles and women reporting always irregular cycles were 1.05 and 1.23 for cycle characteristics at ages 14-17 years, 1.00 and 1.37 for cycle characteristics at ages 18-22 years, and 1.00 and 1.68 for cycle characteristics at ages 29-46 years. The corresponding multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for premature death during follow-up were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.37), 1.37 (1.09 to 1.73), and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70), respectively. Similarly, women who reported that their usual cycle length was 40 days or more at ages 18-22 years and 29-46 years were more likely to die prematurely than women who reported a usual cycle length of 26-31 days in the same age ranges (1.34, 1.06 to 1.69; and 1.40, 1.17 to 1.68, respectively). These relations were strongest for deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The higher mortality associated with long and irregular menstrual cycles was slightly stronger among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Irregular and long menstrual cycles in adolescence and adulthood are associated with a greater risk of premature mortality (age <70 years). This relation is slightly stronger among women who smoke.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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