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1.
Front Surg ; 11: 1301905, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516395

RESUMO

Unilateral biportal endoscopic spinal surgery (UBE) is a rapidly growing surgical method and has attracted much interest recently. The most common complication of this technique is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage due to intraoperative dural tears. There have been no reports of bacterial meningitis due to dural tears in UBE surgery and its treatment and prevention. We reported a 47 year-old man with CSF due to an intraoperative dural tear. A drainage tube was routinely placed and removed on the fourth day after surgery, resulting in fever and headache on the fifith postoperative day. Blood and CSF cultures showed Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, and with lumbar drainage and appropriate antibiotics based on sensitivity tests, the patient's fever and headache were effectively relieved. This case report suggests the importance of prolonged drainage tube placement, adequate drainage, careful intraoperative separation to avoid dural tears, and effective sensitive antibiotic therapy.

2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 201: 116249, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484535

RESUMO

This study investigated the sources of sedimentary organic matter (OM) in the Yangtze River estuary (YRE), using multiple biomarkers. The results of stable carbon isotope (δ13C) and total organic carbon to nitrogen ratio (TOC/TN) suggests the contribution of marine-derived OM significantly increased seawards, while fatty acid (FA) composition provides more specific information on OM sources. In total, 30 components of FAs were identified at the studied 17 sites, which mainly composed of phytoplankton FA, followed by ubiquitous FA and bacterial FA, while terrestrial FA contributed less to the total FAs. Under the strong impacts of the large physicochemical gradients in the YRE, TOC, TN and FA components showed higher concentrations in the estuary mixing zone (especially within the turbidity maximum zone), attributing to their strong binding with OM-enriched fine particles. The spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary OM sources was highly impacted by salinity and Chl-a, as well as bacteria-mediated OM degradation.


Assuntos
Estuários , Rios , Ácidos Graxos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , China
3.
Front Surg ; 11: 1264966, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456171

RESUMO

The imbalance of the lateral shoulder is reflected by the clavicle angle (CA) in radiology. It remains unclear how to achieve postoperative lateral shoulder balance (LSB) after spinal deformity correction surgery. A retrospective analysis was conducted on AIS patients who underwent surgery by the same spine surgeon at our hospital from 2016 to 2020. A total of 110 patients with spinal deformity were included in the study to verify the correlation between the T1-T5 tilt angle and CA before and after surgery, as well as the relation-ship between the change in T1-T5 tilt angle before and after surgery and the change in CA before and after surgery. By comparing the correlation coefficients, it was found that there may not be a direct relationship between the pre- and postoperative tilt angles of T1-5 and CA, but their changes were closely related to the changes in CA. The change in T1 tilt angle after orthopaedic surgery was significantly correlated with the change in CA, with a correlation coefficient of 0.976, indicating a close relationship between T1 and the clavicle. As the vertebrae moved down, the correlation gradually decreased. In summary, this study suggests that there is a close relationship between T1-T5 and the clavicle and that the change in T1 tilt angle after spinal scoliosis correction surgery is significantly correlated with CA, which decreases as the vertebra moves down.

4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1157, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326296

RESUMO

Blue phosphorene (BlueP), a theoretically proposed phosphorous allotrope with buckled honeycomb lattice, has attracted considerable interest due to its intriguing properties. Introducing chirality into BlueP can further enrich its physical and chemical properties, expanding its potential for applications. However, the synthesis of chiral BlueP remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate the growth of large-area BlueP films on Cu(111), with lateral size limited by the wafer dimensions. Importantly, we discovered that the BlueP is characterized by an ultraflat honeycomb lattice, rather than the prevailing buckled structure, and develops highly ordered spatial chirality plausibly resulting from the rotational stacking with the substrate and interface strain release, as further confirmed by the geometric phase analysis. Moreover, spectroscopic measurements reveal its intrinsic metallic nature and different characteristic quantum oscillations in the image-potential states, which can be exploited for a range of potential applications including polarization optics, spintronics, and chiral catalysis.

5.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 147, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of testosterone and estradiol concentrations with cognitive function among community-dwelling older men was inconclusive. To examine the association of serum testosterone and estradiol concentrations with cognitive function in older men with or without vascular risk factors (VRFs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of 224 community-dwelling men aged 65-90 years in the Songjiang District of Shanghai, China. Serum testosterone and estradiol were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The following five factors were defined as VRFs in this study: obesity, history of hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association of testosterone and estradiol with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in participants with or without VRF. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) regression was performed to account for the nonlinearity of these associations. RESULTS: An inverted "U" shaped non-linear relationship was found between testosterone concentration and MMSE score in men with one VRF (P overall =.003, non-linear P =.002). Estradiol showed an inverted "U" shaped non-linear relationship with MMSE score independent of VRFs (men without VRF, P overall =.049, non-linear P =.015; men with one VRF, overall P =.007, non-linear P =.003; men with two or more VRFs, overall P =.009, non-linear P =.005). CONCLUSION: In older men, an optimal level of sex steroid concentration may be beneficial to cognitive function and the VRFs should be considered when interpreting the relationship between sex steroid and cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estradiol , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estradiol/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Vida Independente , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona
6.
Obes Facts ; 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'obesity paradox' in elderly patients suffering from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains a source of controversy. The present meta-analysis focused on exploring the real existence of 'obesity paradox' in these patients. METHODS: As of November 2022, PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases were comprehensively searched to identify articles reporting all-cause mortality according to diverse body mass index (BMI) categories after PCI among the old cases developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Summary estimates of risk ratios (RRs) were assigned four BMI groups, including underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity groups. RESULTS: There were altogether nine articles involving 25,798 cases selected for further analysis. Relative to normal weight group, overweight and obesity groups had decreased all-cause mortality (RR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.95 for overweight group; RR 0.57,95%CI 0.40-0.80 for obesity group), while underweight group had elevated all-cause mortality (RR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed an 'obesity paradox' relation of BMI with all-cause mortality in elderly cases receiving PCI. In comparison with normal weight group, overweight and obesity groups had decreased all-cause mortality, while underweight group had increased all-cause mortality.

7.
Oncol Lett ; 27(2): 76, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38192678

RESUMO

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.3892/ol.2018.9512.].

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 912: 169381, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38101636

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) contamination in fish has raised global concerns for decades. The Hg biotransformation can be manipulated by gut microbiome and it is found to have a substantial impact on the speciation and final fate of Hg in fish. However, the contribution of intestinal microbiota in geographical and interspecies variations in fish Hg levels has not been thoroughly understood. The present study compared the Hg levels in wild marine fish captured from two distinct regions in South China sea. We observed a quite "ironic" phenomenon that MeHg levels in carnivorous fish from a region with minimal human impacts (Xisha Islands, 92 ± 7.2 ng g-1 FW) were much higher than those from a region with severe human impacts (Daya Bay, 19 ± 0.41 ng g-1 FW). Furthermore, the results showed that gut microbiome determined Hg biotransformation and played a crucial role in the variances in fish Hg levels across different geographical locations and species. The intestinal methylators, rather than demethylators, were more significant in affecting Hg biotransformation in fish. The carnivorous species in Xisha Islands exhibited a higher abundance of intestinal methylators, leading to higher MeHg accumulation. Besides, the gut microbiome could be shaped in response to the elevated Hg levels in these fish, which may benefit their adaptation to Hg toxicity and overall health preservation. However, anthropogenic activities (particularly overfishing) in Daya Bay have severely affected the fish population, disrupting the reciprocal relationships between fish and intestinal microbiota and rendering them more susceptible to pathogenic microbes. Overall, this study provided a comprehensive understanding of the role of gut microbiome in Hg bioaccumulation in fish and offered valuable insights into the co-evolutionary dynamics between fish and gut microbiome in the presence of Hg exposure.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Pesqueiros , Peixes/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental
9.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 23(4): 307, 2023 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730879

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) emerges as the most common malignant brain tumor. Histone modifications, as an epigenetic regulatory mechanism of gene expression, are closely associated with malignant tumors. Gene set related to histone modification was extracted from the MSigDB database, and scored by the function of AddModuleScore. Pearson correlation analysis was utilized using the "rcorr" function of "Hmisc" R package. Genes were screened out using the LASSO Cox analysis. TCGA-GBM and CGGA_array_301 cohorts were employed for constructing model and validation. We calculated immune infiltration scores using microenvironment cell populations counter (MCPcounter), single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA), and xCell algorithms. U87-MG and CHG-5 cell lines were utilized to evaluate expression level of TMEM176A by western blot (WB). Transwell, EDU, colony formation analysis (CFA), and CKK-8 assays were conducted to investigate cell proliferation and migration rate. The malignant cells in GBM patients exhibited notable activation in the TGF-ß and hypoxia pathway. Histone modifications were associated with adhesion and neuron development in GBM. We identified a model with five significant genes, namely NBEAL1, AEBP1, TMEM176A, FASTK, and CD81, with prognostic efficacy. Additionally, we observed increased infiltration of T cells and CD8+ T cells in the high-risk (HR) group. 5-Fluorouracil_1073 and Taselisib_1561 were predicted as potential treatment options for GBM patients, while ABT737_1910 and Wnt_C59-1622 exhibited superior response in GBM patients of the HR group. A spike in the TP53 mutation rate was observed in the HR group. TMEM176A played a role in regulating cell proliferation and migration in vitro. We presented a novel prognostic model for patients with GBM, based on histone modification-related genes. In addition, we identified the crucial role of the TMEM176A in the regulation of GBM carcinogenic phenotypes for the first time.


Assuntos
Glioma , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Multiômica , Histonas/genética , Prognóstico , Carcinogênese , Microambiente Tumoral , Carboxipeptidases , Proteínas Repressoras , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases
10.
Chin J Integr Med ; 29(8): 714-720, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37340206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Yinlai Decoction (YD) on the microstructure of colon, and activity of D-lactic acid (DLA) and diamine oxidase (DAO) in serum of pneumonia mice model fed with high-calorie and high-protein diet (HCD). METHODS: Sixty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 6 groups by the random number table method: normal control, pneumonia, HCD, HCD with pneumonia (HCD-P), YD (229.2 mg/mL), and dexamethasone (15.63 mg/mL) groups, with 10 in each group. HCD mice were fed with 52% milk solution by gavage. Pneumonia mice was modeled with lipopolysaccharide inhalation and was fed by gavage with either the corresponding therapeutic drugs or saline water, twice daily, for 3 days. After hematoxylin-eosin staining, the changes in the colon structure were observed under light microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the protein levels of DLA and DAO in the serum of mice. RESULTS: The colonic mucosal structure and ultrastructure of mice in the normal control group were clear and intact. The colonic mucosal goblet cells in the pneumonia group tended to increase, and the size of the microvilli varied. In the HCD-P group, the mucosal goblet cells showed a marked increase in size with increased secretory activity. Loose mucosal epithelial connections were also observed, as shown by widened intercellular gaps with short sparse microvilli. These pathological changes of intestinal mucosa were significantly reduced in mouse models with YD treatment, while there was no significant improvement after dexamethasone treatment. The serum DLA level was significantly higher in the pneumonia, HCD, and HCD-P groups as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05). Serum DLA was significantly lower in the YD group than HCD-P group (P<0.05). Moreover, serum DLA level significantly increased in the dexamethasone group as compared with the YD group (P<0.01). There was no statistical significance in the serum level of DAO among groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: YD can protect function of intestinal mucosa by improving the tissue morphology of intestinal mucosa and maintaining integrity of cell connections and microvilli structure, thereby reducing permeability of intestinal mucosa to regulate the serum levels of DLA in mice.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Pneumonia , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal , Colo/patologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Pneumonia/patologia
11.
Molecules ; 28(3)2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36770629

RESUMO

Five different chitosan samples (CHI-1 to CHI-5) from crustacean shells with high deacetylation degrees (>93%) have been deeply characterized from a chemical and physicochemical point of view in order to better understand the impact of some parameters on the bioactivity against two pathogens frequently encountered in vineyards, Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea. All the samples were analyzed by SEC-MALS, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, XPS, FTIR, mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and TGA and their antioxidant activities were measured (DPPH method). Molecular weights were in the order: CHI-4 and CHI-5 (MW >50 kDa) > CHI-3 > CHI-2 and CHI-1 (MW < 20 kDa). CHI-1, CHI-2 and CHI-3 are under their hydrochloride form, CHI-4 and CHI-5 are under their NH2 form, and CHI-3 contains a high amount of a chitosan calcium complex. CHI-2 and CHI-3 showed higher scavenging activity than others. The bioactivity against B. cinerea was molecular weight dependent with an IC50 for CHI-1 = CHI-2 (13 mg/L) ≤ CHI-3 (17 mg/L) < CHI-4 (75 mg/L) < CHI-5 (152 mg/L). The bioactivity on P. viticola zoospores was important, even at a very low concentration for all chitosans (no moving spores between 1 and 0.01 g/L). These results show that even at low concentrations and under hydrochloride form, chitosan could be a good alternative to pesticides.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Oomicetos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Peso Molecular
13.
Trials ; 23(1): 826, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Working memory deficits are one of the core and most characteristic clinical features of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Cognitive training can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia. However, the overall and transfer effects of working memory treatment (WMT) require improvement. Numerous studies have confirmed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances neuroplasticity in the brain, providing a new treatment approach for cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesize that a training mode combining "preheating" (tDCS, which changes the neural activity of working memory-related brain regions) and "ironing" (WMT) affords greater cognitive improvements than WMT alone. In addition, this study aims to examine the mechanisms underlying the superiority of tDCS combined with WMT in improving cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This study will include 120 patients with schizophrenia aged 18-60 years. The patients will be randomized into four groups: the study group (tDCS + WMT), tDCS group (tDCS + simple response training, SRT), WMT group (sham tDCS + WMT), and control group (sham tDCS + SRT). Patients will receive 20-min, 2 mA sessions of active or sham tDCS twice a day on weekdays for 2 weeks. Each stimulation will be immediately followed by a 1 - 2-min rest and 40 min of WMT or SRT. The primary outcome is cognitive function, measured using Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and some subscales of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The secondary outcomes are other behavioral measures, variations in brain imaging, and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). All outcomes will be measured at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up, except for brain imaging and BDNF levels, which will be measured at baseline and post-treatment only. DISCUSSION: If tDCS combined with WMT results in significant improvements and prolonged effects on working memory, this method could be considered as a first-line clinical treatment for schizophrenia. Moreover, these results could provide evidence-based support for the development of other approaches to improve cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia, especially by enhancing WMT effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chictr.org.cn; ChiCTR2200063844. Registered on September 19, 2022.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Método Duplo-Cego , Aprendizagem , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos
15.
Metab Brain Dis ; 37(7): 2305-2314, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779149

RESUMO

TSPO, an 18 kDa translocator protein, has received increased attention due to its antidepressant-anxiolytic effects. The balance between glutamatergic and GABAergic (E: I) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is crucial for antidepressant-anxiolytic effects. However, no evidence is available to clarify the relationship between TSPO and E:I balance. In the present study, we used the TSPO global-knockout (KO) and TSPO wild-type (WT) mice to assess the effects of TSPO on antidepressant-anxiolytic effects of YL-IPA08 (a novel TSPO ligand) and the underlying neurobiological mechanism. Additionally, a multichannel electrophysiological technique was used to explore the effects of YL-IPA08 on pyramidal neurons and interneurons in mPFC. Open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that a single dose of YL-IPA08 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited significant anxiolytic actions in WT mice except in KO mice. In only WT mice, significant antidepressant effects were observed in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The multichannel electrophysiological technique demonstrated that YL-IPA08 significantly increased the firing rates of pyramidal neurons and decreased those of interneurons. Further studies illustrated that the firing rates of glutamatergic might be antagonized by PK11195 (a classic TSPO antagonist). Our results suggest that YL-IPA08 might regulate the E:I balance in mPFC, mediated by TSPO. In summary, TSPO regulates E:I functional balance in mPFC, play a critical role in antidepressant-anxiolytic effects of YL-IPA08, and provide a potential target site for the development of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Camundongos , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ligantes , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/farmacologia
16.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(5): 288-293, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533673

RESUMO

This study explores the core genes involved in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH), so as to provide robust biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used to obtain GSE25031 microarray dataset. R package "limma" was applied to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between AIMAH and normal samples. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was employed to perform Gene Ontology (GO) annotation for the DEGs, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was conducted. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was constructed using the STRING online website and visualized using the Cytoscape software. The key modules and hub genes were then identified. Finally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GESA) enrichment analysis was carried out to find the signaling pathways of significant clinical value in AIMAH. A total of 295 DEGs between AIMAH and healthy samples were screened out, including 164 upregulated genes and 131 downregulated genes. Combining enrichment analysis and PPI network construction, there were 5 signifiant pathways and 10 hub genes, among which 3 genes (FOS, FOSB, and DUSP1) were identified as potential core genes of clinical significance in AIMAH. In conclusion, the 3 core genes, FOS, FOSB, and DUSP1, identified here might be potential biomarkers for AIMAH, and the current study is of guiding significance for clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Biomarcadores , Síndrome de Cushing , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica
17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(10): 1358-1365, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409953

RESUMO

To clarify the role of long intergenic nonprotein-coding RNA 1232 (LINC01232) in the progression of gastric cancer and the potential mechanism, we analyzed the expression of LINC01232 in TCGA database using the GEPIA online tool, and the LINC01232 level in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) as well. Cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, transwell assay and tumor formation experiment in nude mice were conducted to observe the biological behavior changes of gastric cancer cells through the influence of LINC01232 knockdown. LncATLAS database and subcellular isolation assay were used for subcellular distribution of LINC01232 in gastric cancer cells. The interaction among LINC01232, zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) was clarified by RNA-protein interaction prediction (RPISeq), RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), qRT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Rescue experiments were further conducted to elucidate the biological function of LINC01232/KLF2 axis in the progression of gastric cancer. LINC01232 was upregulated in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) tissues and gastric cancer lines. LINC01232 knockdown inhibited the proliferative capacities of gastric cancer cells in vitro, and impaired in vivo tumorigenicity. LINC01232 was mainly distributed in the cell nucleus where it epigenetically repressed KLF2 expression via binding to the enhancer of EZH2, which was capable of binding to promoter regions of KLF2 to induce histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). LINC01232 exerts oncogenic activities in gastric cancer via inhibition of KLF2, and therefore, the knockdown of KLF2 could reverse the regulatory effect of LINC01232 in the proliferative ability of gastric cancer cells.


Assuntos
Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
18.
Neuropharmacology ; 191: 108573, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945826

RESUMO

Currently available antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), generally require weeks to months to produce a therapeutic response, but the mechanism of action underlying the delayed onset of antidepressant-like action remains to be elucidated. The balance between excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons, i.e., the excitation:inhibition functional (E:I) balance, in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critical in regulating several behaviors and might play an important mediating role in the mechanism of rapid antidepressant-like action reported by several studies. In the present study, the multichannel electrophysiological technique was used to record the firing activities of pyramidal neurons and interneurons and investigate the effects of a single dose of fluoxetine and ketamine (both 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on the E:I functional balance in the rat mPFC after 90 min or 24 h, and the forced swimming test (FST) was used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of fluoxetine and ketamine. The present study also explored the effects of chronic treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.g.) for 7 d or 21 d on the E:I functional balance in the mPFC. The present results suggested that a single dose of ketamine could both significantly increase the firing activities of pyramidal neurons and significantly decrease the firing activities of interneurons in the mPFC and exerted significant antidepressant-like action on the FST after 90 min and 24 h, but fluoxetine had no such effects under the same conditions. However, chronic treatment with fluoxetine for 21 d (but not 7 d) could significantly affect the firing activities of pyramidal neurons and interneurons in the mPFC. Taken together, the present results indicated that rapid regulation of the E:I functional balance in the mPFC might be an important common mechanism of rapid-acting antidepressants and the delayed onset of SSRIs might be partly attributed to their inability to rapidly regulate the E:I functional balance in the mPFC. The present study provided a new entry point to the development of rapid-acting antidepressants.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Atuantes sobre Aminoácidos Excitatórios , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico , Interneurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WF
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7577, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828168

RESUMO

Schizophrenia results in poor functional outcomes owing to numerous factors. This study provides the first test of a bottom-up causal model of functional outcome in schizophrenia, using neurocognition, vocal emotional cognition, alexithymia, and negative symptoms as predictors of functional outcome. We investigated a cross-sectional sample of 135 individuals with schizophrenia and 78 controls. Using a series of structural equation modelling analyses, a single pathway was generated among scores from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), vocal emotion recognition test, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Brief Negative Symptom Scale, and the Personal and Social Performance Scale. The scores for each dimension of the MCCB in the schizophrenia group were significantly lower than that in the control group. The recognition accuracy for different emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, and satire, but not calm was significantly lower in the schizophrenia group than in the control group. Moreover, the scores on the three dimensions of TAS were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group than in the control group. On path analysis modelling, the proposed bottom-up causal model showed a strong fit with the data and formed a single pathway, from neurocognition to vocal emotional cognition, to alexithymia, to negative symptoms, and to poor functional outcomes. The study results strongly support the proposed bottom-up causal model of functional outcome in schizophrenia. The model could be used to better understand the causal factors related to the functional outcome, as well as for the development of intervention strategies to improve functional outcomes in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reconhecimento Psicológico
20.
ACS Nano ; 14(12): 17308-17320, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253548

RESUMO

Improving the sulfur loading in cathodes is a significant challenge for practical lithium-sulfur batteries. Although carbonaceous sulfur hosts can achieve higher sulfur content and loading, the low tap densities of carbonaceous materials lead to low volumetric energy densities, restricting practical application. Here, conductive porous laminated vanadium nitride (VN) as a carbon-free sulfur host has been successfully developed to construct high tap density, high sulfur loading, and high energy density sulfur electrodes. The laminated stacking multiscale VN featuring interconnected holes possesses high storage space for sulfur loading, achieving high sulfur loading and utilization. VN@S materials' sulfur content and tap density can achieve 80 wt % and 1.17 g cm-3, respectively. At the sulfur loading of 1.0 mg cm-2, the VN@S cathode reaches the reversible capacity of 790 mAh g-1 at 1 C after 200 cycles and 145.2 mAh g-1 at 15 C after 500 cycles. Precisely, at a high sulfur loading of 12.6 mg cm-2, the VN@S cathode delivers a reversible capacity of 518.8 mAh g-1 (485.6 mAh cm-3) at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

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