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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(28): 10633-10641, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235922

RESUMO

Charge separation is crucial for an efficient artificial photosynthetic process, especially for narrow-bandgap metal sulfides/selenides. The present study demonstrates the application of a p-n junction to particulate metal selenides to enhance photocatalytic Z-scheme overall water splitting (OWS). The constructed p-n junction of CdS-(ZnSe)0.5(CuGa2.5Se4.25)0.5 significantly boosted charge separation. A thin TiO2 coating layer also was introduced to inhibit photocorrosion of CdS and suppress the backward reaction of water formation from hydrogen and oxygen. By employing Pt-loaded TiO2/CdS-(ZnSe)0.5(CuGa2.5Se4.25)0.5 as a hydrogen evolution photocatalyst (HEP), we assembled a Z-scheme OWS system, together with BiVO4:Mo and Au as an oxygen evolution photocatalyst and electron mediator, respectively. An apparent quantum yield of 1.5% at 420 nm was achieved, which is by far the highest among reported particulate photocatalytic Z-scheme OWS systems with metal sulfides/selenides as HEPs. The present work demonstrates that a well-tailored p-n junction structure is effective for promoting charge separation in photocatalysis and opens new pathways for the development of efficient artificial photosynthesis systems involving narrow bandgap photocatalysts.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(25): 256401, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241529

RESUMO

Impurity pinning has long been discussed to have a profound effect on the dynamics of an incommensurate charge density wave (CDW), which would otherwise slide through the lattice without resistance. Here, we visualize the impurity pinning evolution of the CDW in ZrTe_{3} using the variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. At low temperatures, we observe a quasi-1D incommensurate CDW modulation moderately correlated to the impurity positions, indicating a weak impurity pinning. As we raise the sample temperature, the CDW modulation gets progressively weakened and distorted, while the correlation with the impurities becomes stronger. Above the CDW transition temperature, short-range modulations persist with the phase almost all pinned by impurities. The evolution from weak to strong impurity pinning through the CDW transition can be understood as a result of losing phase rigidity.

3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 127: 112237, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225877

RESUMO

For developing electrochemical plant sensors, in-situ detection of hormone levels in living plants is worth attempting. A microneedle array sensor based on Au@SnO2-vertical graphene (VG)/Ta microelectrodes was constructed for analyzing abscisic acid (ABA) in plants. Graphene was vertically grown on Ta wires with a diameter of 0.6 mm by direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition with SnO2 as the Au catalyst carrier. These VG nanosheets were embedded with core-shell Au@SnO2 nanoparticles, and the formation mechanism of the sensing layer was investigated. Three Au@SnO2-VG microelectrodes, one Ti wire, and one Pt wire were packed into a microneedle array sensor with a three-electrode system. ABA was then quantitatively detected by direct electrocatalytic oxidation, which involves the synergistic catalytic effects of the abundant catalytic active sites of the Au@SnO2 nanoparticles and the excellent conductivity of the VG nanosheets. The microneedle array sensor responds to ABA in the pH range 4-7, the response concentration range was 0.012 (or 0.024)-495.2 µM, and the detection limit varied between 0.002 and 0.005 µM. The small size, wide pH range, low detection limit, and wide linear concentration range allow the microneedle array sensor to be inserted into plants for in-situ detection of ABA.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanopartículas , Ácido Abscísico , Catálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246924

RESUMO

During the past decade, antennal transcriptome sequencing has been applied to at least 50 species from 16 families of the Lepidoptera order of insects, emphasizing the identification and characterization of chemosensory-related genes. However, little is known about the chemosensory genes in the Zygaenidae family of Lepidoptera. Herein, we report the transmembrane protein gene repertoires involved in chemoreception from Achelura yunnanensis (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) through transcriptome sequencing, bioinformatics, phylogenetics and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches. Transcriptome analysis led to the generation of 555.47 million clean reads and accumulation of 83.30 gigabases of data. From this transcriptome, 132 transcripts encoding 69 odorant receptors (ORs), 33 gustatory receptors (GRs), 26 ionotropic receptors (IRs), and four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified, 69 of which were full-length sequences. Notably, the number of SNMPs in A. yunnanensis was the largest set in Lepidoptera to date. Phylogenetic analysis combined with sequence homology highlighted several conserved groups of chemoreceptors, including pheromone receptors (a so-called pheromone receptor (PR) clade: AyunOR50 and novel PR members: AyunOR39 and OR40), a phenylacetaldehyde-sensing OR (AyunOR28), carbon dioxide receptors (AyunGR1-3), and antennal IRs (13 A-IRs). In addition, a Zygaenidae-specific OR expansion was observed, including 15 A. yunnanensis members. Expression profiles revealed 99 detectable chemosensory genes in the antennae and 20 in the reproductive tissues, some of which displayed a sex-biased expression. This study identifies potential olfactory molecular candidates for sensing sex pheromones, phenylacetaldehyde or other odorants, and provides preliminary evidence for the putative reproductive function of chemosensory membrane protein genes in A. yunnanensis.

5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279359

RESUMO

In this paper, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) were used to probe the changes of oligomers and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network in silicone rubber, after different durations of UVA/UVB irradiation. At the early stage (<300 h) of UVA/UVB irradiation, the concentration of D4-D9 decreases. The o-Ps intensity of the extracted silicone rubber increases in the stage after UVB irradiation. These results indicate the crosslinking of oligomers into the PDMS network. After a long duration (>300 h) of UVB irradiation, D4 was generated and the lifetime of τ3 also increased, indicating the rupture of the Si-O bond in the PDMS network. These two aging processes were termed the post curing process and the chain session process. The new finding was that UVA could only induce the post curing process; UVB causes the rupture of the chemical bond in silicone rubber. Photons of UVB could break the C-H bond, and then trigger the backbiting decomposition of PDMS, breaking the Si-O bond, while the photons of UVA cannot. The fact that D4 was generated after UVB irradiation can be used to evaluate the UVB stability of silicone rubber in the future.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287012

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, the authors identified miR-193a-3p as a tumor-suppressing microRNA, and its effects on the chemosensitivity to trametinib in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The levels of miR-193a-3p in clinical GBC tissues and GBC cells were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of KRAS, ERK, and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) were examined by Western blot. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to confirm the interaction between miR-193a-3p and KRAS. The effect of miR-193a-3p knockdown or overexpression on the malignant behaviors and chemosensitivity of GBC was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethlthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide and flow cytometry assays in vitro and further examined in a xenograft model. Results: The levels of miR-193a-3p were significantly decreased in GBC cell lines, especially with KRAS mutations. In addition, miR-193a-3p overexpression retarded cell proliferation of GBC, but induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, miR-193a-3p overexpression significantly improved the chemosensitivity of GBC to trametinib both in in vitro assays and in vivo xenograft mouse model. Further mechanisms disclosed that KRAS was a target of miR-193a-3p and levels of p-ERK were increased by treatment with miR-193a-3p inhibitor in GBC. Conclusions: These data suggested that miR-193a-3p enhanced the chemosensitivity to trametinib in GBC with wild-type KRAS or KRAS mutations by directly targeting KRAS and finally downregulated ERK signaling.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199611

RESUMO

Temperature influences the physiological processes and ecology of both hosts and endophytes; however, it remains unclear how long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate the consequences of temperature-dependent changes in host-pathogen interactions. To explore the role of lncRNAs in culm gall formation induced by the smut fungus Ustilago esculenta in Zizania latifolia, we employed RNA sequencing to identify lncRNAs and their potential cis-targets in Z. latifolia and U. esculenta under different temperatures. In Z. latifolia and U. esculenta, we identified 3194 and 173 lncRNAs as well as 126 and four potential target genes for differentially expressed lncRNAs, respectively. Further function and expression analysis revealed that lncRNA ZlMSTRG.11348 regulates amino acid metabolism in Z. latifolia and lncRNA UeMSTRG.02678 regulates amino acid transport in U. esculenta. The plant defence response was also found to be regulated by lncRNAs and suppressed in Z. latifolia infected with U. esculenta grown at 25 °C, which may result from the expression of effector genes in U. esculenta. Moreover, in Z. latifolia infected with U. esculenta, the expression of genes related to phytohormones was altered under different temperatures. Our results demonstrate that lncRNAs are important components of the regulatory networks in plant-microbe-environment interactions, and may play a part in regulating culm swelling in Z. latifolia plants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Temperatura , Ustilago/genética , Ustilago/patogenicidade
8.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is among the leading causes of end-stage renal disease worldwide. DN pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) is a powerful bioinformatic tool for identifying key genes in diseases. METHOD: The datasets GSE30122, GSE104948, GSE37463and GSE47185 containing 23 DN and 23 normal glomeruli samples were obtained from the GEO database. After data pre-processing, WGCNA was performed to cluster significant modules. Then, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis-based GO analysis and visualization of network were conducted to screen the key genes in the most significant modules. The Connectivity Map analysis was performed to find the significant chemical compounds. Finally, some key genes were validated in vivo and in vitro experiments. RESULT: A total of 454 up-regulated and 392 down-regulated genes were identified. Sixteen modules were clustered, and the most significant modules (green, red, and yellow modules) were determined. The green module was associated with extracellular matrix organization, the red one was associated with immunity reaction, and the yellow one was associated with kidney development. We found several key genes in these three modules separately, and part of them were validated in vivo and in vitro successfully. We found the top 15 chemical compounds that could perturb the overall expression of key genes in DN. CONCLUSION: WGCNA was applied to DN expression profiling in combination with Connectivity Map analysis. Several novel key genes and chemical compounds were screened out, providing new molecular targets for DN.

9.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy marked by an excessive inflammatory response. The anti-inflammatory effect of pyridostigmine (PYR) was previously reported; however, its role in hypertensive pregnancies remains unclear. We hypothesized that PYR could attenuate increased blood pressure and other pathological features in preeclampsia models. METHODS: The expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α was evaluated in normal and preeclampsia pregnant women. PYR (20 mg/kg) was administered daily to reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) and TNF-α (150 ng/day) infused rats from gestation day 14 to GD19. In a cell culture experiment, the effect of acetylcholine (ACh) on TNF-α-stimulated primary human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) was assessed. RESULTS: Preeclampsia women had higher placental TNF-α expression than normal pregnant women. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the RUPP group was higher than in the Sham group. PYR inhibited serum and placental acetylcholinesterase activity in rats, and reduced MAP, placental oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the RUPP group but not in the Sham group. In addition, PYR significantly attenuated the TNF-α-induced increase in MAP, placental oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, TNF-α decreased cell viability and increased the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei of HUVEC, which could largely be abolished by ACh treatment. CONCLUSION: Collectively, PYR ameliorated hypertension and other preeclampsia-like symptoms in rat models of preeclampsia not only by inhibiting the synthesis of TNF-α but also by acting against TNF-α-induced detrimental effects directly, which is worthy of further investigation and may be used as a potential agent for preeclampsia management.

10.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245298

RESUMO

Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis of trophoblast are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE). Extensive research reports that the principal vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) shows anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in various diseases models. However, the role of ACh in hypoxic trophoblast remains unknown. Here, we examined the apoptotic levels of human placenta and explored the role(s) of ACh on cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-treated (trophoblast-derived) HTR-8/SVneo cells for mimicking hypoxic injuries. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), dihydroethidium (DHE) probe, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, migration and invasion assay were employed in the current study. Our data showed that placentas from PE women exhibited increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic index than those in normal pregnancy. Our in vitro study showed that CoCl2 enhanced ROS generation and apoptosis in HTR-8/SVneo cells through the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. ACh significantly decreased hypoxia-induced ROS generation and the resulting apoptosis, accompanied by lowered phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB. Western blotting analysis further confirmed that ACh decreased the ratio of pp38 MAPK/p38 MAPK, p-NF-κB/NF-κB, Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3. Besides, ACh promoted cell invasion and migration ability under hypoxic conditions. Atropine, the muscarinic receptor antagonist, abolished ACh's effects mentioned above. Overall, our data showed that ACh exerted protective effects on hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in trophoblast cells via muscarinic receptors, indicating that improved vagal activity may be of therapeutic value in PE management.

11.
Science ; 373(6551): 171, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244405
12.
Genomics ; 113(5): 3072-3082, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246693

RESUMO

Rubiaceae is the fourth largest and a taxonomically complex family of angiosperms. Many species in this family harbor low reproductive isolation and frequently exhibit inconsistent phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, taxonomic classification and their phylogenetic relationships in the Rubiaceae family is challenging, especially in the genus Leptodermis. Considering the low taxonomic confusion and wide distribution, Leptodermis oblonga is selected as a representative Leptodermis for genome sequencing. The assemblies resulted in 497 Mbp nuclear and 155,100 bp chloroplast genomes, respectively. Using the nuclear genome as a reference, SNPs were called from 37 Leptodermis species or varieties. The phylogenetic tree based on SNPs exhibited high resolution for species delimitation of the complex and well-resolved phylogenetic relationships in the genus. Moreover, 28,987 genes were predicted in the nuclear genome and used for comparative genomics study. As the first chromosomal-level genome of the subfamily Rubioideae in Rubiaceae, it will provide fruitfully evolutionary understanding in the family.

13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Icotinib has provided survival benefits for patients with advanced, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to compare icotinib with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA NSCLC after complete tumour resection. Here, we report the results from the preplanned interim analysis of the study. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 29 hospitals in China, eligible patients were aged 18-70 years, had histopathogically confirmed stage II-IIIA NSCLC, had complete resection up to 8 weeks before random assignment, were treatment-naive, and had confirmed activation mutation in exon 19 or exon 21 of the EGFR gene. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive web-based response system to receive either oral icotinib 125 mg thrice daily for 2 years or four 21-day cycles of intravenous chemotherapy (vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of each cycle plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 of each cycle for adenocarcinoma or squamous carcinoma; or pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks for non-squamous carcinoma). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival assessed in the full analysis set. Secondary endpoints were overall survival assessed in the full analysis set and safety assessed in all participants who received study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448797. FINDINGS: Between June 8, 2015, and August 2, 2019, 322 patients were randomly assigned to icotinib (n=161) or chemotherapy (n=161); the full analysis set included 151 patients in the icotinib group and 132 in the chemotherapy group. Median follow-up in the full analysis set was 24·9 months (IQR 16·6-36·4). 40 (26%) of 151 patients in the icotinib group and 58 (44%) of 132 patients in the chemotherapy group had disease relapse or death. Median disease-free survival was 47·0 months (95% CI 36·4-not reached) in the icotinib group and 22·1 months (16·8-30·4) in the chemotherapy group (stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·36 [95% CI 0·24-0·55]; p<0·0001). 3-year disease-free survival was 63·9% (95% CI 51·8-73·7) in the icotinib group and 32·5% (21·3-44·2) in the chemotherapy group. Overall survival data are immature with 14 (9%) deaths in the icotinib group and 14 (11%) deaths in the chemotherapy. The HR for overall survival was 0·91 (95% CI 0·42-1·94) in the full analysis set. Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in two (1%) of 156 patients in the icotinib group and 19 (14%) of 139 patients in the chemotherapy group. No interstitial pneumonia or treatment-related death was observed in either group. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that compared with chemotherapy, icotinib significantly improves disease-free survival and has a better tolerability profile in patients with EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA NSCLC after complete tumour resection. FUNDING: Betta Pharmaceuticals TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

14.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113240, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271360

RESUMO

Coastal environment is one of the most important ecological and socioeconomic areas. However, increasing energy demand and economic development lead to a continuous gas and oil exploration, production, and traffics, which notably raise the risk of oil spill accidents in coastal areas. Sensitivity assessment aiming to determine the coastal features that would be severely impaired by spill incidents is a crucial part of the response planning. In this study, an innovative framework for coastal sensitivity mapping that incorporated ecosystem service (ES) valuation and multidimensional assessment was proposed. Sensitivity was computed by valuing physical, biological, and social-economical indicators from ES perspective and separating each indicator into specific coastal domains. For different ES typologies, provisioning services contributed most to the overall ES value followed by culture services, supporting services, and regulating services. For ES value in different coastal domains, the highest value was recorded in the water column followed by water surface, shoreline, and seabed. However, the shoreline ranked highest regarding the ES value per ha. Sensitivity assessment revealed that sensitive areas differed in different domains, both in distribution and extent. Compared with the scoring method, the ES valuation method showed more coincidence with Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSA), representing a more precise and practical approach for sensitivity assessment. A three-dimensional (3D) oil spill model was also applied to generate maps of oil contamination probability in shoreline, water surface, and water column. The obtained results highlighted the significance of incorporating different coastal domains into oil spill responses, and the urgent demand to broaden and deepen our understanding of ecological processes across the vertical coastal zones.

15.
J Int Med Res ; 49(7): 3000605211016665, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the Archimedes Navigation System (Broncus Medical, San Jose, CA, USA) for guidance during transbronchial cryobiopsy and the incidence of complications in patients with diffuse lung disease. METHODS: High-resolution computed tomography and transbronchial cryobiopsy were used to evaluate eight patients with diffuse lung disease. The Archimedes Navigation System was used before cryobiopsy to obtain the best path with which to avoid large vessels. Three to five cryobiopsy specimens were taken from each sampled segment. RESULTS: Preoperative planning using the Archimedes Navigation System was successfully performed on all eight patients. The probe-to-pleura distance was approximately 10 mm. No cases of pneumothorax occurred, one patient developed moderate bleeding, two developed minor bleeding, and five developed minimal bleeding that stopped spontaneously. A final diagnosis was obtained for seven patients, and ongoing follow-up was being conducted for the last patient at the time of this writing. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of combining navigation technology with cryobiopsy to diagnose diffuse lung disease. The Archimedes Navigation System, which provides real-time guidance, is helpful in pre-cryobiopsy planning and diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. Moreover, this system can reduce the pneumothorax rate and bleeding risk by avoiding large vessels.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Pneumotórax , Biópsia , Broncoscopia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 191: 113474, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246894

RESUMO

Accelerated glucose uptake and "aerobic glycolysis" of tumor cells generates a high-level lactate in extracellular space and within tumor tissue, which is thought to be a hallmark of tumor and closely correlated with tumor development. Here, we report the development of an enzyme-free electrochemical sensing platform based on a Pt-microneedle electrode functionalized with Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) decorated polydopamine nanospheres (PDA-NSs), and explore its practical application in in vitro and in vivo detection of lactate in different biological samples. Our results demonstrate that in virtue of the nanostructured merits and high electrocatalytic activity, the resultant nanohybrid-microelectrode exhibits good sensitivity and selectivity to the nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of lactate, with a detection limit of 50 µM, a liner range of 0.375-12 mM, and a sensitivity of 11.25 mA mM-1 cm-2, as well as a good anti-interference ability to other active small molecules. The platform quantifies lactate in complex bio-fluids, including cancerous and non-cancerous cell culture media, as well as serum samples, with detecting time 7.5-fold faster than does a clinically-used approach. Moreover, owing to miniaturized size and satisfactory electrochemical performance, the sensor achieves in vivo recording of lactate-related characteristic voltammetric signals within a living tumor, which are positively correlated with tumor burden and growth. Therefore, the platform cannot only be employed for cancer metabolic investigation, but also potentially for clinical assessment of tumor progression, and even clinical diagnosis of other lactate metabolism disorders.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247148

RESUMO

Limited progress has been made in the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) in recent years, but the potential of immunotherapy in GAC is worthy of consideration. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable, personalized signature based on immune genes to predict the prognosis of GAC. Here, we identified two groups of patients with significantly different prognoses by performing unsupervised clustering analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database based on 881 immune genes. The immune signature was constructed with a training set composed of 350 GAC samples from the TCGA and subsequently validated with 431 samples from GSE84437, 432 samples from GSE26253, and 145 GAC samples from real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data. This classification system can also be used to predict prognosis in different clinical subgroups. Further analysis suggested that high-risk patients were characterized by low immune scores, distinctive immune cell proportions, different immune checkpoint profiles, and a low tumor mutational burden. Ultimately, the signature was identified as an independent prognostic factor. In general, the signature can accurately predict recurrence and overall survival in patients with GAC and may serve as a powerful prognostic tool to further optimize cancer immunotherapy.

18.
Cancer Lett ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216690

RESUMO

Human anterior gradient homolog 2 (AGR2) reportedly acts as an oncogene in multiple types of cancers. As a secreted protein, the oncogenic roles of extracellular AGR2 have been the focus of the increasing number of studies. In contrast, the oncological functions of intracellular AGR2 (iAGR2) remain elusive. Here, we report that intracellular AGR2 (iAGR2) is sufficient to promote CRC metastasis. iAGR2 binds to KDEL receptors (KDELRs) via its KTEL motif to activate downstream Gs-PKA signaling. Activated PKA upregulates the expression of NF-κB subunit c-Rel (REL) and acetylates histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) to promote the transcription of SNAIL and SLUG. AGR2 can be upregulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via EP4-PI3K-AKT pathway and is indispensable for PGE2-induced CRC metastasis. AGR2 knockdown enhances therapeutic effects of a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, in CRC metastasis. Collectively, our study reveals a promoting role and molecular mechanisms of iAGR2 in CRC metastasis and uncovers a new tumor microenvironment signal regulating AGR2 expression, which may provide new targets for treating metastatic CRC.

19.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218319

RESUMO

Rotaviruses are important causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in children. In China, rotavirus infection has a prevalence rate of 30% and is therefore considered a serious public health problem. This study was carried out to investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus infections in children under 5 years old with acute diarrhea in Shandong province, China. From July 2017 to June 2018, a total of 1211 fecal specimens were tested, and the prevalence of rotavirus infection was 32.12%. The mean age of the infected children was 12.2 ± 10.9 months, and the highest infection rate was observed in children aged 7-12 months, with a rate of 41.64%. G9P[8] (76.61%) was the most prevalent genotype combination, followed by G2P[4] (7.20%), G3P[8] (3.60%), and G9P[4] (2.06%). In addition to diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration were the most common clinical signs. In general, there was no significant difference in clinical manifestations among different age groups. However, the clinical manifestations differed significantly between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Vaccinated children showed lower incidence and frequency of vomiting, lower incidence and degree of dehydration, and lower incidence of severe cases than unvaccinated children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to continuously monitor changes in the characteristics of rotavirus infections. Moreover, the introduction of vaccines into the national immunization program to prevent and control rotavirus infection is needed in China.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196527

RESUMO

The simultaneous control of the defect species and surface properties of semiconducting materials is a crucial aspect of improving photocatalytic performance, yet it remains challenging. Here, we synthesized Mg-Zr-codoped single-crystalline Ta3N5 (Ta3N5:Mg+Zr) nanoparticles by a brief NH3 nitridation process, exhibiting photocatalytic water reduction activity 45 times greater than that of pristine Ta3N5 under visible light. A coherent picture of the relations between the defect species (comprising reduced Ta, nitrogen vacancies and oxygen impurities), surface properties (associated with dispersion of the Pt cocatalyst), charge carrier dynamics, and photocatalytic activities was drawn. The tuning of defects and simultaneous optimization of surface properties resulting from the codoping evidently resulted in the generation of high concentrations of long-lived electrons in this material as well as the efficient migration of these electrons to evenly distributed surface Pt sites. These effects greatly enhanced the photocatalytic activity. This work highlights the importance and feasibility of improving multiple properties of a catalytic material via a one-step strategy.

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