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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5231, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251339

RESUMO

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely used to improve the fat retention rate in autologous fat transplantation since it possesses a good angiogenesis capability in vivo. However, due to the short half-life of growth factors released from PRP and its uneven distribution in injected fat tissue, the strategy of PRP in fat transplantation needs further improvement. Since the capillaries started to grow into fat grafts in 1 week and vascular growth peaks in the second week after transplantation, we hypothesized that delayed two-steps PRP injection into the interior of grafts, accompanied with the extent of neovascularization might theoretically promote microvessel growth inside transplanted adipose tissue. 24 nude mice were divided into three groups: Blank group (0.35 mL fat mixed with 0.15 mL saline, N = 8), Single step group (0.35 mL fat mixed with 0.15 mLPRP, N = 8), and Two steps group (0.35 mL fat (day 0) + 0.075 mL PRP (day 7) + 0.075 mL PRP (day 14), N = 8). At 6 and 14 weeks post-transplantation, grafts were dissected, weighted, and assessed for histology, angiogenesis, fat regeneration and inflammation level. The weight and volume of the fat samples revealed no statistical difference among the three groups at 6 weeks after fat transplantation. The weight and volume of the Two steps group fat samples showed significantly higher compared to that in Blank and Single step groups at 14 weeks after fat transplantation (weight: 137.25 ± 5.60 mg versus 87.5 ± 3.90 mg,106.75 ± 2.94 mg, respectively; volume: 0.13 ± 0.01 mL versus 0.08 ± 0.01 mL, 0.09 ± 0.01 mL, respectively). Histological assessments indicated that delayed two-steps PRP injection strategy helps to improve adipose tissue content and reduce the composition of fibrous connective tissue at 14 weeks after fat transplantation. At 6 weeks and 14 weeks after transplantation, CD31 immunofluorescence indicated that delayed two-steps PRP injection strategy helps to improve angiogenesis and significantly higher compared to that in Blank and Single step groups (6 weeks: 28.75 ± 4.54 versus 10.50 ± 2.06, 21.75 ± 1.85; 14 weeks: 21.75 ± 2.86 versus 9.87 ± 2.08, 11.75 ± 1.47, respectively). Preadipocyte count indicated delayed two-steps PRP injection strategy might promote fat regeneration and significantly higher compared to that in Blank and Single step groups at 14 weeks (129.75 ± 6.57 versus 13.50 ± 3.50, 17.12 ± 6.23, respectively). In this study, we demonstrated that the novel delayed two-steps PRP injection strategy remarkably enhanced the long-term fat retention rate and improved the neovascularization extent in the interior of the fat graft. Platelet-rich plasma, Delayed two-steps injection, Angiogenesis, Fat transplantation.

2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1349-1361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184590

RESUMO

Background: Impaired wound healing might be associated with many issues, especially overactive of reactive oxygen species (ROS), deficiency of blood vessels and immature of epidermis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as an antioxidant, could solve these problems by inhibiting overreactive of ROS, promoting revascularization and accelerating re-epithelialization. How to deliver NAC in situ with a controllable releasing speed still remain a challenge. Materials and Methods: In this study, we combined collagen (Col) with N-acetylcysteine to perform the characteristics of sustained release and chemically crosslinked Col/NAC composite with polyamide (PA) nanofibers to enhance the mechanical property of collagen and fabricated this multi-layered scaffold (PA-Col/NAC scaffold). The physical properties of the scaffolds such as surface characteristics, water absorption and tensile modulus were tested. Meanwhile, the ability to promote wound healing in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Results: These scaffolds were porous and performed great water absorption. The PA-Col/NAC scaffold could sustainably release NAC for at least 14 days. After cell implantation, PA-Col/NAC scaffold showed better cell proliferation and cell migration than the other groups. In vivo, PA-Col/NAC scaffolds could promote wound healing best among all the groups. Conclusion: The multi-layered scaffolds could obviously accelerate the process of wound healing and exert better and prolonged effects.

3.
Theranostics ; 10(6): 2759-2772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194833

RESUMO

The survival of transplanted cells and tissues in bone regeneration requires a microenvironment with a vibrant vascular network. A tissue engineering chamber can provide this in vivo. However, the commonly used silicone chamber is biologically inert and can cause rejection reactions and fibrous capsule. Studies have revealed that collagen is highly biocompatible and graphene oxide (GO) could regulate osteogenic activity in vivo. Besides, GO can be cross-linked with natural biodegradable polymers to construct scaffolds. Methods: A vascularized GO-collagen chamber model was built by placing vessels traversing through the embedded tissue-engineered grafts (osteogenic-induced bone mesenchymal stem cells -gelatin) in the rat groin area. Osteogenic activity and inflammatory reactions were assessed using different methods including micro-CT scanning, Alizarin red staining, and immunohistochemical staining. Results: After one month, in vivo results showed that bone mineralization and inflammatory responses were significantly pronounced in the silicone model or no chamber (control) groups. Vascular perfusion analysis confirmed that the GO-collagen chamber improved the angiogenic processes. Cells labeled with EdU revealed that the GO-collagen chamber promoted the survival and osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusion: Overall, the novel biocompatible GO-collagen chamber exhibited osteoinductive and anti-fibrosis effects which improved bone regeneration in vivo. It can, therefore, be applied to other fields of regenerative medicine.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176486

RESUMO

Strong Mn-Mn coupling interactions (dipole-dipole and spin-exchange), predominantly determined by statistically and apparently short Mn···Mn distances in traditional heavily Mn2+-doped semiconductors, can promote energy transfer within randomly positioned and close-knit Mn2+ pairs. However, the intrinsic mechanism on controlling Mn2+ emission efficiency is still elusive due to the lack of precise structure information on local tetrahedrally coordinated Mn2+ ions. Herein, a group of Mn2+-containing metal-chalcogenide open frameworks (MCOFs), built from [Mn4In16S35] nanoclusters (denoted T4-MnInS) with a precise [Mn4S] configuration and length-variable linkers, were prepared and selected as unique models to address the above-mentioned issues. MCOF-5 and MCOF-6 that contained a symmetrical [Mn4S] core with a D2d point group and relatively long Mn···Mn distance (∼3.9645 Å) exhibited obvious red emission, while no room-temperature PL emission was observed in MCOF-7 that contained an asymmetric [Mn4S] configuration with a C1 point group and relatively short Mn···Mn distance (∼3.9204 Å). The differences of Mn-Mn dipole-dipole and spin-exchange interactions were verified through transient photoluminescent spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR), and magnetic measurements. Compared to MCOF-5 and MCOF-6 showing a narrower/stronger ESR signal and longer decay lifetime of microseconds, MCOF-7 displayed a much broader/weaker ESR signal and shorter decay lifetime of nanoseconds. The results demonstrated the dominant role of distance-directed Mn-Mn dipole-dipole interactions over symmetry-directed spin-exchange interactions in modulating PL quenching behavior of Mn2+ emission. More importantly, the reported work offers a new pathway to elucidate Mn2+-site-dependent photoluminescence regulation mechanism from the perspective of atomically precise nanoclusters.

5.
iScience ; 23(3): 100926, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146324

RESUMO

Long decoherence time is a key consideration for molecular magnets in the application of the quantum computation. Although previous studies have shown that the local symmetry of spin carriers plays a crucial part in the spin-lattice relaxation process, its role in the spin decoherence is still unclear. Herein, two nine-coordinated capped square antiprism neodymium moieties [Nd(CO3)4H2O]5- with slightly different local symmetries, C1 versus C4 (1 and 2), are reported, which feature in the easy-plane magnetic anisotropy as shown by the high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HF-EPR) studies. Detailed analysis of the relaxation time suggests that the phonon bottleneck effect is essential to the magnetic relaxation in the crystalline samples of 1 and 2. The 240 GHz Pulsed EPR studies show that the higher symmetry results in longer decoherence times, which is supported by the first principle calculations.

6.
Oral Dis ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether skeletal-specific H-type blood vessels exist in alveolar bone and how they function in alveolar bone remodeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: H-type vessels with high expression of CD31 and Endomucin (CD31hi Emcnhi ) were immunostained in alveolar bone. Abundance and age-related changes in CD31hi Emcnhi endothelial cells (H-ECs) were detected by flow cytometry. Osteoprogenitors association with H-type vessels and bone mass were detected in tooth extraction model of alveolar bone remodeling by immunohistofluorescence and micro-CT, respectively. Transcription and expression of H-EC feature genes during in vitro Notch inhibition were measured by RT-qPCR and immunocytofluorescence. RESULTS: We verified that H-type vessels existed in alveolar bone, the abundance of which was highest at infancy age, then decreased but maintained a constant level during aging. In tooth extraction model, H-ECs significantly increased with concomitant perivascular accumulation of Runx2+ osteoprogenitors and gradually augmentation of bone mass. Notch inhibition of in vitro cultured H-ECs resulted in decreased expression levels of Emcn and hes1, but not Pecam1 or Kdr genes, with decreased expression levels of H-EC numbers, accordingly. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that H-type vessels promote osteogenesis during alveolar bone remodeling. Notch signaling pathway regulates expression of Emcn and possibly determines fate and functions of alveolar H-ECs.

7.
Theranostics ; 10(8): 3779-3792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206122

RESUMO

Healing of the chronic diabetic ulceration and large burns remains a clinical challenge. Therapeutic fasting has been shown to improve health. Our study tested whether fasting facilitates diabetic and burn wound healing and explored the underlying mechanism. Methods: The effects of fasting on diabetic and burn wound healing were evaluated by analyzing the rates of wound closure, re-epithelialization, scar formation, collagen deposition, skin cell proliferation and neovascularization using histological analyses and immunostaining. In vitro functional assays were conducted to assess fasting and refeeding on the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells. Transcriptome sequencing was employed to identify the differentially expressed genes in endothelial cells after fasting treatment and the role of the candidate genes in the fasting-induced promotion of angiogenesis was demonstrated. Results: Two times of 24-h fasting in a week after but especially before wound injury efficiently induced faster wound closure, better epidermal and dermal regeneration, less scar formation and higher level of angiogenesis in mice with diabetic or burn wounds. In vitro, fasting alone by serum deprivation did not increase, but rather reduced the abilities of endothelial cell to proliferate, migrate and form vessel-like tubes. However, subsequent refeeding did not merely rescue, but further augmented the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that fasting itself, but not the following refeeding, induced a prominent upregulation of a variety of pro-angiogenic genes, including SMOC1 (SPARC related modular calcium binding 1) and SCG2 (secretogranin II). Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the increase of SMOC1 and SCG2 expression in both diabetic and burn wounds after fasting treatment. When the expression of SMOC1 or SCG2 was down-regulated, the fasting/refeeding-induced pro-angiogenic effects were markedly attenuated. Conclusion: This study suggests that fasting combined with refeeding, but not fasting solely, enhance endothelial angiogenesis through the activation of SMOC1 and SCG2, thus facilitating neovascularization and rapid wound healing.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(1): 014710, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012550

RESUMO

This paper proposes a method to measure the frequency of terahertz (THz) waves based on the Zeeman effect and the high magnetic field technology with a wideband range from 60 GHz to 3 THz. As the frequency of THz waves absorbed by the sample is linear to the magnetic field in the Zeeman effect, the frequency can be measured by the magnetic field strength. A comparison study of THz frequency measurement was carried out in two magnet systems (a superconducting one and a pulsed one) to investigate the performance in two kinds of high magnetic fields. The experimental results of 60-700 GHz show that this method has high resolution (about 0.001%), excellent linearity, and good repeatability. Moreover, the proposed method can measure polychromatic signals simultaneously as well as the single pulse frequency in the order of tens of microseconds.

9.
Adv Mater ; 32(14): e1908040, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080924

RESUMO

Ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) are one of the most interesting ferroelectric devices; however, they, usually suffer from low interface quality. The recently discovered 2D layered ferroelectric materials, combining with the advantages of van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs), may be promising to fabricate high-quality FeFETs with atomically thin thickness. Here, dual-gated 2D ferroelectric vdWHs are constructed using MoS2 , hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and CuInP2 S6 (CIPS), which act as a high-performance nonvolatile memory and programmable rectifier. It is first noted that the insertion of h-BN and dual-gated coupling device configuration can significantly stabilize and effectively polarize ferroelectric CIPS. Through this design, the device shows a record-high performance with a large memory window, large on/off ratio (107 ), ultralow programming state current (10-13 A), and long-time endurance (104 s) as nonvolatile memory. As for programmable rectifier, a wide range of gate-tunable rectification behavior is observed. Moreover, the device exhibits a large rectification ratio (3 × 105 ) with stable retention under the programming state. This demonstrates the promising potential of ferroelectric vdWHs for new multifunctional ferroelectric devices.

10.
Theranostics ; 10(5): 2293-2308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089743

RESUMO

Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures severely compromise quality of life in elderly people and lead to early death. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (hucMSC-EVs) possess considerable therapeutic effects in tissue repair and regeneration. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of hucMSC-EVs on primary and secondary osteoporosis and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: hucMSCs were isolated and cultured. EVs were obtained from the conditioned medium of hucMSCs and determined by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and Western Blot analyses. The effects of hucMSC-EVs on ovariectomy-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis and tail suspension-induced hindlimb disuse osteoporosis in mouse models were assessed by using microcomputed tomography, biomechanical, histochemical and immunohistochemical, as well as histomorphometric analyses. Proteomic analysis was applied between hucMSC-EVs and hucMSCs to screen the candidate proteins that mediate hucMSC-EVs function. The effects of hucMSC-EVs on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs), and osteoclastogenesis of the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 in vitro were determined by using cytochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Subsequently, the roles of the key protein in hucMSC-EVs-induced regulation on BMSCs and RAW264.7 cells were evaluated. Results: hucMSCs were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes or chondrocytes and positively expressed CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90, but negatively expressed CD34 and CD45. The morphological assessment revealed the typical cup- or sphere-shaped morphology of hucMSC-EVs with diameters predominantly ranging from 60 nm to 150 nm and expressed CD9, CD63, CD81 and TSG101. The systemic administration of hucMSC-EVs prevented bone loss and maintained bone strength in osteoporotic mice by enhancing bone formation, reducing marrow fat accumulation and decreasing bone resorption. Proteomic analysis showed that the potently pro-osteogenic protein, CLEC11A (C-type lectin domain family 11, member A) was very highly enriched in hucMSC-EVs. In addition, hucMSC-EVs enhanced the shift from adipogenic to osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via delivering CLEC11A in vitro. Moreover, CLEC11A was required for the inhibitory effects of hucMSC-EVs on osteoclast formation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that hucMSC-EVs serve as a critical regulator of bone metabolism by transferring CLEC11A and may represent a potential agent for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 149: 801-808, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982530

RESUMO

Grifola frondosa is an edible and medicinal mushroom with great nutritional values and bioactivities. In the present study, a soluble homogeneous ß-glucan, GFPS, with high molecular mass of 5.42 × 106 Da was purified from the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa using 5% cold NaOH. The structure of GFPS was determined with FT-IR, NMR, and monosaccharide composition analysis, and was identified to be a ß-D-(1-3)-linked glucan backbone with a single ß-D-(1-6)-linked glucopyranosyl residue branched at C-6 on every third residue. Our results indicated that GFPS had a triple helical structure and could form complex with polydeoxyadenylic acid (poly[A]). Further studies demonstrated that GFPS could interact with poly[A] moiety of a designed antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting the primary transcript of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα (TNFα-A60). This GFPS-based complex could incorporate TNFα-A60 into the macrophage cells via dectin-1 receptor and attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of TNFα. Our results suggested that GFPS could be applied to deliver therapeutic oligonucleotides for the treatment of diseases such as inflammation and cancers.

12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 124: 109935, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986407

RESUMO

Intimal hyperplasia, the key event of arterial restenosis, is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Previous studies have demonstrated that total Panax notoginseng saponin (TPNS) represses intimal hyperplasia and inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs following balloon injury. However, the underlying roles of TPNS in intimal hyperplasia remain unclear. In this study, we first found that TPNS inhibited the intimal hyperplasia and reversed the reduced m6A quantity in balloon catheter-injured rat carotid artery. Then, we measured the expression profiles of m6A "writers" (i.e., methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3), methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14), and WT1 associated protein (WTAP)) and "erasers" (i.e., FTO alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (FTO) and alkB homolog 5, RNA demethylase (ALKBH5)) in vivo and found that TPNS up-regulated the reduced the WTAP expression in balloon catheter-injured rat carotid artery. Furthermore, we illustrated that TPNS inhibited the viability, proliferation, and migration potential of VSMCs via promotion of WTAP expression and suppression of WTAP restored the TPNS-induced inhibition of cell viability, proliferation and migration potential of VSMCs. In addition, we found that p16 was up-regulated in VSMCs treated with TPNS and repression of p16 restored the TPNS-induced inhibition of cell viability, proliferation and migration potential of VSMCs. Finally, we elucidated that, mechanistically, WTAP exerted its role by regulating p16 via m6A modification. Collectively, our results reveal the WTAP-p16 signaling axis and highlight the critical roles of m6A modification in intimal hyperplasia. Thus, this study provided a potential biomarker for the assessment of intimal hyperplasia risk following angioplasty as well as a novel therapeutic target for this disease.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 49(7): 2159-2167, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994553

RESUMO

The effect of screening the CoII moment of monomeric [CoIIL2(H2O)] (L = 8-hydroxyquinaldine), having a trigonal bipyramid coordination, by diamagnetic Zn in CoxZn1-x solid solutions on its magnetic relaxation was explored using ac-susceptibility, high-field electron-spin-resonance measurements and CASPT2 calculations. The retention of the crystal structure for all the solid solutions was demonstrated using single crystal diffraction. The dc-magnetization and theoretical fittings of the susceptibility for Co1 and Co0.1Zn0.9 gave a large zero-field-splitting (ZFS) D of 50 ± 6 cm-1, and very weak dipole interaction between the nearest neighbors, while EPR and calculations confirmed the positive sign of the axial component (D). Consistent parameters were obtained from experiments and theory. Importantly, only field-induced relaxation was observed for the samples with less than 50% Co and a gradual change in the barrier energy to moment reversal and relaxation times was observed between 11% and 20% Co, while both were enhanced for higher dilutions. The results establish a clear barrier for extending the longevity of the magnetism for this type of single-ion species by lowering the intramolecular interactions. The results suggest that the magnetic interaction persists up to the second sphere, that is, for a dilution of 1 in 9 (11% Co). Importantly, this method is applicable to all single-ion magnet systems, that is, the optimum dilution concentration to restrain the dipole field can be given only by the single crystal structure.

14.
Biomacromolecules ; 21(3): 1202-1213, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895550

RESUMO

Regulating cell migration dynamics is of significance in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A 3D scaffold was created to provide various topographies based on a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) self-induced nanohybrid shish-kebab structure, which consisted of aligned PCL nanofibers and spaced PCL crystal lamellae grown on the fibers. Electrospinning was applied followed by self-induced crystallization. The results resembled natural collagen fibrils in an extracellular matrix. This variable microstructure enabled control of cell adhesion and migration. The kebab size was controlled by initial PCL concentrations. The geometry of cells seeded on the fibers was less elongated, but the adhesion was more polarized with a higher nuclear shape index and faster migration speed. These results could aid in rapid endothelialization in tissue engineering.

15.
Plant Cell ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988265

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is required for the formation of transposable element (TE)-derived small RNA (sRNA) transcripts. These transcripts are processed by DICER-LIKE 3 into 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that guide RNA-dependent DNA methylation. In the pollen grain, Pol IV is also required for the accumulation of 2½2-nt epigenetically-activated siRNAs (easiRNAs) that likely silence TEs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Despite this proposed functional role, loss of Pol IV function in Arabidopsis does not cause a discernable pollen defect. Here, we show that loss of NRPD1, encoding the largest subunit of Pol IV in the Brassicaceae Capsella rubella, causes post-meiotic arrest of pollen development at the microspore stage. As in Arabidopsis, all TE-derived siRNAs were depleted in Capsella nrpd1 microspores. In wild-type background, we found that the same TEs produced 2½2-nt and 24-nt siRNAs and the formation of both types of siRNAs required Pol IV activity. Arrest of Capsella nrpd1 microspores was accompanied by deregulation of genes targeted by Pol IV-dependent siRNAs. The distance of TEs to genes was much closer in Capsella rubella compared to Arabidopsis thaliana, providing a possible explanation for the essential role of Pol IV for pollen development in Capsella. Our study in Capsella uncovers a functional requirement of Pol IV in microspores, emphasizing the relevance of investigating different plant models.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(1): 286-294, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638312

RESUMO

Reversible oxygen conversion is important for various green energy technologies. Herein we synthesize a series of bimetallic coordination polymers by varying the Ni/Co ratio and using HITP (HITP=2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene) as the ligand, to interrogate the role of metal centres in modulating the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Co3 HITP2 and Ni3 HITP2 are compared. Unpaired 3d electrons in Co3 HITP2 result in less coplanarity but more radical character. Thus, despite of a reduced crystallinity and conductivity, the best ORR activity, comparable to 20 % Pt/C, is obtained for Co3 HITP2 , showing the 3d orbital configuration of the metal centre promotes ORR. Experimental and DFT studies show a transition of ORR pathway from four-electron for Co3 HITP2 to two-electron for Ni3 HITP2 . Rechargeable zinc-air batteries using Co3 HITP2 as the air cathode catalyst demonstrate excellent energy efficiency and stability.

17.
Wound Repair Regen ; 28(1): 126-144, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509318

RESUMO

Human skin wound repair may result in various outcomes with most of them leading to scar formation. Commonly seen in many cutaneous wound healing cases, hypertrophic scars are considered as phenotypes of abnormal wound repair. To prevent the formation of hypertrophic scars, efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of scarring following wound closure. Numerous in vivo and in vitro models have been created to facilitate investigations into cutaneous scarring and the development of antiscarring treatments. To select the best model for a specific study, background knowledge of the current models of hypertrophic scars is necessary. In this review, we describe in vivo and in vitro models for studying hypertrophic scars, as well as the distinct characteristics of these models. The choice of models for a specific study should be based on the characteristics of the model and the goal of the study. In general, in vivo animal models are often used in phenotypical scar formation analysis, development of antiscarring treatment, and functional analyses of individual genes. In contrast, in vitro models are chosen to pathway identification during scar formation as well as in high-throughput analysis in drug development. Besides helping investigators choose the best scarring model for their research, the goal of this review is to provide knowledge for improving the existing models and development of new models. These will contribute to the progress of scarring studies.

18.
Adv Mater ; 32(7): e1906874, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867809

RESUMO

Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures exhibit excellent optoelectronic properties and novel functionalities. However, their applicability is impeded due to the common issue of the tunneling barrier, which arises from the vdW gap; this significantly increases the injection resistance of the photoexcited carriers. Herein, a generic strategy is demonstrated to eliminate the vdW gap in a broad class of heterostructures. It is observed that the vdW gap in the interface is bridged via strong orbital hybridization between the interface dangling bonds of nonlayered chalcogenide semiconductors and the artificially induced vacancies of transition metal chalcogenides (TMDCs). The photoresponse times of bridged PbS/ReS2 , PbS/MoSe2 , and PbS/MoS2 are ≈30, 51, and 43 µs, respectively. The photon-triggered on/off ratio of the bridged PbS/MoS2 , ZnSe/MoS2 , and ZnTe/MoS2 heterostructures exceed 106 , 105 , and 105 , respectively. These are several orders of magnitude higher than common vdW heterostructures. The findings obtained in this study present a versatile strategy for overcoming the performance limitations of vdW heterostructures.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18059, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792254

RESUMO

We demonstrate a novel concept for operating graphene-based Hall sensors using an alternating current (AC) modulated gate voltage, which provides three important advantages compared to Hall sensors under static operation: (1) The sensor sensitivity can be doubled by utilizing both n- and p-type conductance. (2) A static magnetic field can be read out at frequencies in the kHz range, where the 1/f noise is lower compared to the static case. (3) The off-set voltage in the Hall signal can be reduced. This significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio compared to Hall sensors without a gate electrode. A minimal detectable magnetic field Bmin down to [Formula: see text] and sensitivity up to 0.55 V/VT was found for Hall sensors working on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. This clearly outperforms state-of-the-art flexible Hall sensors and is comparable to the values obtained by the best rigid III/V semiconductor Hall sensors.

20.
ACS Nano ; 13(12): 14519-14528, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794184

RESUMO

Mixed-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures based on two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit immense potential in infrared optoelectronic applications. However, the weak vdW coupling results in limiting performance of infrared optoelectronic device. Here, we exploit a gapless heterostructure that S dangling bonds of nonlayered PbS are connected to the bonding sites of MoS2 (with factitious S vacancies) via strong orbital hybridization. The strong interface coupling leads to ultrahigh responsivity and photogain (G) exceeding 105, and the detectivity (D*) is greater than 1014 Jones. More importantly, the gapless heterostructure shows fast rise and decay times about 47 and 49 µs, respectively, which is 5 orders of magnitude faster than that of transferred vdW heterostructures. Furthermore, an ultrahigh photon-triggered on/off ratio of 1.6 × 106 is achieved, which is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that of transferred vdW heterostructures. This architecture can offer an effective approach for advanced infrared optoelectronic devices.

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