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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179102

RESUMO

Induction of cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation is a promising approach for cardiac regeneration following myocardial injury. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been reported to regulate CM proliferation. In particular, miR­449a­5p has been identified to be associated with CM proliferation in previous high throughput functional screening data. However, whether miR­449a­5p regulates CM proliferation has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to explore whether miR­449a­5p modulates CM proliferation and to identify the molecular mechanism via which miR­449a­5p regulates CM proliferation. The current study demonstrated that miR­449a­5p expression levels were significantly increased during heart development. Furthermore, the results suggested that miR­449a­5p mimic inhibited CM proliferation in vitro as determined via immunofluorescence for ki67 and histone H3 phosphorylated at serine 10 (pH3), as well as the numbers of CMs. However, miR­449a­5p knockdown promoted CM proliferation. CDK6 was identified as a direct target gene of miR­449a­5p, and CDK6 mRNA and protein expression was suppressed by miR­449a­5p. Moreover, CDK6 gain­of­function increased CM proliferation. Overexpression of CDK6 also blocked the inhibitory effect of miR­449a­5p on CM proliferation, indicating that CDK6 was a functional target of miR­449a­5p in CM proliferation. In conclusion, miR­449a­5p inhibited CM proliferation by targeting CDK6, which provides a potential molecular target for preventing myocardial injury.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141467, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853933

RESUMO

Plug flow reactors (PFRs) made of multiple completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) in series were used to cultivate aerobic granules in real domestic wastewater. Theoretically, changing the number of CSTR chambers in series will change the nature of plug flow, and thus alter the pattern of the feast/famine condition and impact the aerobic granulation progress. Therefore, PFRs were operated in 4-, 6-, and 8-chamber mode under the same gravity selection pressure (a critical settling velocity of 9.75 m h-1) and hydraulic retention time (6.5 h) until steady states were reached to evaluate the effect of the feast/famine condition on continuous flow aerobic granulation. The sludge particle size, circularity, settleability, specific gravity, zone settling velocity, and extracellular polymeric substance contents were analyzed to evaluate the role that a feast/famine regime plays in aerobic granulation. It was found that aerobic granulation failed whenever the feast/famine ratio was greater than 0.5. The results support a conclusion that the feast/famine condition is likely a prerequisite for continuous flow aerobic granulation.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Aerobiose , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Esgotos
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113317, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861821

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix Polygalae (RP) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders in East Asia. AIM OF THE STUDY: Depression is a severe mental disease with high prevalence in people, and neurobiology changes of depression are not fully clarified yet. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect and underlying mechanism of RP in behavioral despair mice and chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ICR mice were treated with various doses of RP (0.13-1.0 g/kg) for 14 days and then subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Wistar rats were exposed to 6-hour restraint stress daily for 28 days, and RP (0.5 and 1 g/kg) was administered by gavage 1 h prior to CRS procedure. Subsequently, behavioral tests were performed and brains were collected for biochemical analysis. RESULTS: RP reduced immobility time of mice in FST and reversed abnormal behaviors of rats induced by CRS in sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, open field test and FST. Moreover, RP could enhance the expression of LC3-II and beclin1 and decrease the level of p62 both in cortex of mice and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats, and regulate the dysfunction of AMPK-mTOR pathway in PFC of CRS rats. Activated microglia, impaired astrocyte, elevated protein expression of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1, and increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in PFC of CRS rats, all of which were corrected by RP treatment. CONCLUSION: RP exerted remarkable antidepressant activity in behavioral despair mice and CRS-induced rats, probably by promoting autophagy and inhibiting neuroinflammation.

4.
Food Chem ; 339: 128027, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949915

RESUMO

κ-Carrageenase cleaves the ß-(1-4) linkages of κ-carrageenan into κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (κ-COS), which exhibit various biological activities. In this study, a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16 κ-carrageenase gene, cgkA, was cloned from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY01 and secretory expressed in a food-grade host, Yarrowia lipolytica. The specific activity of the purified CgkA was 12.5 U/mg. Determination of biochemical properties showed that CgkA was a thermo-tolerant enzyme, and 59.9% of the initial enzyme activity was recovered by immediately placing the sample at 20 °C for 30 min after enzymatic inactivation by boiling for 5 min. The recombinant CgkA was an endo-type enzyme, the main enzymatic product was κ-carradiaose (accounting for 87.6% of total products), and κ-carratetraose was the minimum substrate. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo analyses indicated that enzymatic κ-carradiaose possesses anti-oxidant activity. These features make CgkA as a promising candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of anti-oxidant κ-COS.

5.
Food Chem ; 339: 127855, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858384

RESUMO

A magnetic o-hydroxyazobenzene (M-HAzo) porous organic polymer was facilely prepared by a green azo coupling reaction in aqueous solution. The prepared M-HAzo was applied as a new adsorbent for the first time to pre-concentrate phthalate esters (PAEs) from plastic bottled juice, followed by their determination with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The effects of various parameters, i.e., the mass ratio of the Fe3O4@SiO2 to HAzo, extraction time, ionic strength, pH of the sample, desorption conditions were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the M-HAzo based method exhibited good performance in terms of linear range (0.3-50.0 µg L-1), detection limit (0.08-0.50 µg L-1), accuracy (recovery of 78.0-115.0%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation of 2.9-7.8%). This work provides a sensitive method for analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinks, which is featured with high sensitivity, simple operation and environmentally-friendly merit and will have a promising potential in analysis of other organic pollutants.

6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(39): 5983-5996, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. To date, the degree of inflammation in patients with UC has mainly been determined by measuring the levels of nonspecific indicators, such as C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but these indicators have an unsatisfactory specificity. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis using data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information-Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI-GEO) databases and verified the selected core genes in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. AIM: To identify UC-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using a bioinformatics analysis and verify them in vivo and to identify novel biomarkers and the underlying mechanisms of UC. METHODS: Two microarray datasets from the NCBI-GEO database were used, and DEGs between patients with UC and healthy controls were analyzed using GEO2R and Venn diagrams. We annotated these genes based on their functions and signaling pathways, and then protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were identified using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. The data were further analyzed with Cytoscape software and the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) app. The core genes were selected and a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis was performed. Finally, colitis model mice were established by administering DSS, and the top three core genes were verified in colitis mice using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-seven DEGs, 118 upregulated and 59 downregulated, were initially identified from the GEO2R analysis and predominantly participated in inflammation-related pathways. Seven clusters with close interactions in UC formed: Seventeen core genes were upregulated [C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), CXCL9, CXCL5, C-C motif chemokine ligand 18, interleukin 1 beta, matrix metallopeptidase 9, CXCL3, formyl peptide receptor 1, complement component 3, CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCL10, CXCL2, CXCL6, CXCL11 and hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3] and one was downregulated [neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 (NYP1R)] in the top cluster according to the PPI and MCODE analyses. These genes were substantially enriched in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathways. The top three core genes (CXCL13, NYP1R, and CXCR2) were selected and verified in a mouse model of colitis using real-time PCR Increased expression was observed compared with the control mice, but only CXCR2 expression was significantly different. CONCLUSION: Core DEGs identified in UC are related to inflammation and immunity inflammation, indicating that these reactions are core features of the pathogenesis of UC. CXCR2 may reflect the degree of inflammation in patients with UC.

7.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185972

RESUMO

Most marine copiotrophic bacteria can produce extracellular enzymes to degrade biopolymers into bio-available smaller solutes, while oligotrophic bacteria usually cannot. Bacterial extracellular enzymes and enzymatic products can be a common resource that could be utilized by both copiotrophs and oligotrophs; when present, oligotrophs may outcompete the enzyme-producing copiotrophs. However, copiotrophs and oligotrophs consistently coexist in the ocean. How they maintain coexistence has still not been experimentally studied. In this study, the interaction and coexistence of a copiotroph and an oligotroph, isolated from the same surface seawater sample and utilizing the same proteinaceous substrate, were experimentally investigated. The copiotroph could secrete extracellular proteases to degrade and then utilize the proteinaceous substrate. The oligotroph was unable to utilize the proteinaceous substrate by itself, but could grow by using the hydrolysate amino acids. The copiotroph outcompeted the oligotroph by adsorbing the amino acids quickly and having a higher growth rate in the rich medium. The oligotroph survived by adapting to low concentration of nutrients. The copiotroph and oligotroph were able to maintain long-term (up to 142 days) coexistence in the laboratory. This study indicates that differences in the utilization of different concentrations of nutrients can drive the coexistence of marine copiotrophs and oligotrophs.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110906, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190037

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in head and neck cancer patients worldwide. This malignant disease is challenging to treat because of the lack of effective curative strategies and the high incidence of recurrence. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single and dual approach targeting ribosome biogenesis and protein translation to treat OSCC associated with the copy number variation (CNV) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Here, we found that primary OSCC tumors frequently exhibited a partial loss of 45S rDNA copy number and demonstrated a high susceptibility to CX5461 (a selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase I) and the coadministration of CX5461 and INK128 (a potent inhibitor of mTORC1/2). Combined treatment displayed the promising synergistic effects that induced cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and inhibited cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, INK128 compromised NHEJ-DNA repair pathway to reinforce the antitumor activity of CX5461. In vivo, the cotreatment synergistically suppressed tumor growth, triggered apoptosis and strikingly extended the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Additionally, treatment with the individual compounds and coadministration appeared to reduce the incidence of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Our study supports that the combination of CX5461 and INK128 is a novel and efficacious therapeutic strategy that can combat this cancer and that 45S rDNA may serve as a useful indicator to predict the efficacy of this cotreatment.

10.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scar is a common complication in would healing process, and how to effectively prevent and treat it has been a hot and difficult research issue. Previous studies have showed that botulinum toxin type A (BTA) has effects on the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scar, but little is known about the specific mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms of BTA on the inhibition of hypertrophic scar formation. METHODS: Hypertrophic scar-derived human fibroblasts were cultured and then treated with transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and various concentrations of BTA. Cell proliferation and viability were measured by CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay and trypan blue staining, respectively. The total amount of collagen was examined using Sirius red staining. CollagenⅠand Collagen Ⅲ in the culture supernatant were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to detect the transcription and translation levels. RESULTS: Our results revealed that BTA decreased the proliferation of hypertrophic scar-derived human fibroblasts. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagenⅠand collagen Ⅲ induced by TGF-ß1 were inhibited by BTA in a dose-dependent manner. BTA also inhibited the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK. CONCLUSION: BTA decreased the proliferation of fibroblasts and prevented over-deposition of ECM through the inhibition of the TGF-ß1/Smad and ERK pathways. The findings of this study provide new scientific reference for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scar.

11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 155, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease. Babesia microti is responsible for most cases of human babesiosis globally. It is important to investigate the prevalence of B. microti in the mammalian host population of a specific region in order to elucidate mechanisms of pathogen transmission and to define geographic areas where humans face the greatest risk of exposure. The aim of this study is to understand the prevalence and genotypes of B. microti in the small mammals that are found in Beijing, China. METHODS: We trapped small mammals from all of the 16 urban, suburban, and outer suburban districts of Beijing during the years 2014, 2017 and 2018. Genomic DNA was extracted from the heart tissues individually and the Babesia 18S rRNA gene was detected by PCR. The genotypes of B. microti were identified based on sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis. The morphology of the parasites was observed under light microscopy. The risk factors were analyzed statistically based on both univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1391 small mammals were collected. Positive infection of B. microti was detected in 12.1% (168/1391) of small mammals from 15 out of the 16 districts. Both Kobe-type and U.S.-type B. microti, accounting for 9.5% and 2.7%, respectively, were identified. Classic diverse morphologic forms of B. microti were observed. Specific types of ecological habitats including shrub areas, broad-leaved forest, and cropland were revealed to be risk factors associated with B. microti infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the wide prevalence of B. microti infection in eight species of small mammals in Beijing, with Kobe-type more prevalent than U.S.-type. This study provides fundamental information for the development of informed prevention and control measures by public health authorities; the data gathered indicates a need for further monitoring of both clinical diseases in individuals presenting with babesiosis-like symptoms, as well as the infection status of ticks in high risk areas.

13.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 550, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to atypical clinical symptoms, it is difficult to diagnose joint tuberculosis infection, which often results in misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis. It is easy to cause joint disability. And there are few reports of using arthroscopy to diagnose and treat shoulder tuberculosis. This case series aims to introduce the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic treatment of shoulder tuberculosis. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with shoulder tuberculosis from September 2013 to February 2019 were included (10 males, 19 females; age range from 22 to 69; the average age is 37.6 years). All patients underwent arthroscopic lesion debridement, with preoperative and postoperative regular use of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin quadruple anti-tuberculosis drugs. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before and at the last follow-up. The shoulder function was evaluated according to the visual analogue scoring method (visual analogue scale, VAS) pain score and Constant score. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were followed up from 12 months to 2 years, and the average follow-up time was 15.7 months. The pathological diagnosis of all patients after surgery was shoulder tuberculosis. No serious complications were found at the last follow-up, and the incision healed well. VAS pain score, Constant score, ESR, and CRP at the last follow-up were significantly improved compared with those before treatment (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: On the basis of the standard use of anti-tuberculosis drugs before and after surgery, shoulder arthroscopy is used to treat early and mid-term shoulder tuberculosis, which can be diagnosed by direct observation under the arthroscope and postoperative pathological examination. It has the advantages of thorough lesion removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid recovery, and reliable clinical effect.

14.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225748

RESUMO

A new homo-aro-cholestane glycoside parispolyside H, along with nine known compounds, were isolated from 75% ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basic of analysis of detailed spectroscopic and physicochemical properties. In addition, the isolated compounds (1, 6-9) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HepG2 human liver cancer cell lines. Among them, four known compounds (6-9) showed cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.41 to 3.6 µM.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23198, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-9 has become a global pandemic with severe health issues around the world. However, there is still no effective drug to treat the disease, and many studies have shown that moxibustion plays a positive role in adjuvant treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, this meta-analysis is designed to evaluate the efficacy of moxibustion for COVID-19. METHODS: The relevant randomized controlled trials will be systematically retrieved from the electronic database, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Clinical Trials Database, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, without restrictions on publication status and language. Two reviewers will independently review all included studies and assess the risk of bias. Two reviewers will independently extract data from the included studies based on a pre-designed standardized form. Any disagreements will be resolved by consensus. The meta-analysis will be performed with RevMan (V5.3.5) software. RESULT: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This ongoing meta-analysis will provide up-to-date evidence of the efficacy of moxibustion for patients with COVID-19. REGISTRATION: The meta-analysis has been prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020211910).

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140208

RESUMO

As part of the SAMPL7 host-guest binding challenge, the AMOEBA force field was applied to calculate the absolute binding free energy for 16 charged organic ammonium guests to the TrimerTrip host, a recently reported acyclic cucurbituril-derived clip host structure with triptycene moieties at its termini. Here we report binding free energy calculations for this system using the AMOEBA polarizable atomic multipole force field and double annihilation free energy methodology. Conformational analysis of the host suggests three families of conformations that do not interconvert in solution on a time scale available to nanosecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two of these host conformers, referred to as the "indent" and "overlap" structures, are capable of binding guest molecules. As a result, the free energies of all 16 guests binding to both conformations were computed separately, and combined to produce values for comparison with experiment. Initial ranked results submitted as part of the SAMPL7 exercise had a mean unsigned error (MUE) from experimental binding data of 2.14 kcal/mol. Subsequently, a rigorous umbrella sampling reference calculation was used to better determine the free energy difference between unligated "indent" and "overlap" host conformations. Revised binding values for the 16 guests pegged to this umbrella sampling reference reduced the MUE to 1.41 kcal/mol, with a correlation coefficient (Pearson R) between calculated and experimental binding values of 0.832 and a rank correlation (Kendall τ) of 0.65. Overall, the AMOEBA results demonstrate no significant systematic error, suggesting the force field provides an accurate energetic description of the TrimerTrip host, and an appropriate balance of solvation and desolvation effects associated with guest binding.

17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 526, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulmus lamellosa (one of the ancient species of Ulmus) is an endemic and endangered plant that has undergone climatic oscillations and geographical changes. The elucidation of its demographic history and genetic differentiation is critical for understanding the evolutionary process and ecological adaption to forests in Northern China. RESULTS: Polymorphic haplotypes were detected in most populations of U. lamellosa via DNA sequencing. All haplotypes were divided into three phylogeographic clades fundamentally corresponding to their geographical distribution, namely THM (Taihang Mountains), YM (Yinshan Mountains), and YSM (Yanshan Mountains) groups. The YSM group, which is regarded as ancestral, possessed higher genetic diversity and significant genetic variability in contrast to the YSM and YM groups. Meanwhile, the divergence time of intraspecies haplotypes occurred during the Miocene-Pliocene, which was associated with major Tertiary geological and/or climatic events. Different degrees of gene exchanges were identified between the three groups. During glaciation, the YSM and THM regions might have served as refugia for U. lamellosa. Based on ITS data, range expansion was not expected through evolutionary processes, except for the THM group. A series of mountain uplifts (e.g., Yanshan Mountains and Taihang Mountains) following the Miocene-Pliocene, and subsequently quaternary climatic oscillations in Northern China, further promoted divergence between U. lamellosa populations. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical topology and climate change in Northern China played a critical role in establishing the current phylogeographic structural patterns of U. lamellosa. These results provide important data and clues that facilitate the demographic study of tree species in Northern China.

18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113601, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220358

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. (family Caprifoliaceae, NJ) is well-documented and commonly used in the systems of traditional medicine in China, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, India and Japan for curing digestive and neuropsychiatric disorders with a long history of medication. However, the possible action mechanisms of antidepressant effects of NJ remain unraveled. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to systematically investigate chemical substances of NJ and their effects on serotonin transporter (SERT) in antidepressant activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antidepressant effects of total methanol extract of NJ were evaluated by tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT). Then the total extract was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method, and its effect on SERT activity was evaluated by high content assay (HCA) to determine half maximal effective concentration (EC50). This total extract was subfractioned into twenty subfractions by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (p-HPLC) method, and 'subfraction-SERT activity' relationship curve was fitted with medians of the retention time of those subfractions and their SERT activity values. Then, the fraction NJFr.01 enriched with SERT enhancers was optimized, prepared and analyzed by UHPLC method. Antidepressant effects of the fraction NJFr.01 were evaluated by TST and OFT. Further, major constituents of the total extract and fraction NJFr.01 were isolated by p-HPLC and identified by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and comparisons with those reported data, and their SERT activities were also evaluated. Finally, antagonistic effects of chlorogenic acid and desoxo-narchinol A against fluoxetine on SERT were evaluated. RESULTS: Results of TST and OFT demonstrated antidepressant effects of toatal extract of NJ. The EC50 of total extract on SERT enhancement was 31.63 µg/mL. The fitted 'subfraction-SERT activity' relationship curve revealed that fraction NJFr.01 was enriched with SERT enhancing constituents. Both total extract and fraction NJFr.01 significantly enhanced SERT activity, while the rest fraction NJFr.02 didn't show any SERT activity. Then, antidepressant effects of fraction NJFr.01 were demonstrated by TST and OFT. Further, phytochemistry investigation and UHPLC analyses confirmed the identification of fourteen constituents in the total extract of NJ, including 7-oxonardinoperoxide (1), desoxo-narchinol A (2), kanshone B (3), narchinol B (4), nardosinonediol (5), kanshone A (6), 1-hydroxylaristolone (7), debilon (8), nardosinone (9), kanshone H (10), 1,8,9,10-tetradehydroaristolan-2-one (11), (-)-aristolone (12), 1(10)-aristolene-2-one (13) and jatamol A (14), and seven constituents in the fraction NJFr.01, including chlorogenic acid (15), 8α-dihydrogeniposide (16), 7-deoxy-8-epi-loganic acid (17), adoxosidic acid (18), 8-epi-loganic acid (19), 8α-6,7-dihydroapodantheroside acetate (20) and 6''-acetylpatrinalloside (21). Their structures were established by NMR analyses and comparisons with those reported data. HCA results of these constituents demonstrated the major components of fraction NJFr.01 enhanced SERT activity. Antagonistic results showed that chlorogenic acid and desoxo-narchinol A reversed inhibition effect of fluoxetine on SERT activity. CONCLUSION: This study first systematically expatiated the roles of SERT activity in antidepressant effects of NJ, including total methanol extract and the water-soluble fraction NJFr.01 enriched with SERT enhancing constituents. This is the first report of natural SERT enhancing extract and fractions with antidepressant potential in NJ.

19.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207266

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death in the world due to the lack of early symptoms, metastasis occurrence and chemoresistance. Therefore, early diagnosis by detection of biomarkers, blockade of metastasis, and overcoming chemoresistance are the effective strategies to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Accumulating evidence has revealed that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play essential roles in modulating chemosensitivity in pancreatic cancer. In this review article, we will summarize the role of lncRNAs in drug resistance of pancreatic cancer cells, including HOTTIP, HOTAIR, PVT1, linc-ROR, GAS5, UCA1, DYNC2H1-4, MEG3, TUG1, HOST2, HCP5, SLC7A11-AS1 and CASC2. We also highlight the function of circRNAs, such as circHIPK3 and circ_0000284, in regulation of drug sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, we describe a number of compounds, including curcumin, genistein, resveratrol, quercetin, and salinomycin, which may modulate the expression of lncRNAs and enhance chemosensitivity in pancreatic cancers. Therefore, targeting specific lncRNAs and cicrRNAs could contribute to reverse chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells. We hope this review might stimulate the studies of lncRNAs and cicrRNAs, and develop the new therapeutic strategy via modulating these noncoding RNAs to promote chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells.

20.
J Med Chem ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210537

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), which is mainly found in the glial cells of the brain, may lead to an elevated level of dopamine (DA) in patients. MAO-B inhibitors have been used extensively for patients with PD. However, the discovery of the selective MAO-B inhibitor is still a challenge. In this study, a computational strategy was designed for the rapid discovery of selective MAO-B inhibitors. A series of (S)-2-(benzylamino)propanamide derivatives were designed. In vitro biological evaluations revealed that (S)-1-(4-((3-fluorobenzyl)oxy)benzyl)azetidine-2-carboxamide (C3) was more potent and selective than safinamide, a promising drug for regulating MAO-B. Further studies revealed that the selectivity mechanism of C3 was due to the steric clash caused by the residue difference of Phe208 (MAO-A) and Ile199 (MAO-B). Animal studies showed that compound C3 could inhibit cerebral MAO-B activity and alleviate 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss.

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