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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2401640, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710154

RESUMO

Orthotopic glioblastoma (GBM) has an aggressive growth pattern and complex pathogenesis, becoming one of the most common and deadly tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). The emergence of RNA therapies offers promise for the treatment of GBM. However, the efficient and precise delivery of RNA drugs to specific tumor cells in the brain with high cellular heterogeneity remains ongoing. Here, a strategy is proposed to regulate protein conformation through lipid nanoenvironments to custom-design virus-mimicking nanoparticles (VMNs) with excellent selective cell targeting capabilities, leading to efficient and precise delivery of small interfering RNA for effective treatment of GBM. The optimized VMNs not only retain the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and release the RNA by lysosomal escape like natural viruses but also ensure precise enrichment in the GBM area. This study lays the conceptual foundation for the custom design of VMNs with superior cell-selective targeting capabilities and opens up the possibility of RNA therapies for the efficient treatment of GBM and CNS tumors.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728186

RESUMO

Background: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Ageing and Dementia (CAIDE) risk score serves as a credible predictor of an individual's risk of dementia. However, studies on the link of the CAIDE score to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology are scarce. Objective: To explore the links of CAIDE score to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD as well as to cognitive performance. Methods: In the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and LifestylE (CABLE) study, we recruited 600 cognitively normal participants. Correlations between the CAIDE score and CSF biomarkers of AD as well as cognitive performance were probed through multiple linear regression models. Whether the correlation between CAIDE score and cognitive performance was mediated by AD pathology was researched by means of mediation analyses. Results: Linear regression analyses illustrated that CAIDE score was positively associated with tau-related biomarkers, including pTau (p <  0.001), tTau (p <  0.001), as well as tTau/Aß42 (p = 0.008), while it was in negative association with cognitive scores, consisting of MMSE score (p <  0.001) as well as MoCA score (p <  0.001). The correlation from CAIDE score to cognitive scores was in part mediated by tau pathology, with a mediation rate varying from 3.2% to 13.2% . Conclusions: A higher CAIDE score, as demonstrated in our study, was linked to more severe tau pathology and poorer cognitive performance, and tau pathology mediated the link of CAIDE score to cognitive performance. Increased dementia risk will lead to cognitive decline through aggravating neurodegeneration.

3.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 500, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teeth identification has a pivotal role in the dental curriculum and provides one of the important foundations of clinical practice. Accurately identifying teeth is a vital aspect of dental education and clinical practice, but can be challenging due to the anatomical similarities between categories. In this study, we aim to explore the possibility of using a deep learning model to classify isolated tooth by a set of photographs. METHODS: A collection of 5,100 photographs from 850 isolated human tooth specimens were assembled to serve as the dataset for this study. Each tooth was carefully labeled during the data collection phase through direct observation. We developed a deep learning model that incorporates the state-of-the-art feature extractor and attention mechanism to classify each tooth based on a set of 6 photographs captured from multiple angles. To increase the validity of model evaluation, a voting-based strategy was applied to refine the test set to generate a more reliable label, and the model was evaluated under different types of classification granularities. RESULTS: This deep learning model achieved top-3 accuracies of over 90% in all classification types, with an average AUC of 0.95. The Cohen's Kappa demonstrated good agreement between model prediction and the test set. CONCLUSIONS: This deep learning model can achieve performance comparable to that of human experts and has the potential to become a valuable tool for dental education and various applications in accurately identifying isolated tooth.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Dente , Humanos , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotografia Dentária/métodos
4.
PLoS Med ; 21(5): e1004389, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether intensification of the chemotherapy backbone in tandem with an anti-EGFR can confer superior clinical outcomes in a cohort of RAS/BRAF wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). To that end, we sought to comparatively evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab plus FOLFOXIRI (triplet arm) versus cetuximab plus FOLFOX (doublet arm) as a conversion regimen (i.e., unresectable to resectable) in CRC patients with unresectable CRLM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 2018 to December 2022 in 7 medical centers across China, enrolling 146 RAS/BRAF wild-type CRC patients with initially unresectable CRLM. A stratified blocked randomization method was utilized to assign patients (1:1) to either the cetuximab plus FOLFOXIRI (n = 72) or cetuximab plus FOLFOX (n = 74) treatment arms. Stratification factors were tumor location (left versus right) and resectability (technically unresectable versus ≥5 metastases). The primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary outcomes included the median depth of tumor response (DpR), early tumor shrinkage (ETS), R0 resection rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (not mature at the time of analysis), and safety profile. Radiological tumor evaluations were conducted by radiologists blinded to the group allocation. Primary efficacy analyses were conducted based on the intention-to-treat population, while safety analyses were performed on patients who received at least 1 line of chemotherapy. A total of 14 patients (9.6%) were lost to follow-up (9 in the doublet arm and 5 in the triplet arm). The ORR was comparable following adjustment for stratification factors, with 84.7% versus 79.7% in the triplet and doublet arms, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 0.70; 95% confidence intervals [CI] [0.30, 1.67], Chi-square p = 0.42). Moreover, the ETS rate showed no significant difference between the triplet and doublet arms (80.6% (58/72) versus 77.0% (57/74), OR 0.82, 95% CI [0.37, 1.83], Chi-square p = 0.63). Although median DpR was higher in the triplet therapy group (59.6%, interquartile range [IQR], [50.0, 69.7] versus 55.0%, IQR [42.8, 63.8], Mann-Whitney p = 0.039), the R0/R1 resection rate with or without radiofrequency ablation/stereotactic body radiation therapy was comparable with 54.2% (39/72) of patients in the triplet arm versus 52.7% (39/74) in the doublet arm. At a median follow-up of 26.2 months (IQR [12.8, 40.5]), the median PFS was 11.8 months in the triplet arm versus 13.4 months in the doublet arm (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74, 95% CI [0.50, 1.11], Log-rank p = 0.14). Grade ≥ 3 events were reported in 47.2% (35/74) of patients in the doublet arm and 55.9% (38/68) of patients in the triplet arm. The triplet arm was associated with a higher incidence of grade ≥ 3 neutropenia (44.1% versus 27.0%, p = 0.03) and diarrhea (5.9% versus 0%, p = 0.03). The primary limitations of the study encompass the inherent bias in subjective surgical decisions regarding resection feasibility, as well as the lack of a centralized assessment for ORR and resection. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of cetuximab with FOLFOXIRI did not significantly improve ORR compared to cetuximab plus FOLFOX. Despite achieving an enhanced DpR, this improvement did not translate into improved R0 resection rates or PFS. Moreover, the triplet arm was associated with an increase in treatment-related toxicity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03493048.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Camptotecina , Cetuximab , Neoplasias Colorretais , Fluoruracila , Leucovorina , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compostos Organoplatínicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Humanos , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Idoso , Adulto , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas ras/genética
5.
Talanta ; 276: 126227, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733935

RESUMO

Fatty liver disease affects at least 25 percent of the population worldwide and is a severe metabolic syndrome. Viscosity is closely related to fatty liver disease, so it is urgent to develop an effective tool for monitoring viscosity. Herein, a NIR fluorescent probe called MBC-V is developed for imaging viscosity, consisting of dimethylaniline and malonitrile-benzopyran. MBC-V is non-fluorescent in low viscosity solutions due to intramolecular rotation. In high viscosity solution, the intramolecular rotation of MBC-V is suppressed and the fluorescence is triggered. MBC-V has long emission wavelength at 720 nm and large Stokes shift about 160 nm. Moreover, MBC-V can detect changes in cell viscosity in fatty liver cells, and can image the therapeutic effects of drug in fatty liver cells. By taking advantage of NIR emission, MBC-V can be used as an imaging tool for fatty liver disease and a way to evaluate the therapeutic effect of drug for fatty liver disease.

6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302155, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Lifestyle intervention remains a preferred treatment modality for NAFLD. The glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been developed as new glucose-lowering drugs, which can improve fatty liver via an insulin-independent glucose-lowering effect. However, studies exploring the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists combined with SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with NAFLD and T2DM are scanty. Thus, the present randomised controlled trial aims at comparing the efficacy and safety of semaglutide plus empagliflozin with each treatment alone in patients with NAFLD and T2DM. METHODS: This 52-week double-blinded, randomised, parallel-group, active-controlled trial evaluates the effects of semaglutide, empagliflozin and semaglutide + empagliflozin in 105 eligible overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD and T2DM. The primary outcome will be a change from baseline to week 52 in the controlled attenuation parameter, free fatty acid and glucagon. Secondary endpoints include changes in liver stiffness measurement, liver enzymes, blood glucose, lipid levels, renal function, electrolyte balances, minerals and bone metabolism, cytokines, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin, anthropometric indicators, nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis score, fibrosis 4 score and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. In addition, intention-to-treat, interim analysis and safety analysis will be performed. DISCUSSION: This double-blinded, randomised, clinical trial involves a multi-disciplinary approach and aims to explore the synergistic effects of the combination of semaglutide and empagliflozin. The results can provide important insights into mechanisms of GLP-1 receptor agonists and/or SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with NAFLD and T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2300070674).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Glucosídeos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glicemia/metabolismo , Idoso , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1397512, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745951

RESUMO

Background: The Oxidative Balance Score (OBS) is commonly used to assess oxidative stress and provides a comprehensive evaluation of dietary and lifestyle-related exposures. However, there is limited research on the association between OBS and colorectal cancer (CRC), its subsites, and complications. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between OBS and the risk of CRC, its subsites, and common complications in a large prospective cohort study. Methods: We included data from 175,808 participants in the UK Biobank data sample repository from 2006 to 2010. We evaluated OBS using a scoring system based on 22 dietary and lifestyle factors. Multiple adjustments, including multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression, gender stratification, subgroup analysis, and sensitivity analysis, were performed to fully explore the relationship between OBS and CRC, its subsites, and complications. The mediation analysis was conducted to investigate whether serum albumin, uric acid, and neutrophil levels mediate the relationship between OBS and CRC. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, a significant negative correlation was found between OBS and the risk of CRC and its subsites (proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, and rectal cancer). This correlation was particularly pronounced in male CRC patients. Serum albumin, uric acid, and neutrophil count, which are biomarkers, were found to have a significant mediating effect between OBS and CRC. Conclusion: Our study suggests that higher exposure to antioxidants assessed through OBS (diet and lifestyle rich in antioxidants) may decrease the occurrence of CRC and its subsites.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estresse Oxidativo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Incidência , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Dieta , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Seguimentos
8.
Clin Genet ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747114

RESUMO

Type IV collagen is an integral component of basement membranes. Mutations in COL4A1, one of the key genes encoding Type IV collagen, can result in a variety of diseases. It is clear that a significant proportion of mutations that affect splicing can cause disease directly or contribute to the susceptibility or severity of disease. Here, we analyzed exonic mutations and intronic mutations described in the COL4A1 gene using bioinformatics programs and identified candidate mutations that may alter the normal splicing pattern through a minigene system. We identified seven variants that induce splicing alterations by disrupting normal splice sites, creating new ones, or altering splice regulatory elements. These mutations are predicted to impact protein function. Our results help in the correct molecular characterization of variants in COL4A1 and may help develop more personalized treatment options.

9.
J Infect ; : 106181, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates. The blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines presents a promising therapeutic strategy. METHODS: We conducted a randomized clinical trial at the 154th hospital, Xinyang, Henan Province. Eligible patients with severe SFTS disease were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either a single intravenous infusion of tocilizumab plus usual care; or usual care only. The primary outcome was the clinical status of death/survival at day 14, while secondary outcomes included improvement from baseline in liver and kidney damage and time required for hospital discharge. The efficacy of tocilizumab plus corticosteroid was compared to those receiving corticosteroid alone. The trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry website (ChiCTR2300076317). RESULTS: 63 eligible patients were assigned to the tocilizumab group and 126 to the control group. The addition of tocilizumab to usual care was associated with a reduced death rate (9.5%) compared to those received only usual care (23.0%), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.91, P=0.029). Combination therapy of tocilizumab and corticosteroids was associated with a significantly reduced fatality (aHR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.56; P =0.002) compared to those receiving corticosteroid alone. CONCLUSIONS: A significant benefit of reducing fatality in severe SFTS patients was observed by using tocilizumab. A combined therapy of tocilizumab plus corticosteroids was recommended for the therapy of severe SFTS.

10.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202400494, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genus Buxus plants, commonly known as "boxwood", are widely distributed in China. The stems, branches, and leaves of the plant are traditionally used for rheumatism, toothache, chest pain, abdominal gas, and other diseases. However, an overview of the genus Buxus remains to be provided. PURPOSE: To provide a scientific basis for the appropriate use and further research the recent advancements in the traditional usage, phytochemistry, and, pharmacology of Buxus. STUDY DESIGN: Chemical composition and pharmacological correlation studies through a literature review. METHODS: Between 1970 and 2023, the available data concerning Buxus was compiled from online scientific sources, such as Sci-Finder, PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Plant names were verified from "The Plant List'. Results: To date, 266 structurally diverse chemicals have been extracted and identified from the genus Buxus. Alkaloids constitute one of its primary bioactive phytochemicals. A summary of the channels of action of Cyclovirobuxine D on the cytotoxicity of a variety of cancers has been provided. CONCLUSION: Numerous findings from contemporary phytochemical and pharmacological studies support the traditional use, facilitating its application. Further research is necessary to address various shortcomings, including the identification of the active ingredients and quality control of the genus Buxus.

11.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(5): 336, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744865

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a reparative and progressive process characterized by abnormal extracellular matrix deposition, contributing to organ dysfunction in chronic diseases. The tumor suppressor p53 (p53), known for its regulatory roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, aging, and metabolism across diverse tissues, appears to play a pivotal role in aggravating biological processes such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell apoptosis, and cell senescence. These processes are closely intertwined with the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease. In this review, we briefly introduce the background and specific mechanism of p53, investigate the pathogenesis of fibrosis, and further discuss p53's relationship and role in fibrosis affecting the kidney, liver, lung, and heart. In summary, targeting p53 represents a promising and innovative therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of organ fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fibrose , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Humanos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Apoptose , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(19): 13336-13346, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697646

RESUMO

In recent decades, more than 100 different mechanophores with a broad range of activation forces have been developed. For various applications of mechanophores in polymer materials, it is crucial to selectively activate the mechanophores with high efficiency, avoiding nonspecific bond scission of the material. In this study, we embedded cyclobutane-based mechanophore cross-linkers (I and II) with varied activation forces (fa) in the first network of the double network hydrogels and quantitively investigated the activation selectivity and efficiency of these mechanophores. Our findings revealed that cross-linker I, with a lower activation force relative to the bonds in the polymer main chain (fa-I/fa-chain = 0.8 nN/3.4 nN), achieved efficient activation with 100% selectivity. Conversely, an increase of the activation force of mechanophore II (fa-II/fa-chain = 2.5 nN/3.4 nN) led to a significant decrease of its activation efficiency, accompanied by a substantial number of nonspecific bond scission events. Furthermore, with the coexistence of two cross-linkers, significantly different activation forces resulted in the almost complete suppression of the higher-force one (i.e., I and III, fa-I/fa-III = 0.8 nN/3.4 nN), while similar activation forces led to simultaneous activations with moderate efficiencies (i.e., I and IV, fa-I/fa-IV = 0.8 nN/1.6 nN). These findings provide insights into the prevention of nonspecific bond rupture during mechanophore activation and enhance our understanding of the damage mechanism within polymer networks when using mechanophores as detectors. Besides, it establishes a principle for combining different mechanophores to design multiple mechanoresponsive functional materials.

13.
Ecol Evol ; 14(5): e11346, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716168

RESUMO

Numerous dams disrupt freshwater animals. The uppermost population of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise has been newly formed below the Gezhouba Dam, however, information regarding the local porpoise is scarce. Passive acoustic monitoring was used to detect the behaviors of porpoises below the Gezhouba Dam. The influence of shipping, pandemic lockdown, hydrological regime, and light intensity on the biosonar activity of dolphins was also examined using Generalized linear models. Over the course of 4 years (2019-2022), approximately 848, 596, and 676 effective monitoring days were investigated at the three sites, from upstream to downstream. Observations revealed significant spatio-temporal biosonar activity. Proportion of days that are porpoise positive were 73%, 54%, and 61%, while porpoise buzz signals accounted for 78.49%, 62.35%, and 81.30% of all porpoise biosonar at the three stations. The biosonar activity of porpoises was much higher at the confluence area, particularly at the MZ site, during the absence of boat traffic, and during the Pandemic shutdown. Temporal trends of monthly, seasonal, and yearly variation were also visible, with the highest number of porpoises biosonar detected in the summer season and in 2020. Significant correlations also exist between the hydrological regime and light intensity and porpoise activity, with much higher detections during nighttime and full moon periods. Hydropower cascade development, establishment of a natural reserve, fish release initiatives, and implementation of fishing restrictions may facilitate the proliferation of the porpoise population downstream of the Gezhouba Dam within the Yichang section of the Yangtze River. Prioritizing restoration designs that match natural flow regimes, optimize boat traffic, and reduce noise pollution is crucial for promoting the conservation of the local porpoises.

14.
Anal Chem ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717985

RESUMO

Cell membrane stiffness is critical for cellular function, with cholesterol and sphingomyelin as pivot contributors. Current methods for measuring membrane stiffness are often invasive, ex situ, and slow in process, prompting the need for innovative techniques. Here, we present a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based protein sensor designed to address these challenges. The sensor consists of two fluorescent units targeting sphingomyelin and cholesterol, connected by a linker that responds to the proximity of these lipids. In rigid membranes, cholesterol and sphingomyelin are in close proximity, leading to an increased FRET signal. We utilized this sensor in combination with confocal microscopy to explore changes in plasma membrane stiffness under various conditions, including differences in osmotic pressure, the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and variations in substrate stiffness. Furthermore, we explored the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on membrane stiffness and the distribution of ACE2 after attachment to the cell membrane. This tool offers substantial potential for future investigations in the field of mechanobiology.

15.
Front Pediatr ; 12: 1308931, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720947

RESUMO

Background: Idiopathic scoliosis significantly affects the physical and mental health of children and adolescents, with varying prevalence rates in different regions. The occurrence of idiopathic scoliosis is associated with genetic regulation and biochemical factors, but the changes in exosome-derived miRNA profiles among idiopathic scoliosis patients remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis in Yunnan Province, China, and identify key exosome-derived miRNAs in idiopathic scoliosis through a cohort study. Methods: From January 2018 to December 2020, a cross-sectional study on idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents was conducted in Yunnan Province. A total of 84,460 students from 13 cities and counties in Yunnan Province participated in a scoliosis screening program, with ages ranging from 7 to 19 years. After confirmation through screening and imaging results, patients with severe idiopathic scoliosis and normal control individuals were selected using propensity matching. Subsequently, plasma exosome-derived miRNA sequencing and RT-qPCR validation were performed separately. Based on the validation results, diagnostic performance analysis and target gene prediction were conducted for differential plasma exosome-derived miRNAs. Results: The overall prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents in Yunnan Province was 1.10%, with a prevalence of 0.87% in males and 1.32% in females. The peak prevalence was observed at age 13. Among patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis, approximately 12.8% had severe cases, and there were more cases of double curvature than of single curvature, with thoracolumbar curvature being the most common in the single-curvature group. Sequencing of plasma exosome-derived miRNAs associated with idiopathic scoliosis revealed 56 upregulated and 153 downregulated miRNAs. Further validation analysis confirmed that hsa-miR-27a-5p, hsa-miR-539-5p, and hsa-miR-1246 have potential diagnostic value. Conclusions: We gained insights into the epidemiological characteristics of idiopathic scoliosis in Yunnan Province and conducted further analysis of plasma exosome-derived miRNA changes in patients with severe idiopathic scoliosis. This study has provided new insights for the prevention and diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis, paving the way for exploring clinical biomarkers and molecular regulatory mechanisms. However, further validation and elucidation of the detailed biological mechanisms underlying these findings will be required in the future.

16.
Epilepsy Res ; 203: 107370, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and functional network properties of patients with late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). METHODS: Late-onset LGS was defined by the appearance of LGS features after 8 years of age. We reviewed the medical charts of 9 patients with late-onset LGS, and performed electroencephalography connectivity analysis using graph theory. We assessed the clustering coefficient (CC) and characteristic path length (CPL), which are common basic measures of functional networks that represent local segregation and global integration. The characteristics and brain parameters of late-onset LGS were compared with a typical age-onset LGS group. RESULTS: Late onset LGS subjects were older than typical age onset LGS at the time of testing, but otherwise there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics. The late-onset group showed higher median CC values in the alpha (p = 0.045) and beta (p < 0.001) bands over brain regions implicated in cognitive processing. There were no significant differences in CPL between the LGS groups. CONCLUSIONS: Higher clustering coefficient values, in alpha/beta bands over brain regions implicated in cognitive processing, are consistent with increased cognitive network segregation in late onset LGS compared to typical age-onset LGS. Given network segregation is a normal aspect of brain maturation, these results imply that this process is less disturbed when the LGS process begins later in childhood.

17.
Water Res ; 257: 121654, 2024 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701552

RESUMO

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from arrested anaerobic digestion (AD) can be recovered as a valuable commodity for value-added synthesis. However, separating VFAs from digestate with complex constituents and a high-water content is an energy-prohibitive process. This study developed an innovative technology to overcome this barrier by integrating deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with an omniphobic membrane into a membrane contactor for efficient extraction of anhydrous VFAs with low energy consumption. A kinetic model was developed to elucidate the mechanistic differences between this novel omniphobic membrane-enabled DES extraction and the previous hydrophobic membrane-enabled NaOH extraction. Experimental results and mechanistic modeling suggested that VFA extraction by the DES is a reversible adsorption process facilitating subsequent VFA separation via anhydrous distillation. High vapor pressure of shorter-chain VFAs and low Nernst distribution coefficients of longer-chain VFAs contributed to DES-driven extraction, which could enable continuous and in-situ recovery and conversion of VFAs from AD streams.

18.
FASEB J ; 38(9): e23643, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703030

RESUMO

Secreted phospholipase A2s are involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease, which have become serious and growing health concerns worldwide. Integration of genome-wide association study and gene co-expression networks analysis showed that the secreted phospholipase A2 group XIIA (PLA2G12A) may participate in hepatic lipids metabolism. Nevertheless, the role of PLA2G12A in lipid metabolism and its potential mechanism remain elusive. Here, we used AAV9 vector carrying human PLA2G12A gene to exogenously express hPLA2G12A in the liver of mice. We demonstrated that the overexpression of hPLA2G12A resulted in a significant decrease in serum lipid levels in wild-type mice fed with chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, hPLA2G12A treatment protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed a HFD. Notably, we found that hPLA2G12A treatment confers protection against obesity and hyperlipidemia independent of its enzymatic activity, but rather by increasing physical activity and energy expenditure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that hPLA2G12A treatment induced upregulation of ApoC2 and Cd36 and downregulation of Angptl8, which contributed to the increase in clearance of circulating triglycerides and hepatic uptake of fatty acids without affecting hepatic de novo lipogenesis, very low-density lipoprotein secretion, or intestinal lipid absorption. Our study highlights the potential of PLA2G12A gene therapy as a promising approach for treating obesity, insulin resistance and T2DM.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo Energético , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Triglicerídeos , Animais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Camundongos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Masculino , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
19.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1187599, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711790

RESUMO

Background: The coronary angiography-derived index of microvascular resistance (caIMR) correlates well with the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), which predicts microvascular obstruction (MVO). However, the relationship between caIMR and MVO remains unclear. Aim: To evaluate the predictive ability of caIMR of MVO after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: CaIMR was calculated using computational flow and pressure simulation in patients with STEMI in whom MVO status had been assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) after successful primary percutaneous intervention at Peking University First Hospital between December 2016 and August 2019. The clinical, biochemical, echocardiographic, and CMR characteristics were assessed according to MVO status. The predictive value of the clinical parameters and caIMR was evaluated. Results: Fifty-three eligible patients were divided into an MVO group (n = 32) and a no-MVO group (n = 21). The caIMR tended to be higher in the MVO group (41.6 U vs. 30.1 U; p = 0.136). CaIMR and peak cardiac troponin-I (cTNI) were independent predictors of MVO (per 1-U increment in caIMR: odds ratio [OR] 1.044, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.004-1.086, p = 0.030; per 1 ng/L increase in peak cTNI: OR 1.018, 95% CI 1.003-1.033, p = 0.022). In receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, when a cut-off value of 45.17 U was used, caIMR had some ability to predict MVO (area under the curve 0.622, 95% CI 0.478-0.752, p = 0.127). Conclusions: CaIMR and peak cTNI were independent predictors of short-term MVO in patients with STEMI who had undergone successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention and may help to identify those at high risk of MVO.

20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10019, 2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693171

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a tumor that occurs in the nasopharynx. Although advances in detection and treatment have improved the prognosis of NPC the treatment of advanced NPC remains challenging. Here, we explored the effect of microRNA (miR)-122-5p on erastin-induced ferroptosis in NPC cells and the role of ferroptosis in the development of NPC. The effect of miR-122-5p silencing and overexpression and the effect of citrate synthase on erastin-induced lipid peroxidation in NPC cells was analyzed by measuring the amounts of malondialdehyde, Fe2+, glutathione, and reactive oxygen species and the morphological alterations of mitochondria. The malignant biological behavior of NPC cells was examined by cell counting kit-8, EDU, colony formation, Transwell, and wound healing assays. The effects of miR-122-5p on cell proliferation and migration associated with ferroptosis were examined in vivo in a mouse model of NPC generated by subcutaneous injection of NPC cells. We found that erastin induced ferroptosis in NPC cells. miR-122-5p overexpression inhibited CS, thereby promoting erastin-induced ferroptosis in NPC cells and decreasing NPC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ferroptose , MicroRNAs , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Piperazinas , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferroptose/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Humanos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Camundongos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus
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