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1.
World J Surg Oncol ; 22(1): 86, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a poor prognostic factor in various malignancies. However, its prognostic effect in remnant gastric cancer (RGC) remains unclear. We examined the correlation between LVI and disease prognosis in patients with T1N0-3 or T2-3N0 RGC in whom adjuvant chemotherapy was not indicated and a treatment strategy was not established. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with T1N0-3 and T2-3N0 RGC who underwent curative surgery at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine between 1997 and 2019 and at the Kyoto Chubu Medical Center between 2009 and 2019. RESULTS: Fifteen of 38 patients (39.5%) with RGC were positive for LVI. Patients with LVI had a significantly poorer prognosis for both overall survival ([OS]: P = 0.006) and recurrence-free survival ([RFS]: P = 0.001) than those without LVI. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model revealed LVI as an independent prognostic factor affecting OS (P = 0.024; hazard ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval:1.285-161.6) and RFS (P = 0.013; hazard ratio 8.98, 95% confidence interval:1.513-171.2). CONCLUSIONS: LVI is a prognostic factor for patients with T1N0-3 or T2-3N0 RGC. Evaluating LVI may be useful for determining treatment strategies for RGC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Metástase Linfática , Prognóstico , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2321665121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593078

RESUMO

Different mechanisms driving a linear temperature dependence of the resistivity ρ ∼ T at van Hove singularities (VHSs) or metal-insulator transitions when doping a Mott insulator are being debated intensively with competing theoretical proposals. We experimentally investigate this using the exceptional tunability of twisted bilayer (TB) WSe2 by tracking the parameter regions where linear-in-T resistivity is found in dependency of displacement fields, filling, and magnetic fields. We find that even when the VHSs are tuned rather far away from the half-filling point and the Mott insulating transition is absent, the T-linear resistivity persists at the VHSs. When doping away from the VHSs, the T-linear behavior quickly transitions into a Fermi liquid behavior with a T2 relation. No apparent dependency of the linear-in-T resistivity, besides a rather strong change of prefactor, is found when applying displacement fields as long as the filling is tuned to the VHSs, including D ∼ 0.28 V/nm where a high-order VHS is expected. Intriguingly, such non-Fermi liquid linear-in-T resistivity persists even when magnetic fields break the spin-degeneracy of the VHSs at which point two linear in T regions emerge, for each of the split VHSs separately. This points to a mechanism of enhanced scattering at generic VHSs rather than only at high-order VHSs or by a quantum critical point during a Mott transition. Our findings provide insights into the many-body consequences arising out of VHSs, especially the non-Fermi liquid behavior found in moiré materials.

3.
Natl Sci Rev ; 11(5): nwad249, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577674

RESUMO

Superconducting phase transitions in two dimensions lie beyond the description of the Ginzburg-Landau symmetry-breaking paradigm for three-dimensional superconductors. They are Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transitions of paired-electron condensate driven by the unbinding of topological excitations, i.e. vortices. The recently discovered monolayers of layered high-transition-temperature ([Formula: see text]) cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) meant that this 2D superconductor promised to be ideal for the study of unconventional superconductivity. But inhomogeneity posed challenges for distinguishing BKT physics from charge correlations in this material. Here, we utilize the phase sensitivity of scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy susceptometry to image the local magnetic response of underdoped Bi2212 from the monolayer to the bulk throughout its phase transition. The monolayer segregates into domains with independent phases at elevated temperatures below [Formula: see text]. Within a single domain, we find that the susceptibility oscillates with flux between diamagnetism and paramagnetism in a Fraunhofer-like pattern up to [Formula: see text]. The finite modulation period, as well as the broadening of the peaks when approaching [Formula: see text] from below, suggests well-defined vortices that are increasingly screened by the dissociation of vortex-antivortex plasma through a BKT transition. In the multilayers, the susceptibility oscillation differs in a small temperature regime below [Formula: see text], consistent with a dimensional crossover led by interlayer coupling. Serving as strong evidence for BKT transition in the bulk, we observe a sharp jump in phase stiffness and paramagnetism at small fields just below [Formula: see text]. These results unify the superconducting phase transitions from the monolayer to the bulk underdoped Bi2212, and can be collectively referred to as the BKT transition with interlayer coupling.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 132(12): 126501, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579228

RESUMO

Two-dimensional moiré materials have emerged as the most versatile platform for realizing quantum phases of electrons. Here, we explore the stability origins of correlated states in WSe_{2}/WS_{2} moiré superlattices. We find that ultrafast electronic excitation leads to partial melting of the Mott states on timescales 5 times longer than predictions from the charge hopping integrals and that the melting rates are thermally activated, with activation energies of 18±3 and 13±2 meV for the one- and two-hole Mott states, respectively, suggesting significant electron-phonon coupling. A density functional theory calculation of the one-hole Mott state confirms polaron formation and yields a hole-polaron binding energy of 16 meV. These findings reveal a close interplay of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in stabilizing the polaronic Mott insulators at transition metal dichalcogenide moiré interfaces.

5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3029, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589456

RESUMO

The discovery of various primary ferroic phases in atomically-thin van der Waals crystals have created a new two-dimensional wonderland for exploring and manipulating exotic quantum phases. It may also bring technical breakthroughs in device applications, as evident by prototypical functionalities of giant tunneling magnetoresistance, gate-tunable ferromagnetism and non-volatile ferroelectric memory etc. However, two-dimensional multiferroics with effective magnetoelectric coupling, which ultimately decides the future of multiferroic-based information technology, has not been realized yet. Here, we show that an unconventional magnetoelectric coupling mechanism interlocked with heterogeneous ferrielectric transitions emerges at the two-dimensional limit in van der Waals multiferroic CuCrP2S6 with inherent antiferromagnetism and antiferroelectricity. Distinct from the homogeneous antiferroelectric bulk, thin-layer CuCrP2S6 under external electric field makes layer-dependent heterogeneous ferrielectric transitions, minimizing the depolarization effect introduced by the rearrangements of Cu+ ions within the ferromagnetic van der Waals cages of CrS6 and P2S6 octahedrons. The resulting ferrielectric phases are characterized by substantially reduced interlayer magnetic coupling energy of nearly 50% with a moderate electric field of 0.3 V nm-1, producing widely-tunable magnetoelectric coupling which can be further engineered by asymmetrical electrode work functions.

6.
Nano Lett ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597670

RESUMO

We report experimental and theoretical studies of MoTe2-MoSe2 heterobilayers with rigid moiré superlattices controlled by the twist angle. Using an effective continuum model that combines resonant interlayer electron tunneling with stacking-dependent moiré potentials, we identify the nature of moiré excitons and the dependence of their energies, oscillator strengths, and Landé g-factors on the twist angle. Within the same framework, we interpret distinct signatures of bound complexes among electrons and moiré excitons in nearly collinear heterostacks. Our work provides a fundamental understanding of hybrid moiré excitons and trions in MoTe2-MoSe2 heterobilayers and establishes the material system as a prime candidate for optical studies of correlated phenomena in moiré lattices.

7.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bardoxolone methyl (2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester, CDDO-Me) is a potent activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which induces the expression of antioxidative-associated genes. CDDO-Me exerts protective effects against chronic inflammatory diseases in the kidneys and lungs. However, its pharmacological effects on metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH) caused by fat accumulation remain unknown. In this study, we examined the hepatoprotective effects of CDDO-Me in a diet-induced MASH mouse model and elucidated its pharmacological mechanisms using RNA-seq analysis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: CDDO-Me was orally administered to mice fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD), and histological, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers of mice that developed MASH. KEY RESULTS: CDDO-Me administration induced the expression of antioxidant genes and cholesterol transporters downstream of Nrf2 and significantly prevented the symptoms of MASH. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed that CDDO-Me inhibited the inflammatory pathway that led to phagocyte recruitment, in addition to activating the Nrf2-dependent pathway. Among inflammatory pathways, CC chemokine ligands (CCL)3 and CCL4, which are downstream of NF-κB and are associated with the recruitment of macrophages expressing CC chemokine receptors (CCR)1 and CCR5, were released into the blood in MASH mice. However, CDDO-Me directly inhibited the expression of CCL3-CCR1 and CCL4-CCR5 in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Overall, we revealed the potent hepatoprotective effect of CDDO-Me in a MASH mouse model and demonstrated that its pharmacological effects were closely associated with a reduction of macrophage infiltration, through CCL3-CCR1 and CCL4-CCR5 inhibition, in addition to Nrf2-mediated hepatoprotective effects.

8.
Nature ; 628(8007): 287-292, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600267

RESUMO

Wigner predicted that when the Coulomb interactions between electrons become much stronger than their kinetic energy, electrons crystallize into a closely packed lattice1. A variety of two-dimensional systems have shown evidence for Wigner crystals2-11 (WCs). However, a spontaneously formed classical or quantum WC has never been directly visualized. Neither the identification of the WC symmetry nor direct investigation of its melting has been accomplished. Here we use high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements to directly image a magnetic-field-induced electron WC in Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene and examine its structural properties as a function of electron density, magnetic field and temperature. At high fields and the lowest temperature, we observe a triangular lattice electron WC in the lowest Landau level. The WC possesses the expected lattice constant and is robust between filling factor ν ≈ 0.13 and ν ≈ 0.38 except near fillings where it competes with fractional quantum Hall states. Increasing the density or temperature results in the melting of the WC into a liquid phase that is isotropic but has a modulated structure characterized by the Bragg wavevector of the WC. At low magnetic fields, the WC unexpectedly transitions into an anisotropic stripe phase, which has been commonly anticipated to form in higher Landau levels. Analysis of individual lattice sites shows signatures that may be related to the quantum zero-point motion of electrons in the WC lattice.

9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2550, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514632

RESUMO

In graphene devices, the electronic drift velocity can easily exceed the speed of sound in the material at moderate current biases. Under these conditions, the electronic system can efficiently amplify acoustic phonons, leading to an exponential growth of sound waves in the direction of the carrier flow. Here, we show that such phonon amplification can significantly modify the electrical properties of graphene devices. We observe a superlinear growth of the resistivity in the direction of the carrier flow when the drift velocity exceeds the speed of sound - resulting in a sevenfold increase over a distance of 8 µm. The resistivity growth is observed at carrier densities away from the Dirac point and is enhanced at cryogenic temperatures. We develop a theoretical model for the resistivity growth due to the electrical amplification of acoustic phonons - reaching frequencies up to 2.2 THz - where the wavelength is controlled by gate-tunable transitions across the Fermi surface. These findings provide a route to on-chip high-frequency sound generation and detection in the THz frequency range.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 132(7): 076902, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427888

RESUMO

We study experimentally and theoretically the hybridization among intralayer and interlayer moiré excitons in a MoSe_{2}/WS_{2} heterostructure with antiparallel alignment. Using a dual-gate device and cryogenic white light reflectance and narrow-band laser modulation spectroscopy, we subject the moiré excitons in the MoSe_{2}/WS_{2} heterostack to a perpendicular electric field, monitor the field-induced dispersion and hybridization of intralayer and interlayer moiré exciton states, and induce a crossover from type I to type II band alignment. Moreover, we employ perpendicular magnetic fields to map out the dependence of the corresponding exciton Landé g factors on the electric field. Finally, we develop an effective theoretical model combining resonant and nonresonant contributions to moiré potentials to explain the observed phenomenology, and highlight the relevance of interlayer coupling for structures with close energetic band alignment as in MoSe_{2}/WS_{2}.

12.
Nature ; 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509375

RESUMO

Quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators are two-dimensional electronic materials that have a bulk band gap similar to an ordinary insulator but have topologically protected pairs of edge modes of opposite chiralities1-6. So far, experimental studies have found only integer QSH insulators with counter-propagating up-spins and down-spins at each edge leading to a quantized conductance G0 = e2/h (with e and h denoting the electron charge and Planck's constant, respectively)7-14. Here we report transport evidence of a fractional QSH insulator in 2.1° twisted bilayer MoTe2, which supports spin-Sz conservation and flat spin-contrasting Chern bands15,16. At filling factor ν = 3 of the moiré valence bands, each edge contributes a conductance 3 2 G 0 with zero anomalous Hall conductivity. The state is probably a time-reversal pair of the even-denominator 3/2-fractional Chern insulators. Furthermore, at ν = 2, 4 and 6, we observe a single, double and triple QSH insulator with each edge contributing a conductance G0, 2G0 and 3G0, respectively. Our results open up the possibility of realizing time-reversal symmetric non-abelian anyons and other unexpected topological phases in highly tunable moiré materials17-19.

13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2597, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519502

RESUMO

Flat-band systems with strongly correlated electrons can exhibit a variety of phenomena, such as correlated insulating and topological states, unconventional superconductivity, and ferromagnetism. Rhombohedral multilayer graphene has recently emerged as a promising platform for investigating exotic quantum states due to its hosting of topologically protected surface flat bands at low energy, which have a layer-dependent energy dispersion. However, the complex relationship between the surface flat bands and the highly dispersive high-energy bands makes it difficult to study correlated surface states. In this study, we introduce moiré superlattices as a method to isolate the surface flat bands of rhombohedral multilayer graphene. The observed pronounced screening effects in the moiré potential-modulated rhombohedral multilayer graphene indicate that the two surface states are electronically decoupled. The flat bands that are isolated promote correlated surface states in areas that are distant from the charge neutrality points. Notably, we observe tunable layer-polarized ferromagnetism, which is evidenced by a hysteretic anomalous Hall effect. This is achieved by polarizing the surface states with finite displacement fields.

14.
Sci Adv ; 10(12): eadk6369, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507493

RESUMO

Excitons-bound electron-hole pairs-play a central role in light-matter interaction phenomena and are crucial for wide-ranging applications from light harvesting and generation to quantum information processing. A long-standing challenge in solid-state optics has been to achieve precise and scalable control over excitonic motion. We present a technique using nanostructured gate electrodes to create tailored potential landscapes for excitons in 2D semiconductors, enabling in situ wave function shaping at the nanoscale. Our approach forms electrostatic traps for excitons in various geometries, such as quantum dots, rings, and arrays thereof. We show independent spectral tuning of spatially separated quantum dots, achieving degeneracy despite material disorder. Owing to the strong light-matter coupling of excitons in 2D semiconductors, we observe unambiguous signatures of confined exciton wave functions in optical reflection and photoluminescence measurements. This work unlocks possibilities for engineering exciton dynamics and interactions at the nanometer scale, with implications for optoelectronic devices, topological photonics, and quantum nonlinear optics.

15.
Nano Lett ; 24(12): 3678-3685, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471109

RESUMO

Control over the optical properties of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) layers, including those of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), is needed for future optoelectronic applications. Here, the near-field coupling between TMDs and graphene/graphite is used to engineer the exciton line shape and charge state. Fano-like asymmetric spectral features are produced in WS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 van der Waals heterostructures combined with graphene, graphite, or jointly with hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as supporting or encapsulating layers. Furthermore, trion emission is suppressed in h-BN encapsulated WSe2/graphene with a neutral exciton red shift (44 meV) and binding energy reduction (30 meV). The response of these systems to electron beam and light probes is well-described in terms of 2D optical conductivities of the involved materials. Beyond fundamental insights into the interaction of TMD excitons with structured environments, this study opens an unexplored avenue toward shaping the spectral profile of narrow optical modes for application in nanophotonic devices.

16.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504024

RESUMO

In conventional ferroelectric materials, polarization is an intrinsic property limited by bulk crystallographic structure and symmetry. Recently, it has been demonstrated that polar order can also be accessed using inherently non-polar van der Waals materials through layer-by-layer assembly into heterostructures, wherein interfacial interactions can generate spontaneous, switchable polarization. Here we show that deliberate interlayer rotations in multilayer van der Waals heterostructures modulate both the spatial ordering and switching dynamics of polar domains. The engendered tunability is unparalleled in conventional bulk ferroelectrics or polar bilayers. By means of operando transmission electron microscopy we show how alterations of the relative rotations of three WSe2 layers produce structural polytypes with distinct arrangements of polar domains with either a global or localized switching response. Furthermore, the presence of uniaxial strain generates structural anisotropy that yields a range of switching behaviours, coercivities and even tunable biased responses. We also provide evidence of mechanical coupling between the two interfaces of the trilayer, a key consideration for the control of switching dynamics in polar multilayer structures more broadly.

17.
Nature ; 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538800

RESUMO

Van der Waals encapsulation of two-dimensional materials in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) stacks is a promising way to create ultrahigh-performance electronic devices1-4. However, contemporary approaches for achieving van der Waals encapsulation, which involve artificial layer stacking using mechanical transfer techniques, are difficult to control, prone to contamination and unscalable. Here we report the transfer-free direct growth of high-quality graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) in hBN stacks. The as-grown embedded GNRs exhibit highly desirable features being ultralong (up to 0.25 mm), ultranarrow (<5 nm) and homochiral with zigzag edges. Our atomistic simulations show that the mechanism underlying the embedded growth involves ultralow GNR friction when sliding between AA'-stacked hBN layers. Using the grown structures, we demonstrate the transfer-free fabrication of embedded GNR field-effect devices that exhibit excellent performance at room temperature with mobilities of up to 4,600 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off ratios of up to 106. This paves the way for the bottom-up fabrication of high-performance electronic devices based on embedded layered materials.

18.
Nano Lett ; 24(13): 3986-3993, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501960

RESUMO

Atomically thin cuprates exhibiting a superconducting phase transition temperature similar to that of the bulk have recently been realized, although the device fabrication remains a challenge and limits the potential for many novel studies and applications. Here, we use an optical pump-probe approach to noninvasively study the unconventional superconductivity in atomically thin Bi2Sr2Ca0.92Y0.08Cu2O8+δ (Y-Bi2212). Apart from finding an optical response due to the superconducting phase transition that is similar to that of bulk Y-Bi2212, we observe that the sign and amplitude of the pump-probe signal in atomically thin flakes vary significantly in different dielectric environments depending on the nature of the optical excitation. By exploiting the spatial resolution of the optical probe, we uncover the exceptional sensitivity of monolayer Y-Bi2212 to the environment. Our results provide the first optical evidence for the intralayer nature of the superconducting condensate in Bi2212 and highlight the role of double-sided encapsulation in preserving superconductivity in atomically thin cuprates.

19.
Nano Lett ; 24(13): 3851-3857, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502010

RESUMO

A two-dimensional (2D) quantum electron system is characterized by quantized energy levels, or subbands, in the out-of-plane direction. Populating higher subbands and controlling the intersubband transitions have wide technological applications such as optical modulators and quantum cascade lasers. In conventional materials, however, the tunability of intersubband spacing is limited. Here we demonstrate electrostatic population and characterization of the second subband in few-layer InSe quantum wells, with giant tunability of its energy, population, and spin-orbit coupling strength, via the control of not only layer thickness but also the out-of-plane displacement field. A modulation of as much as 350% or over 250 meV is achievable, underscoring the promise of InSe for tunable infrared and THz sources, detectors, and modulators.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(10): 13212-13218, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426213

RESUMO

The ability to control the charge and spin states of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers near the diamond surface is of pivotal importance for quantum applications. Hydrogen-terminated diamond is promising for long spin coherence times and ease of controlling the charge states due to the low density of surface defects. However, it has so far been challenging to create negatively charged single NV centers with controllable spin states beneath a hydrogen-terminated surface because atmospheric adsorbates that act as acceptors induce surface holes. In this study, we optically detected the magnetic resonance of shallow single NV centers in hydrogen-terminated diamond through precise control of the nitrogen implantation fluence. Furthermore, we found that the probability of detecting the resonance was enhanced by reducing the surface acceptor density through passivation of the hydrogen-terminated surface with hexagonal boron nitride without air exposure. This control method opens up new opportunities for using NV centers in quantum applications.

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