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1.
J Cancer Educ ; 38(4): 1264-1270, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585570

RESUMO

Skin cancer patients increasingly search the internet to acquire disease-related information. However, information on the internet may be misleading. Recently, SKINFO has been launched, a website exclusively created for German-speaking skin cancer patients providing information as well as additional resources of verified quality. Here, we describe the results of the first usability test of SKINFO using a mixed-methods approach. Ten adult patients with skin cancer were recruited for usability testing in the skin cancer units of the University Hospitals of Erlangen and Dresden, Germany. Testing consisted of three different scenarios where patients were asked to find specific information on the SKINFO website guided by the think-aloud method. Descriptive analysis and content analyses were performed. All patients would recommend SKINFO and appreciated its content, design, and structure. Think-aloud analysis identified the topics layout, navigation, and content and structure which would benefit from refinement. Major criticism included the navigation through the website, and the desire for more specific information addressing patients' relatives and the latest, up-to-date information. Overall, usability testing showed that the unique web-based information platform has the potential to support patients coping with skin cancer and thus strengthen informed decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Humanos , Design Centrado no Usuário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Alemanha , Internet
5.
Ambio ; 50(5): 1035-1046, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244744

RESUMO

The distribution of urban ecosystem services (UES) is often uneven across socioeconomic groups, leading to environmental justice issues. Understanding the distribution of UES across a landscape can help managers ensure an equitable distribution of services. While many past studies have focused on the distribution of green spaces in relation to socioeconomic variables, this research analyzes the distribution of UES provided by these green spaces. This research quantified air pollution removal, atmospheric carbon reduction, and surface runoff mitigation provided by urban trees in Strasbourg city (France). The provision of these three UES was studied at the census block scale by creating an index of UES delivery, which was contrasted with a constructed social deprivation index. Our results show that there is no significant association between the delivery of UES and social deprivation. Some deprived populations benefit from high UES delivery. Results also suggest that mapping associations between UES delivery and social deprivation should be integrated with future development plans to enhance the equitable distribution of UES. This study provides insights into the French context where studies about the distribution of UES at a small-area level remain lacking.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ecossistema , Cidades , França , Árvores
6.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751416

RESUMO

Animals in urban environments face challenging situations and have to cope with human activities. This study investigated the ecology and behaviour of a population of European hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) living in the city centre of Vienna (Austria). We recorded the surface activities of 35 hamsters in May 2015. Each focal animal was observed for 15 minutes, and a total of 66 focal samples were analysable. As a prey species in an environment teeming with human activities, we predicted a high level of vigilance by the hamsters. The results show that while animals dedicated a lot of time to vigilance, most of their time was spent foraging. The study also explores whether the frequency of vigilance behaviours differ between males and females. We found that vigilance behaviours were expressed in a different manner by males and females. Finally, we investigated the distribution of the burrows on green spaces depending on proximity to trees and on noise levels. We found a biased distribution of burrows, with a spatial preference for location protected by the vegetation and distant to noise sources. Although burrows were located preferentially under vegetation cover, levels of noise did not determine their positions. Moreover, this species does not respond to disturbances like daily urban noises, probably due to habituation. The common hamster is an endangered species; our results lead to a greater knowledge of its behaviour in a persistent urban population.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Dinâmica Populacional , Saúde da População Urbana , Animais , Áustria , Comportamento Animal , Cidades , Cricetinae , Geografia
9.
Melanoma Res ; 29(2): 196-204, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787460

RESUMO

There is a scarcity of available data on unmet information needs (UINs) of melanoma patients (MPs) from Germany and of MPs with clinical stage IV. In a multicenter cross-sectional survey, we explored the UINs of 529 MPs by applying a standardized questionnaire. Subgroup differences in scope and contents of UINs were determined by univariate analyses. Predictors of the presence of UINs were identified by binary logistic regression. Overall, 55% of MPs reported UINs. Most MPs felt poorly or not informed about psychosocial support (24-31%). In MPs currently receiving medical treatment [odds ratio (OR): 1.9; P=0.017], MPs aging of at least 55 years (OR: 1.7; P=0.029), and in MPs who generally had a high need for information on their condition (OR: 2.4; P=0.001), the presence of UINs was significantly more likely than in post-treatment MPs, MPs more than 55 years of age, and those whose general information need was low. Most UINs concerned treatment-related information and were reported by MPs with tumor progression. Presence and scope of UINs did not differ significantly between metastatic and nonmetastatic MPs (57 vs. 53%; P=0.436). We highlighted differences in the presence, scope, and contents of UINs between MP subgroups, which should be considered when educating them in medical consultations and providing information via media. In particular, MPs felt insufficiently informed about psychosocial support and desired more treatment information.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Cancer Educ ; 34(4): 760-767, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736794

RESUMO

Booklets are the preferably used form among patient education materials and are often handed out during medical consultations in dermatological oncology settings. However, little is known about how beneficial they are and whether they correspond to essential quality characteristics. To assess the quality, readability, and understandability of currently freely available booklets written in German addressing melanoma patients (MP). Melanoma booklets in accordance with predefined criteria were searched and analyzed. Three reviewers independently assessed their quality and understandability by applying the DISCERN tool and PEMAT-P. The Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) was calculated to determine readability. Nine booklets addressing MP were analyzed. The overall median DISCERN score was 3.6 (interquartile range (IQR) 2.9-4.1), median PEMAT-P score was 91% (IQR 83-94.5), and median FRES was 43 (IQR 33.5-47.5), indicating a medium quality, a high application of understandability elements, but low readability in at least half of the booklets. Incomplete reporting on treatments and insufficient meta-information caused the main quality deficits. There is a need of content and didactic revision of German booklets for MP to raise their quality and to make them beneficial and understandable for more patients. An adaption in accordance with evidence-based criteria and an even stronger involvement of MP in assessment and development of patient education material are considered to be the best approaches.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Idioma , Melanoma/psicologia , Folhetos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Leitura , Vocabulário , Compreensão , Alemanha , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Materiais de Ensino
12.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 16(9): 1093-1101, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the information-seeking behavior (ISB) of melanoma patients (MPs) and MP subgroups, in order to provide data for needs-based adaptation of information provision. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey in 27 German skin cancer centers, we explored characteristics of the ISB of MPs with the aid of a standardized questionnaire. Sub-group differences were determined with the chi-squared test and predictors of media preferences with logistic regression. RESULTS: 67 % of the 529 participating MPs had clinical stage III or IV melanoma. Most of the participants (81 %) reported medical consultations as their regularly or frequently used information resource (IR). 58 % wished to have more advice about IRs from their physician. Only 8 % of MPs used the services of self-help groups and 12 % of MPs took advantage of the services of cancer counseling centers. The internet (63 %) and booklets (58 %) were reported to be the preferred media. Age, educational level, general need for information and lack of awareness of their own condition proved to be predictors for media preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Most MPs expected their physician to advise them about IRs they could use in addition to medical consultations. Peer support services were quite underused by MPs. The various preferences of media by MPs should be considered when deve-loping and providing IRs.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet , Melanoma , Folhetos , Médicos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Obes Facts ; 11(3): 221-231, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the associations between walking and cycling with obesity-related phenotypes is growing but relies mostly on the use of BMI. The purpose of this study was to analyze associations of walking and cycling behaviors assessed separately with various obesity markers in French adults. METHODS: In 12,776 adult participants (71.3% women) of the on-going NutriNet Santé web-cohort, we assessed by self-report past-month walking and cycling (for commuting, errands and leisure), and obesity measures were taken during a visit at a clinical center (weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat by bioimpedance). RESULTS: In analyses not taking into account other types of physical activity (household, leisure), walking more than 2.5 h/week was associated in women with lower weight (-1.8 kg), waist circumference (-1.7 cm) and percent body fat (-1.1%) (all p < 0.001). Cycling more than 1.5 h/week was associated in men and women with lower weight (-4.3 and -1.4 kg, respectively), waist circumference (-4.4 and -2.1 cm, respectively), and percent body fat (-2.5 and -1.9 % respectively) (all p < 0.001). Results were unaltered when analyses were further adjusted on household and leisure physical activity. CONCLUSION: These results show important differences between walking and cycling in their association with obesity markers in men and women. These findings provide some evidence for the need to consider separately walking and cycling when designing public health measures for prevention of obesity in adults.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
14.
Front Robot AI ; 5: 3, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500890

RESUMO

Biomimetic robots (BRs) are becoming more common in behavioral research and, if they are accepted as conspecifics, allow for new forms of experimental manipulations of social interactions. Nevertheless, it is often not clear which cues emanating from a BR are actually used as communicative signals and how species or populations with different sensory makeups react to specific types of BRs. We herein present results from experiments using two populations of livebearing fishes that differ in their sensory capabilities. In the South of Mexico, surface-dwelling mollies (Poecilia mexicana) successfully invaded caves and adapted to dark conditions. While almost without pigment, these cave mollies possess smaller but still functional eyes. Although previous studies found cave mollies to show reduced shoaling preferences with conspecifics in light compared to surface mollies, it is assumed that they possess specialized adaptations to maintain some kind of sociality also in their dark habitats. By testing surface- and cave-dwelling mollies with RoboFish, a BR made for use in laboratory experiments with guppies and sticklebacks, we asked to what extent visual and non-visual cues play a role in their social behavior. Both cave- and surface-dwelling mollies followed the BR as well as a live companion when tested in light. However, when tested in darkness, only surface-dwelling fish were attracted by a live conspecific, whereas cave-dwelling fish were not. Neither cave- nor surface-dwelling mollies were attracted to RoboFish in darkness. This is the first study to use BRs for the investigation of social behavior in mollies and to compare responses to BRs both in light and darkness. As our RoboFish is accepted as conspecific by both used populations of the Atlantic molly only under light conditions but not in darkness, we argue that our replica is providing mostly visual cues.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 9069730, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717653

RESUMO

The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the "active transportation" cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with "active transportation" included "high availability of destinations around home," "presence of bicycle paths," and "low traffic." A "positive image of walking/cycling," the "individual feeling of being physically active," and a "high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends" were positively related to "active transportation," identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.


Assuntos
Fatores Socioeconômicos , Meios de Transporte , Adulto , Meio Ambiente , Exercício Físico , Feminino , França , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Movimento , Comportamento Sedentário
16.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 569, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active transportation has been associated with favorable health outcomes. Previous research highlighted the influence of neighborhood educational level on active transportation. However, little is known regarding the effect of commuting distance on social disparities in active commuting. In this regard, women have been poorly studied. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood educational level and active commuting, and to assess whether the commuting distance modifies this relationship in adult women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is based on a subsample of women from the Nutrinet-Santé web-cohort (N = 1169). Binomial, log-binomial and negative binomial regressions were used to assess the associations between neighborhood education level and (i) the likelihood of reporting any active commuting time, and (ii) the share of commuting time made by active transportation modes. Potential effect measure modification of distance to work on the previous associations was assessed both on the additive and the multiplicative scales. RESULTS: Neighborhood education level was positively associated with the probability of reporting any active commuting time (relative risk = 1.774; p < 0.05) and the share of commuting time spent active (relative risk = 1.423; p < 0.05). The impact of neighborhood education was greater at long distances to work for both outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting tend to increase with commuting distance among women. Further research is needed to provide geographically driven guidance for health promotion intervention aiming at reducing disparities in active transportation among socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Health Geogr ; 16(1): 22, 2017 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing understanding of the role played by 'neighbourhood' in influencing health status. Various neighbourhood characteristics-such as socioeconomic environment, availability of amenities, and social cohesion, may be combined-and this could contribute to rising health inequalities. This study aims to combine a data-driven approach with clustering analysis techniques, to investigate neighbourhood characteristics that may explain the geographical distribution of the onset of myocardial infarction (MI) risk. METHODS: All MI events in patients aged 35-74 years occurring in the Strasbourg metropolitan area (SMA), from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2007 were obtained from the Bas-Rhin coronary heart disease register. All cases were geocoded to the census block for the residential address. Each areal unit, characterized by contextual neighbourhood profile, included socioeconomic environment, availability of amenities (including leisure centres, libraries and parks, and transport) and psychosocial environment as well as specific annual rates standardized (per 100,000 inhabitants). A spatial scan statistic implemented in SaTScan was then used to identify statistically significant spatial clusters of high and low risk of MI. RESULT: MI incidence was non-randomly spatially distributed, with a cluster of high risk of MI in the northern part of the SMA [relative risk (RR) = 1.70, p = 0.001] and a cluster of low risk of MI located in the first and second periphery of SMA (RR 0.04, p value  =  0.001). Our findings suggest that the location of low MI risk is characterized by a high socioeconomic level and a low level of access to various amenities; conversely, the location of high MI risk is characterized by a high level of socioeconomic deprivation-despite the fact that inhabitants have good access to the local recreational and leisure infrastructure. CONCLUSION: Our data-driven approach highlights how the different contextual dimensions were inter-combined in the SMA. Our spatial approach allowed us to identify the neighbourhood characteristics of inhabitants living within a cluster of high versus low MI risk. Therefore, spatial data-driven analyses of routinely-collected data georeferenced by various sources may serve to guide policymakers in defining and promoting targeted actions at fine spatial level.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Estatística como Assunto/métodos
18.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0168986, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28052086

RESUMO

It is generally accepted that active mobility, mainly walking and cycling, contributes to people's physical and mental health. One of the current challenges is to improve our understanding of this type of behaviour. This study aims to identify factors from the daily-life environment that may be related to active mobility behaviours, in order to design a new questionnaire for a quantitative study of a large adult population. The new questionnaire obtained through this pilot study combines information from interviews with existing questionnaires materials in order to introduce new factors while retaining the factors already assessed. This approach comprises three stages. The first was a content analysis (Reinert method) of interviews with a sample of participants about daily living activities as well as mobility. This stage led to a typology of factors suggested by interviews. The second was a scoping review of the literature in order to identify the active mobility questionnaires currently used in international literature. The last stage was a cross-tabulation of the factors resulting from the written interviews and the questionnaires. A table of the inter-relationships between the interview-based typology and the questionnaires shows discrepancies between factors considered by the existing questionnaires, and factors coming from individual interviews. Independent factors which were ignored in or absent from the questionnaires are the housing situation within the urban structure, overall consideration of the activity space beyond the limits of the residential neighbourhood, the perception of all the transportation modes, and the time scheduling impacting the modes actually used. Our new questionnaire integrates both the usual factors and the new factors that may be related to active mobility behaviours.


Assuntos
Entrevistas como Assunto , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 753, 2016 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27506456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive assessment of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), including transport-related activities (TRA), is required to design innovative PA promotion strategies. There are few validated instruments that simultaneously assess the different components of human movement according to their context of practice (e.g. work, transport, leisure). We examined test-retest reliability and validity of the Sedentary, Transportation and Activity Questionnaire (STAQ), a newly developed questionnaire dedicated to assessing context-specific SB, TRA and PA. METHODS: Ninety six subjects (51 women) kept a contextualized activity-logbook and wore a hip accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X + (TM)) for a 7-day or 14-day period, at the end of which they completed the STAQ. Activity-energy expenditure was measured in a subgroup of 45 subjects using the double labeled water (DLW) method. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class-coefficients (ICC) in a subgroup of 32 subjects who filled the questionnaire twice one month apart. Accelerometry was annotated using the logbook to obtain total and context-specific objective estimates of SB. Spearman correlations, Bland-Altman plots and ICC were used to analyze validity with logbook, accelerometry and DLW data validity criteria. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability was fair for total sitting time (ICC = 0.52), good to excellent for work sitting time (ICC = 0.71), transport-related walking (ICC = 0.61) and car use (ICC = 0.67), and leisure screen-related SB (ICC = 0.64-0.79), but poor for total sitting time during leisure and transport-related contexts. For validity, compared to accelerometry, significant correlations were found for STAQ estimates of total (r = 0.54) and context-specific sitting times with stronger correlations for work sitting time (r = 0.88), and screen times (TV/DVD viewing: r = 0.46; other screens: r = 0.42) than for transport (r = 0.35) or leisure-related sitting-times (r = 0.19). Compared to contextualized logbook, STAQ estimates of TRA was higher for car (r = 0.65) than for active transport (r = 0.41). The questionnaire generally overestimated work- and leisure-related SB and sitting times, while it underestimated total and transport-related sitting times. CONCLUSIONS: The STAQ showed acceptable reliability and a good ranking validity for assessment of context-specific SB and TRA. This instrument appears as a useful tool to study SB, TRA and PA in context in adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Movimento , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , França , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tempo , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 12: 150, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26646510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing active transport behavior (walking, cycling) throughout the life-course is a key element of physical activity promotion for health. There is, however, a need to better understand the correlates of specific domains of walking and cycling to identify more precisely at-risk populations for public health interventions. In addition, current knowledge of interactions between domains of walking and cycling remains limited. METHODS: We assessed past-month self-reported time spent walking and cycling in three specific domains (commuting, leisure and errands) in 39,295 French adult participants (76.5% women) of the on-going NutriNet Santé web-cohort. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations with socio-demographic and physical activity correlates. RESULTS: Having a transit pass was strongly positively associated with walking for commuting and for errands but was unrelated to walking for leisure or to all domains of cycling. Having a parking space at work was strongly negatively associated with walking for commuting and cycling for commuting. BMI was negatively associated with both walking for leisure and errands, and with the three domains of cycling. Leisure-time physical activity was negatively associated with walking for commuting but was positively associated with the two other domains of walking and with cycling (three domains). Walking for commuting was positively associated with the other domains of walking; cycling for commuting was also positively associated with the other domains of cycling. Walking for commuting was not associated with cycling for commuting. CONCLUSIONS: In adults walking and cycling socio-demographic and physical activity correlates differ by domain (commuting, leisure and errands). Better knowledge of relationships between domains should help to develop interventions focusing not only the right population, but also the right behavior.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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