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1.
J Control Release ; 333: 269-282, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798664

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of the soft tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth, which causes periodontal structural damage, alveolar bone resorption, and even tooth loss. Its prevalence is very high, with nearly 60% of the global population affected. Hence, periodontitis is an important public health concern, and the development of effective healing treatments for oral diseases is a major target of the health sciences. Currently, the application of local drug delivery systems (LDDS) as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planning (SRP) in periodontitis is a promising strategy, giving higher efficacy and fewer side effects by controlling drug release. The cornerstone of successful periodontitis therapy is to select an appropriate bioactive agent and route of administration. In this context, this review highlights applications of LDDS with different properties in the treatment of periodontitis with or without systemic diseases, in order to reveal existing challenges and future research directions.

2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824459

RESUMO

Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)/PD-1 checkpoint extensively serves as a central mediator of immunosuppression. A tumor-promoting role for abundant PD-L1 in several cancers is revealed. However, the importance of PD-L1 and how the PD-L1 expression is controlled in breast cancer remains obscure. Here, the mechanisms of controlling PD-L1 at the transcription and protein acetylation levels in promoting breast cancer growth are presented. Overexpressed PD-L1 accelerates breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq uncovers that PD-L1 can induce some target genes affecting many cellular processes, especially cancer development. In clinical breast cancer tissues and cells, PD-L1 and HBXIP are both increased, and their expressions are positively correlated. Mechanistic exploration identifies that HBXIP stimulates the transcription of PD-L1 through co-activating ETS2. Specifically, HBXIP induces PD-L1 acetylation at K270 site through interacting with acetyltransferase p300, leading to the stability of PD-L1 protein. Functionally, depletion of HBXIP attenuates PD-L1-accelerated breast tumor growth. Aspirin alleviates breast cancer via targeting PD-L1 and HBXIP. Collectively, the findings display new light into the mechanisms of controlling tumor PD-L1 and broaden the utility for PD-L1 as a target in breast cancer therapy.

3.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824461

RESUMO

Nanomedicine has attracted increasing attention and emerged as a safer and more effective modality in cancer treatment than conventional chemotherapy. In particular, the distinction of tumor microenvironment and normal tissues is often used in stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems for controlled release of therapeutic agents at target sites. In this study, we developed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA), and pH-sensitive lipid (PSL) for synergistic delivery and dual-pH-responsive sequential release of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and paclitaxel (PTX) (PL-PMSN-PTX/ATO). Tumor-targeting peptide F56 was used to modify MSNs, which conferred a target-specific delivery to cancer and endothelial cells under neoangiogenesis. PAA- and PSL-coated nanoparticles were characterized by TGA, TEM, FT-IR, and DLS. The drug-loaded nanoparticles displayed a dual-pH-responsive (pHe = 6.5, pHendo = 5.0) and sequential drug release profile. PTX within PSL was preferentially released at pH = 6.5, whereas ATO was mainly released at pH = 5.0. Drug-free carriers showed low cytotoxicity toward MCF-7 cells, but ATO and PTX co-delivered nanoparticles displayed a significant synergistic effect against MCF-7 cells, showing greater cell-cycle arrest in treated cells and more activation of apoptosis-related proteins than free drugs. Furthermore, the extracellular release of PTX caused an expansion of the interstitial space, allowing deeper penetration of the nanoparticles into the tumor mass through a tumor priming effect. As a result, FPL-PMSN-PTX/ATO exhibited improved in vivo circulation time, tumor-targeted delivery, and overall therapeutic efficacy.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 587-589, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811169

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk models increasingly are including mammographic density (MD) and polygenic risk scores (PRS) to improve identification of higher-risk women who may benefit from genetic screening, earlier and supplemental breast screening, chemoprevention, and other targeted interventions. Here, we present additional considerations for improved clinical use of risk prediction models with MD, PRS, and questionnaire-based risk factors. These considerations include whether changing risk factor patterns, including MD, can improve risk prediction and management, and whether PRS could help inform breast cancer screening without MD measures and prior to the age at initiation of population-based mammography. We further argue that it may be time to reconsider issues around breast cancer risk models that may warrant a more comprehensive head-to-head comparison with other methods for risk factor assessment and risk prediction, including emerging artificial intelligence methods. With the increasing recognition of limitations of any single mathematical model, no matter how simplified, we are at an important juncture for consideration of these different approaches for improved risk stratification in geographically and ethnically diverse populations.See related article by Rosner et al., p. 600.

5.
Cell Signal ; : 110001, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pancreatic fibrosis increases pancreatic cancer risk in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in the pathological processes of pancreatic fibrosis by transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) signal pathway in CP. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor has been shown to inhibit transforming growth factor ß receptor (TGFßR)-mediated Smad and no-Smad signaling pathways. Thus, the effects of Hsp90 inhibitor on pancreatic fibrosis are evaluated in CP mice, and the association between Hsp90 and biological functions of PSCs is further investigated in vitro. METHODS: The effects of Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG on pancreatic fibrosis were assessed in caerulein-induced CP mice, and primary PSCs were used to determine the role Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG. RESULTS: We observed increased expression of Hsp90 in pancreatic tissue of caerulein-induced CP mice. Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG ameliorated inflammation and pancreatic fibrosis in caerulein-induced CP mice. In vitro, Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG inhibited TGF-ß1-induced activation and extracellular matrix accumulation of PSCs by blocking TGFßR-mediated Smad2/3 and PI3K /Akt/GSK-3ß signaling pathways. Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG disrupted the interaction between Hsp90 and TGFßRII, and degraded TGFßRII by a ubiquitin proteasome pathway in PSCs. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that an Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG remarkable prevents the development of pancreatic fibrosis in caerulein-induced CP mice, and suppresses activation and extracellular matrix accumulation of PSCs in vitro. The current results provide a potential treatment strategy based on Hsp90 inhibition for pancreatic fibrosis in CP.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805038

RESUMO

Primary congenital hypothyroidism is a disease associated with low serum thyroxine and elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The processes of screening and treating congenital hypothyroidism, in order to prevent neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in newborns, have been well investigated. Unlike term infants, very preterm infants (VPIs) may experience low thyroxine with normal TSH levels (<10.0 µIU/mL) during long-stay hospitalization. In the current literature, thyroxine treatment has been evaluated only for TSH-elevated VPIs. However, the long-term impact of low thyroxine levels in certain VPIs with normal TSH levels deserves more research. Since July 2007, VPIs of this study unit received screenings at 1 month postnatal age (PNA) for serum TSH levels and total thyroxine (TT4), in addition to two national TSH screenings scheduled at 3-5 days PNA and at term equivalent age. This study aimed to establish the correlation between postnatal 1-month-old TT4 concentration and long-term NDI at 24 months corrected age among VPIs with serial normal TSH levels. VPIs born in August 2007-July 2016 were enrolled. Perinatal demography, hospitalization morbidities, and thyroid function profiles were analyzed, and we excluded those with congenital anomalies, brain injuries, elevated TSH levels, or a history of thyroxine treatments. In total, 334 VPIs were analyzed and 302 (90.4%) VPIs were followed-up. The postnatal TT4 concentration was not associated with NDI after multivariate adjustment (odd ratios 1.131, 95% confidence interval 0.969-1.32). To attribute the NDI of TSH-normal VPIs to a single postnatal TT4 concentration measurement may require more research.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114103, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836259

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zuojin Pill (ZJP) has been a classic prescription for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in China since ancient times. But its effect on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced gastric injury (GI) is still uncharted. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of ZJP on indomethacin (IDO) induced gastric injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GI was induced in rat by oral administration of 5mg/kg IDO. Then the rats were treated with ZJP (1.26, 2.52, 5.04g/kg, ig). The changes of food intake, body weight, gastric pH and general state observation were carried out to determine the improvement of ZJP in IDO-induced GI: HE staining and AB-PAS staining was analyzed to characterize the thickness of gastric mucosa and micro mucosal injury; in order to elucidate the effect of ZJP on IDO-induced inflammatory injury, the inflammatory infiltration of gastric tissue was observed by MPO immunohistochemical method, and the contents of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanism of ZJP in treating IDO-induced GI was predicted with the help of network pharmacology, and the expression levels of key proteins ERK, p-ERK, P38, p-P38, JNK, p-JNK were determined to elucidate the molecular mechanism of ZJP. RESULTS: Current data strongly demonstrated that ZJP alleviated food intake reduction, weight loss and gastric injury caused by IDO and made gastric pH and mucosal thickness return to normal. In addition, ZJP could reduce the level of MPO to alleviate the inflammatory infiltration of gastric tissue. Simultaneously, ZJP could down regulate the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 and up regulate the expression of IL-10 to reduce the damage caused by inflammatory, and create a healing environment. Furthermore, ZJP could significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK, which leaded to the increase of inflammatory factors and the damage of gastric mucosa. CONCLUSION: ZJP improved local inflammation by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway, and had a good therapeutic effect on IDO-induced GI. This study has reference significance for the study of ZJP in the prevention and treatment of NSAID induced gastric injury. In addition, ZJP may be a new treatment option for the prevention and treatment of NSAID induced gastric disease.

8.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837816

RESUMO

Options for anemic lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) without del(5q) after failure of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are very limited. The effectiveness of second-line treatments is uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical effectiveness and overall survival (OS) of lower-risk MDS without del(5q) patients exclusively treated with stanozolol (STZ) after failure of epoetin alfa. The response was defined according to the 2006 International Working Group (IWG) criteria. Fifty-six patients were included. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range: 5-156 months). Twenty-seven patients (48.2%) achieved hematologic improvement-erythroid response (HI-E). Higher response rates were observed in patients with lower IPSS-R scores (≤3.5, P = 0.008) and hypocellular bone marrow (P = 0.002). In univariate Cox analysis, HI-E was the strongest factor associated with better OS (P = 0.0003). In multivariate Cox, HI-E, age ≤ 50, and transfusion independence (TI) at the onset of STZ were factors associated with better OS. The estimated 5-year OS was 88.6% (68.7-96.2%) and 33.8% (14.9-54.0%) in responders and non-responders (P < 0.01), respectively. The most common side effects included masculinization and liver damage, but they were manageable with supportive measures and dose adjustments. STZ may be considered an alternative treatment in lower-risk MDS after failure of epoetin alfa.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111490, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773465

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of rutaecarpine (RUT) on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer (GU) in mice by integrated approaches. At first, the efficacy was determined through the macroscopic and microscopic state of stomach tissue and the expression levels of GU-related factors. Then, the serum metabolomics method based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was used to explore the specific metabolites and metabolic pathways. Finally, the upstream key protein targets of these specific metabolites were analyzed by network pharmacology and verified by PCR to explore the potential mechanism. RUT alleviated the histological and pathological damage of gastric tissue caused by ethanol, and could remarkably ameliorate the level of GU-related factors. Subsequently, a total of 7 potential metabolites involved in 9 metabolic pathways were identified by metabolomics analysis. Then, a 'component-targets-metabolites' interaction network was constructed, and therefore 4 key target proteins (PLA2G1B, PDE5A, MIF and SRC) that may regulate the specific metabolites were obtained. This case was further verified by the results of PCR. ALL the above results strongly demonstrated that RUT exerted a gastroprotective effect against GU. And it is the first time to combine metabolomics combined with network pharmacology to elucidate the mechanism of RUT on GU, which may be related to the regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and these pathways may be regulated through the upstream protein PLA2G1B, PDE5A, MIF and SRC.

10.
Vet Microbiol ; 256: 109043, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780804

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes substantial economic losses to the global pig industry. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family are the important effectors of the innate immune response against viral infections. We have previously characterized the entire porcine TRIM (pTRIM) family, and predicted pTRIM5, 14, 21, 25 and 38 as host restriction factors against PRRSV infection. However, little is known about whether and how pTRIMs restrict the infection of PRRSV. In this study, we firstly performed the amino acid alignments of the RING domain of pTRIM5, 21, 25 and 38, and found that pTRIM proteins contained the characteristic consensus C3HC4 type zinc-binding motif which is important for the ubiquitination function. Then we detected the mRNA changes of pTRIMs in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by transcriptome sequencing after PRRSV infection in piglets. Transcriptional profiles showed that the expression of pTRIM5, 21 and 26 was significantly (P < 0.05) up-regulated, consistent with their expression in vitro. Finally, as the most up-regulated gene after PRRSV infection both in vivo and in vitro, pTRIM21 was investigated for its anti-PRRSV activity in immortalized PAMs (iPAMs) in two aspects: knockdown and overexpression of pTRIM21. Knockdown of endogenic pTRIM21 could significantly promote PRRSV replication at 12 and 24 h post infection in iPAMs. Meanwhile, overexpression of pTRIM21 could significantly suppress PRRSV replication but not affect its attachment and endocytosis. Moreover, pTRIM21 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase was essential for anti-PRRSV activity. Our data enhance our understanding of the pTRIMs against PRRSV infection, which may help us develop novel therapeutic tools to control PRRSV.

11.
J Neurochem ; 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774813

RESUMO

Stroke is a major cause of vascular cognitive dysfunction, such as memory impairment. We aimed to explore the neural substrates underlying verbal memory impairment in subcortical stroke patients by the methods of voxel-wise cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the functional covariance network (FCN). Sixty patients with chronic subcortical stroke and sixty normal controls (NCs) were recruited into this study. We used three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling imaging to measure alterations in CBF and FCNs. We mapped the overall CBF alterations in a voxel-wise manner and compared CBF measurements using a two-sample t-test. Correlations between CBF and verbal memory were also investigated. Subsequently, we constructed FCNs by calculating the correlation between specific regions and all other voxels of a whole brain, separately within the two groups. Thereafter, by comparing differences of the FCN patterns between the patient and NC groups, we investigated the connection alterations within the FCN maps. The stroke patients showed verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficits compared to NCs. The patients exhibited decreased CBF in the ipsilesional insula and ventral sensorimotor network, and increased CBF in contralesional frontal cortical and subcortical regions (putamen, and thalamus). Meanwhile, the CBF in the ipsilesional insula was positively correlated, and the contralesional frontal cortical was negativity correlated, with VSTM scores. Moreover, we found that stroke patients exhibited disordered connection within FCNs compared to NCs. The study suggests that the underlying imaging biomarker of VSTM impairment in patients with subcortical stroke was associated with disconnection of the frontal lobe network.

12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 103: 219-228, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743904

RESUMO

Manganese oxides supported by ZSM-5 zeolite (Mn/ZSM-5) as well as their further modified by Ce promoter were achieved by simple impregnation method for ozone catalytic decomposition. The yCe20Mn/ZSM-5-81 catalyst with 8% Ce loading showed the highest catalytic activity at relative humidity of 50% and a space velocity of 360 L/(g × hr), giving 93% conversion of 600 ppm O3 after 5 hr. Moreover, this sample still maintained highly activity and stability in humid air with 50%-70% relative humidity. Series of physicochemical characterization including X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed technology (NH3-TPD and H2-TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and oxygen isotopic exchange were introduced to disclose the structure-performance relationship. The results indicated that moderate Si/Al ratio (81) of zeolite support was beneficial for ozone decomposition owing to the synergies of acidity and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, compared with 20Mn/ZSM-5-81, Ce doping could enhance the amount of low valance manganese (such as Mn2+ and Mn3+). Besides, the Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio of 8Ce20Mn/ZSM-5-81 sample was higher than that of 4Ce20Mn/ZSM-5-81. Additionally, the synergy between the MnOx and CeO2 could easily transfer electron via the redox cycle, thus resulting in an increased reducibility at low temperatures and high concentration of surface oxygen. This study provides important insights to the utilization of porous zeolite with high surface area to disperse active component of manganese for ozone decomposition.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Catálise , Manganês , Oxirredução , Oxigênio
13.
J Vet Sci ; 22(2): e20, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection leads to high mortality in swine. Despite extensive efforts, effective treatments against PRV infection are limited. Furthermore, the inflammatory response induced by PRV strain GXLB-2013 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to investigate the inflammatory response induced by PRV strain GXLB-2013, establish an inflammation model to elucidate the pathogenesis of PRV infection further, and develop effective drugs against PRV infection. METHODS: Kunming mice were infected intramuscularly with medium, LPS, and different doses of PRV-GXLB-2013. Viral spread and histopathological damage to brain, spleen, and lung were determined at 7 days post-infection (dpi). Immune organ indices, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and inflammatory cytokines, as well as levels of activity of COX-2 and iNOS were determined at 4, 7, and 14 dpi. RESULTS: At 105-106 TCID50 PRV produced obviously neurological symptoms and 100% mortality in mice. Viral antigens were detectable in kidney, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and brain. In addition, inflammatory injuries were apparent in brain, spleen, and lung of PRV-infected mice. Moreover, PRV induced increases in immune organ indices, ROS and NO levels, activity of COX-2 and iNOS, and the content of key pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and MCP-1. Among the tested doses, 10² TCID50 of PRV produced a significant inflammatory mediator increase. CONCLUSIONS: An inflammatory model induced by PRV infection was established in mice, and 10² TCID50 PRV was considered as the best concentration for the establishment of the model.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111383, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761604

RESUMO

Although considerable advance has been made in diagnosing and treating, asthma is still a serious public health challenge. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an effective therapy of complementary and alternative medicine. More and more scientific evidences support the use of TCM for asthma treatment, and active ingredients from Chinese medicine plants are becoming a hot issue. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the frontier knowledge on the function and underlying mechanisms of the active ingredients in asthma treatments and provide a fully integrated, reliable reference for exploring innovative treatments for asthma. METHODS: The cited literature was obtained from the PubMed and CNIK databases (up to September 2020). Experimental studies on the active ingredients of Chinese medicine and their therapeutic mechanisms were identified. The key words used in the literature retrieval were "asthma" and "traditional Chinese medicine" or "Chinese herbal medicine". The literature on the active ingredients was then screened manually. RESULTS: We summarized the effect of these active ingredients on asthma, primarily including the effect through which these ingredients can regulate the immunologic equilibrium mechanism by acting on a number of signalling pathways, such as Notch, JAK-STAT-MAPK, adiponectin-iNOS-NF-κB, PGD2-CRTH2, PI3K/AKT, Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1, T-bet/Gata-3 and Foxp3-RORγt, thereby regulating the progression of asthma. CONCLUSION: The active ingredients from Chinese medicine have multilevel effects on asthma by regulating the immunologic equilibrium mechanism or signalling pathways, giving them great clinical value. However, the safety and functional mechanism of these ingredients still must be further determined.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720690

RESUMO

Conventional Cu-ZSM-5 and special Cu-ZSM-5 catalysts with diverse morphologies (nanoparticles, nanosheets, hollow spheres) were synthesized and comparatively investigated for their performances in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO to N2 with ammonia. Significant differences in SCR behavior were observed, and nanosheet-like Cu-ZSM-5 showed the best SCR performance with the lowest T50 of 130 °C and nearly complete conversion in the temperature range of 200-400 °C. It was found that Cu-ZSM-5 nanosheets [mainly exposed (0 1 0) crystal plane] with abundant mesopores and framework Al species were favorable for the formation of high external surface areas and Al pairs, which influenced the local environment of Cu. This motivated the preferential formation of active copper species and the rapid switch between Cu2+ and Cu+ species during NH3-SCR, thus exhibiting the highest NO conversion. In situ diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) results indicated that the Cu-ZSM-5 nanosheets were dominated by the Eley-Rideal (E-R) mechanism and the labile nitrite species (NH4NO2) were the crucial intermediates during the NH3-SCR process, while the inert nitrates were more prone to generate on Cu-ZSM-5 nanoparticles and conventional one. The combined density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the decomposition energy barrier of nitrosamide species (NH2NO) on the (0 1 0) crystal plane of Cu-ZSM-5 was lower than those on (0 0 1) and (1 0 0) crystal planes. This study provides a strategy for the design of NH3-SCR zeolite catalysts.

16.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 855-874, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641617

RESUMO

Synaptojanin 2 (SYNJ2) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis via dephosphorylating plasma membrane phosphoinositides. Aim of this study is to first seek the full-scale expression levels and potential emerging roles of SYNJ2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We systematically analyzed SYNJ2 mRNA expression and protein levels in HCC tissues based on large-scale data and in-house immunohistochemistry (IHC). The clinical significance and risk factors for SYNJ2-related HCC cases were identified. A nomogram of prognosis was created and its performance was validated by concordance index (C-index) and shown in calibration plots. Based on the identified differentially coexpressed genes (DCGs) of SYNJ2, enriched annotations and potential pathways were predicted, and the protein interacting networks were mapped. Upregulated SYNJ2 in 3,728 HCC and 3,203 non-HCC tissues were verified and in-house IHC showed higher protein levels of SYNJ2 in HCC tissues. Pathologic T stage was identified as a risk factor. Upregulated mRNA levels and mutated SYNJ2 might cause a poorer outcome. The C-index of the nomogram model constructed by SYNJ2 level, age, gender, TNM classification, grade, and stage was evaluated as 0.643 (95%CI = 0.619-0.668) with well-calibrated plots. A total of 2,533 DCGs were extracted and mainly functioned together with SYNJ2 in metabolic pathways. Possible transcriptional axis of CTCF/POLR2A-SYNJ2/INPP5B (transcription factor-target) in metabolic pathways was discovered based on ChIP-seq datasets. In summary, transcriptional regulatory axis CTCF/POLR2A-SYNJ2 might influence SYNJ2 expression levels. Increased SYNJ2 expression level could be utilized for predicting HCC prognosis and potentially accelerates the occurrence and development of HCC via metabolic perturbations pathways.

17.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(6): 065031, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729998

RESUMO

The worldwide spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a threat to global public health. It is of great importance to rapidly and accurately screen and distinguish patients with COVID-19 from those with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In this study, a total of 1,658 patients with COVID-19 and 1,027 CAP patients underwent thin-section CT and were enrolled. All images were preprocessed to obtain the segmentations of infections and lung fields. A set of handcrafted location-specific features was proposed to best capture the COVID-19 distribution pattern, in comparison to the conventional CT severity score (CT-SS) and radiomics features. An infection size-aware random forest method (iSARF) was proposed for discriminating COVID-19 from CAP. Experimental results show that the proposed method yielded its best performance when using the handcrafted features, with a sensitivity of 90.7%, a specificity of 87.2%, and an accuracy of 89.4% over state-of-the-art classifiers. Additional tests on 734 subjects, with thick slice images, demonstrates great generalizability. It is anticipated that our proposed framework could assist clinical decision making.

18.
Nature ; 592(7853): 296-301, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731931

RESUMO

Clonal haematopoiesis, which is highly prevalent in older individuals, arises from somatic mutations that endow a proliferative advantage to haematopoietic cells. Clonal haematopoiesis increases the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke independently of traditional risk factors1. Among the common genetic variants that give rise to clonal haematopoiesis, the JAK2V617F (JAK2VF) mutation, which increases JAK-STAT signalling, occurs at a younger age and imparts the strongest risk of premature coronary heart disease1,2. Here we show increased proliferation of macrophages and prominent formation of necrotic cores in atherosclerotic lesions in mice that express Jak2VF selectively in macrophages, and in chimeric mice that model clonal haematopoiesis. Deletion of the essential inflammasome components caspase 1 and 11, or of the pyroptosis executioner gasdermin D, reversed these adverse changes. Jak2VF lesions showed increased expression of AIM2, oxidative DNA damage and DNA replication stress, and Aim2 deficiency reduced atherosclerosis. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of Jak2VF lesions revealed a landscape that was enriched for inflammatory myeloid cells, which were suppressed by deletion of Gsdmd. Inhibition of the inflammasome product interleukin-1ß reduced macrophage proliferation and necrotic formation while increasing the thickness of fibrous caps, indicating that it stabilized plaques. Our findings suggest that increased proliferation and glycolytic metabolism in Jak2VF macrophages lead to DNA replication stress and activation of the AIM2 inflammasome, thereby aggravating atherosclerosis. Precise application of therapies that target interleukin-1ß or specific inflammasomes according to clonal haematopoiesis status could substantially reduce cardiovascular risk.

19.
J Lipid Res ; : 100044, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556442

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) of lipid traits in CAD has provided evidence for causal associations of LDL-C and TGs in CAD, but many lipid trait genetic variants have pleiotropic effects on other cardiovascular risk factors that may bias MR associations. The goal of this study was to evaluate pleiotropic effects of lipid trait genetic variants and to account for these effects in MR of lipid traits in CAD. We performed multivariable MR using inverse variance-weighted and MR-Egger methods in large (n ≥ 300,000) GWAS datasets. We found that 30% of lipid trait genetic variants have effects on metabolic syndrome traits, including BMI, T2D, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Nonetheless, in multivariable MR analysis, LDL-C, HDL-C, TGs, BMI, T2D, and SBP are independently associated with CAD, and each of these associations is robust to adjustment for directional pleiotropy. MR at loci linked to direct effects on HDL-C and TGs suggests locus- and mechanism-specific causal effects of these factors on CAD.

20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(4): 979-991, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558986

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CsSh5.1, which controls hypocotyl elongation under high temperature conditions in cucumber, was mapped to a 57.1 kb region on chromosome 5 containing a candidate gene encoding a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase. Hypocotyl growth is a vital process in seedling establishment. Hypocotyl elongation after germination relies more on longitudinal cell elongation than cell division. Cell elongation is largely determined by the extensibility of the cell wall. Here, we identified a spontaneous mutant in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sh5.1, which exhibits a temperature-insensitive short hypocotyl phenotype. Genetic analysis showed that the phenotype of sh5.1 was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. CsSh5.1 was mapped to a 57.1 kb interval on chromosome 5, containing eight predicted genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the Csa5G171710 is the candidate gene of CsSh5.1, which was further confirmed via co-segregation analysis and genomic DNA sequencing in natural cucumber variations. The result indicated that hypocotyl elongation might be controlled by this gene. CsSh5.1 encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase that specifically adds galactose to xyloglucan and forms galactosylated xyloglucans, which determine the strength and extensibility of the cell walls. CsSh5.1 expression in wild-type (WT) hypocotyl was significantly higher than that in sh5.1 hypocotyl under high temperature, suggesting its important role in hypocotyl cell elongation under high temperature. The identification of CsSh5.1 is helpful for elucidating the function of xyloglucan galactosyltransferase in cell wall expansion and understanding the mechanism of hypocotyl elongation in cucumber.

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