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J Immunol ; 212(7): 1207-1220, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345351


Teleost fish type I IFNs and the associated receptors from the cytokine receptor family B (CRFB) are characterized by remarkable diversity and complexity. How the fish type I IFNs bind to their receptors is still not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that CRFB1 and CRFB5 constitute the receptor pair through which type I subgroup d IFN (IFNd) from large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, activates the conserved JAK-STAT signaling pathway as a part of the antiviral response. Our data suggest that L. crocea IFNd (LcIFNd) has a higher binding affinity with L. crocea CRFB5 (LcCRFB5) than with LcCRFB1. Furthermore, we report the crystal structure of LcIFNd at a 1.49-Å resolution and construct structural models of LcIFNd in binary complexes with predicted structures of extracellular regions of LcCRFB1 and LcCRFB5, respectively. Despite striking similarities in overall architectures of LcIFNd and its ortholog human IFN-ω, the receptor binding patterns between LcIFNd and its receptors show that teleost and mammalian type I IFNs may have differentially selected helices that bind to their homologous receptors. Correspondingly, key residues mediating binding of LcIFNd to LcCRFB1 and LcCRFB5 are largely distinct from the receptor-interacting residues in other fish and mammalian type I IFNs. Our findings reveal a ligand/receptor complex binding mechanism of IFNd in teleost fish, thus providing new insights into the function and evolution of type I IFNs.

Interferon Tipo I , Perciformes , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Peixes/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 119: 262-271, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653664


ATG12, a core autophagy protein, forms a conjugate with ATG5 to promote the formation of autophagosome membrane, and plays an important role in antiviral immunity. However, little is known about the function of ATG12 in fish. Here, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) ATG12 (LcATG12), which is 354 nucleotides long and encodes a protein of 117 amino acids. The deduced LcATG12 possesses a conserved APG12 domain (residues 31 to 117), and shares 91.45% identities with ATG12 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). LcATG12 was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest level in intestine. Its transcript was also detected in primary head kidney granulocytes (PKG), primary head kidney macrophages (PKM), primary head kidney lymphocytes (PKL), and large yellow croaker head kidney (LYCK) cell line, and was significantly up-regulated by poly(I:C). LcATG12 was regularly distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus of LYCK and epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells. Overexpression of LcATG12 in EPC cells significantly inhibited the replication of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Further studies reveled that LcATG12 could induce the occurrence of autophagy in LYCK cells. Furthermore, overexpression of LcATG12 in LYCK cells increased the expression levels of large yellow croaker type I interferons (IFNs, IFNc, IFNd, and IFNh), IFN regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF7), and IFN-stimulated genes (PKR, Mx, and Viperin). All these data indicated that LcATG12 plays a role in the antiviral immunity possibly by inducing both autophagy and type I IFN response in large yellow croaker.

Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antivirais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade , Imunidade Inata/genética , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 30-41, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147615


Beclin-1, the ortholog of yeast autophagy-related gene 6 (Atg6), has a central role in autophagy, which has been linked to diverse biological processes including immunity, development, tumor suppression, and lifespan extension. However, understanding of function of fish Beclin-1 is limited now. In this study, the complete Beclin-1 cDNA of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (LcBeclin-1) was cloned, whose open reading frame (ORF) is 1344 bp long and encodes a protein of 447 amino acids (aa). The deduced LcBeclin-1 possesses a typical Bcl-2 homology domain 3(BH3) and an APG6 domain that contains a central coiled-coil domain (CCD, residues 174 to 231) and a C-terminal evolutionarily conserved domain (ECD, residues 241 to 334). LcBeclin-1 shared a high amino acid identity of 81.66-98.66% with reported Beclin-1 molecules from other vertebrate species. LcBeclin-1 gene was constitutively expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest levels in heart. LcBeclin-1 transcripts were also detected in primary head kidney granulocytes (PKGs), primary head kidney macrophages (PKMs), primary head kidney leukocytes (PKLs), and large yellow croaker head kidney cell line (LYCK), and were significantly upregulated by poly (I:C) in PKMs and LYCK cells. Subcellular localization showed that LcBeclin-1 was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of LYCK cells. Overexpression of LcBeclin-1 significantly increased the replication of SVCV, as evidenced by increased severity of the cytopathic effects, enhanced viral titre, and upregulated transcriptional levels of viral genes. Further studies showed that LcBeclin-1 induced the occurrence of autophagy in LYCK cells. Additionally, LcBeclin-1 also decreased the expression levels of large yellow croaker interferons (IFNs; IFNc, IFNd, and IFNh), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF7, IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs; Mx, PKR, and Viperin) in LYCK cells. All these data suggest that LcBeclin-1 promoted the viral replication possibly by inducing autophagy or negatively modulating IFN response, which will help us to further understand the function of fish Beclin-1.

Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Rim Cefálico/citologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia
Dev Comp Immunol ; 119: 104027, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516899


Teleost immunoglobulin T (IgT) is considered to be a primitive immunoglobulin class specialized in mucosal immunity. In the present study, a recombinant protein containing the CH2 region of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) IgT heavy chain was expressed, purified, and used as an immunogen to produce a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against large yellow croaker IgT. Western blotting results indicated that the obtained mouse anti-IgT mAb could specifically recognize a 45 kDa protein in the skin mucus of large yellow croaker, which was identified as the IgT heavy chain by mass spectrometric analysis. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) analysis further demonstrated that this mouse anti-IgT mAb could recognize membrane-bound IgT (mIgT) molecules on large yellow croaker IgT+ leukocytes. This mAb also could be used for sorting of large yellow croaker IgT+ B cells by flow cytometry sorting technology. Then, flow cytometric immunofluorescence analysis (FCIA) results showed that the percentages of IgT+ B cells in skin, gills, gut, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes were 27.553% ± 3.312%, 12.588% ± 3.538%, 12.355% ± 3.352%, 13.075 ± 2.258%, 5.552 ± 3.275%, and 2.600 ± 0.521%, respectively, indicating that mucosal tissues (skin, gills, and gut) contained a high ratio of IgT+ B cells. Accordingly, the high protein levels of IgT were also detected in these mucosal tissues, suggesting that IgT may play a role in mucosal immunity in large yellow croaker. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the mouse anti-IgT mAb developed in this study could be used for characterizing IgT+ B cells and studying the functions of IgT in large yellow croaker.

Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Perciformes/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Microscopia Confocal , Mucosa/imunologia , Mucosa/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 104: 304-313, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544557


The gills and heart are two major targets of hypoxia in fish. However, the molecular responses in fish gills and heart to hypoxia challenge remain unclear. Here, RNA-Seq technology was used to study the gene expression profiles in gills and heart of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) at 6, 24, and 48 h after hypoxia stress. A total of 1,546 and 2,746 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in gills and heart, respectively. Expression changes of nine genes in each tissue were further validated by the qPCR. Based on KEGG and Gene ontology enrichments, we found that various innate immunity-related genes, such as complement components (C1qs, C2, C3, C6, and C7), chemokines (CCL3, CCL17, CCL19, CCL25, and CXCL8_L3), chemokine receptors (CCR9, CXCR1, and CXCR3), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), were significantly down-regulated in gills and/or heart, suggesting that innate immune processes mediated by these genes may be inhibited by hypoxia. The genes involved in both glycolysis pathway (LDHA) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (IDH2 and OGDH) were up-regulated in gills and heart of hypoxic large yellow croakers, possibly because gill and heart tissues need enough energy to accelerate gas exchange and blood circulation. Hypoxia also affected the ion transport in gills of large yellow croaker, through down-regulating the expression levels of numerous classical ion transporters, including HVCN1, SLC20A2, SLC4A4, RHBG, RHCG, and SCN4A, suggesting an energy conservation strategy to hypoxia stress. All these results indicate that the immune processes, glycolytic pathways, and ion transport were significantly altered in gills and/or heart of large yellow croaker under hypoxia, possibly contributing to maintain cellular energy balance during hypoxia. Our data, therefore, afford new information to understand the tissue-specific molecular responses of bony fish to hypoxia stress.

Brânquias , Coração , Hipóxia/genética , Perciformes/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/veterinária